# Affirming the consequent

From RationalWiki

**Affirming the consequent** is a logical fallacy often used in the context of trying to establish guilt by association. It is named after the *consequent* in a conditional statement (**Q** in "if **P**, then **Q**").

## Contents |

## Forms of the argument

### Propositional logic

- If
**P**, then**Q**. -
**Q**. - Therefore,
**P**.

In formal terms, the fallacious argument is stated as .

### First-order logic

- If
**P**is true of*x*, then**Q**is true of*x*. -
**Q**is true of*x*. - Therefore,
**P**is true of*x*.

In formal terms, the fallacious argument is stated as .

## Examples of the argument

### Propositional form

- If it is sunny today, then I will go swimming.
- I will go swimming.
- Therefore, it is sunny today.

### First-order form

- Fascists support a strong military.
- John Q. Warhawk supports a strong military.
- Therefore, John Q. Warhawk is a fascist.