Silver-level articleGlobal flood

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Rescued from the

Global Flood

Icon flood.svg
Seven of the clean kind

The global flood is a fairly self descriptive catastrophic event found in the Bible and the Torah, specifically in the book of Genesis. The narrative in the scripture tells the story of a great flooding of the entire world, in which every last human and animal died, except for the ones saved on the Ark, a vessel constructed at God's command by Noah. The flood, according to the narrative, was brought on because every person in the whole world except eight people God chose were wicked and needed to be killed. The narrative does not specify if the babies and very young children were killed because they were Evil Heathen Scum wicked or if they were just collateral damage. Neither does it specify if the animals were evil or if they were just collateral damage too.[1]

Modern biblical scholars interpret the flood story allegorically, for example as a lesson of God's mercy toward the faithful (Noah and his family). Fundamentalists, as usual, miss the forest and focus on the trees, insisting on the literal historicity of the flood account - as if this was made up, perhaps the entire Bible was made up. From this assertion, the entire "science" of flood geology has been formed.

Contents

Physical scale

The legend of the global flood is a common myth in many cultures. It's believed to originate in a real historical flood, possibly in the Caspian region, which is known to have been prone to epic floods and is in the right region for Biblical legends. While the myth is best explained by a large, but still localised, flood, the global flood is described by Biblical literalists as covering the whole of the Earth so that no dry land could be found anywhere on the planet. This would be possible only if accompanied by extreme erosion that would flatten most of the land so that there were no mountains rising above the floodwaters.

But the literalist young Earth timescale of around 6000 years rules out this possibility. Thus the scale of the mythological flood should be considered given the current land mass of the Earth. This has some interesting implications if we assume it really did happen. Assuming that there was no magical transformation of the landscape between the time of the flood and now - something reasonable considering the time frame - the flood water would have to raise the sea level to height of Mount Everest, at least, in line with the Biblical description stating that the waters came up higher than the highest mountains. This is around 8.84 km above current sea level. Since the volume of land is small compared to the total volume of water that would be required for such a flood (oceans cover 71% of the Earth's surface and the average height of land is only about 800 metres), an easy calculation shows the amount of water needed to achieve this would be at least 4.5 billion cubic kilometres. The current volume of the Earth's oceans combined is estimated at only 1.3 billion cubic kilometres. This raises the question of where did that much water come from, and importantly, where did it all go?

Precipitation

The conventional flood story states that the flood waters came from rain that lasted 40 days and 40 nights.[2][3] Rain appears when the air can no longer support water in the vapour phase and it becomes saturated. Normally, the atmosphere is on the brink of saturation, and the variations in temperature and pressure caused by weather fronts are capable of altering the threshold at which precipitation will form quite easily. What about the amount of water vapor suspended in air needed for the 4.5 billion cubic kilometers of water needed for the global flood? The water vapour currently in the air is only around 2-3% on average, with a maximum of of 4% limited by temperature and pressure.[4] The change in atmospheric conditions required to support enough vapour for 112 million cubic kilometers of rain per day - about 120,000 times more than the current daily rainfall worldwide[5] - would have rendered the air unbreathable.

Indeed, the atmosphere really couldn't sustain that much water even under the most extreme temperature and pressure conditions the planet can produce. If the conditions were right for that much water to be in the atmosphere humans, and virtually every other animal, would have drowned by the simple act of breathing, as well as turning the earth into the equivalent of a pressure cooker with atmospheric pressure at nearly a thousand psi instead of the standard 14.7 or so. Barring the goddidit escape hatch (a tried and tested fall back for creationists everywhere), this is impossible.

Hydroplate "theory" and other nonsense

More recent theories have seen creationists try to get around this by placing the water underground, as an ice or vapor canopy above the atmosphere, or by having comets bring the water. This is despite the Bible not really describing the flood as such - in fact, they have to make a very loose interpretation of the firmament noted in Genesis for this to work. They still ignore several factors however. When placing the water beneath the earth, the only viable method for releasing it is as steam,[6] which proceeds to sterilize the planet regardless of whether or not one is in a giant wooden boat or not.

This also gave rise to Lunar bukkake theory, whereby this action causes water to be thrown up, out of the Earths gravitational pull (breaking conservation of momentum in the process) and causing the craters on the moon and other parts of the solar system. Aside from having no physically possible method to exist in the first place, an ice or vapor canopy would convert all of its orbital potential energy into kinetic energy when it collapsed, thereby poaching Noah and all the critters like eggs. Cometary impacts on the order needed to provide the water would have been many times the energy of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event, making the resultant flood unnecessary in wiping out life on the planet.

Issues with the Ark

Central to the myth of the global flood is the story of Noah and his Ark. Indeed, the Ark plays as much of an important role in the story of the flood as the water and flood itself - and is equally, if not less, feasible than the flooding. The general outline states that God warns Noah of the impending catastrophe and instructs him to spend years building a great Ark to save animals from extinction. The Ark rides the waters for the duration of the flood while everything else, including the fish, drowns. As a result, only Noah's family and two of every animal survive the flood, and despite the genetic bottleneck this would cause, the world is happily repopulated.

Gathering the animals

Gathering the animals was strenuous work.
See the main article on this topic: Bringing the animals to the ark

There are two versions of this story. In Genesis 6:19-21, God tells Noah to bring in two of every animal on the earth. But then in Genesis 7:2-3 God tells Noah that he is to bring seven of every clean animal, and two of every unclean animal onto the Ark. (The "clean" and "unclean" distinction would have been defined along the rules of kosher). The flood story most often taught in Sunday School is the first version; that two of every "kind" of animal were present on Noah's Ark (and omitting the second version).[7] This poses an incredible, most likely insurmountable, logistical problem. Noah would have never been able to travel all over the world and gather up every animal he needed on his Ark. Even if he didn't have to, and God just made the animals set out randomly for Mesopotamia, it still wouldn't have worked. Some animals would have had to make incredible journeys all the way from places like South America and Australia.[8] This is incredibly implausible; most creatures would have faced insurmountable difficulties getting to the ark. Some animals can't swim which would make a journey from lands not connected to Mesopotamia impossible;[9] other animals move so slowly they would have died before they got to the Ark. Creatures like Dodo birds that came from sheltered habitats and had never had to deal with predation before would have been preyed upon mercilessly by superior predators such as wolves and the great cats. Some animals like koalas require special diets only found in certain places in the world, and if they had left the habitat where their food grew they would have starved to death.[9]

Caring for the animals

An artist's interpretation of animals boarding the ark.
See the main article on this topic: Caring for the animals in Noah's ark

Caring for the animals on Noah's ark would have been impossible. Simply feeding them would have been more than Noah and his family could have managed. However, the lions, tigers and bears (oh my!) would have had their pick of any number of (now extinct) species (and even each other!) when the Noah clan was tardy bringing the grub below decks. And just what did they feed all those voracious carnivores with if they had to keep pairs of all the other animals alive? Did Noah invent the deep-freeze?[10]

Aquatic species survival

See the main article on this topic: Survival of aquatic species during the global flood

There was no marine life on the ark[11] so each observable aquatic species we see today, according to the flood myth, had to have survived the 376[12] days of the flood. This is extremely unlikely, as a complete flooding of the earth would produce such drastic ecological changes that most aquatic species would die off.[13]

Most freshwater fish are unable to survive in water with any salt at all so when the rising oceans mixed with the lakes and rivers they would have quickly gone extinct.[14] The extreme turbulence would have also killed fish that stayed near the ocean floor, small fish of the reef would be repeatedly pounded against rocks and mud.[15] Many fish would choke to death on sediment stirred up by the flood as well.[13]

Integrity of Noah's Ark

During the great flood Noah's Ark would have faced the most brutal weather in the history of the world. A study by Answers in Genesis asserts that the Ark could have withstood waves of up to 30 meters without overturning.[16] Waves in ocean storms can reach heights of up to 31 meters.[17] With the entire world flooded we would be likely to see waves of a much greater magnitude. With an unlimited fetch, waves could possibly reach miles in height.[18]

Fragile geological formations

This would have been knocked off had there been a global flood
See the main article on this topic: Flood geology

The global flood, had it occurred, would have destroyed many geological formations. If you look at pictures of the ocean floor you will notice there are very few rocks piled up in columns. A study done by several creation "scientists" put the ocean speed varying between 40 and 80 meters a second.[19] Rock pillars would be unable to survive this. Even oceanic currents of normal speeds would have destroyed some of the more fragile specimens that are in existence today.

Fossil layers

Repeating layers of coal
White (not grey) cliffs of Dover

How was the fossil record sorted in an order convenient for evolution if they were laid down in the turmoil of a single flood? That is usually dismissed with a hand wave by saying the animals quickly sorted each other out based on their ability to compete for the shrinking high ground.

It overlooks an important issue: Since fossil layers were really constructed over millions of years, there was sufficient time to accumulate a consistent layer of corpses from many many generations of animals over wide areas. You could dig up a layer of trilobite fossils in Boise, for example, and it would have the same density of trilobite fossils as the same layer in Kansas City. So if you read the Noah story back into this observation, the antediluvian world must have been wall-to-wall trilobites, not to mention all the other animals in the other layers. In fact, there must have been far more animals than the biosphere could reasonably be expected to support, all because YECs compress a billion years of fossil building into a few weeks.

The theory also fails to take into account fossilized plants, which show the same type of order as animal fossils, and which are not noted for their ability to flee rising floodwaters. Repeating series of layers within coal measures indicate cycles of sedimentation rather than being laid down as part of one single event. The huge Carboniferous limestone strata which consist of the remains of innumerable marine shells, require long periods of clean water. Any flood would have mixed the remains with silt and sand to give us the grey cliffs of Dover rather than the white ones we see today.

Post-flood animal survival

See the main article on this topic: Post flood animal survival

After the flood the animals on the ark would have faced extreme difficulties. Populations of less than 20 members are almost certainly doomed to extinction.[20] After the ark there would have been 2 of most animals and 14 of a few select mammals plus 14 of all birds.[21] These animals would be facing some of the harshest conditions the world has ever known. A flood of 376 days[22] would have killed all plant life while ocean currents between 40 to 80 meters per second would have swept everything away and buried the earth under a layer of sediment.[19]

The post flood herbivores would have absolutely nothing to eat; most of them would have starved to death. Creationists claim that the great flood deposited meters of sediment all over the earth.[23] Seeds which are heavier than silt particles would be the first to settle which would bury them far deeper than the few inches seeds need to sprout.[18] The few seeds that did get buried close enough to the surface to sprout would not provide nearly enough to sustain every herbivore on the ark. Many animals feed on large trees or their fruit, so these would have to fast a long time after the flood ended.[24]

The carnivores and omnivores on Noah's Ark would have a viable source of food for a while at least: the other animals on the ark. The carnivores and the omnivores would have quickly eaten all the herbivores and then in a couple of months would have starved themselves. The creationist explanations for this make no sense; they claim that carnivores ate corpses, fungi, and even vegetables! Animals will rarely eat corpses more than a month old; claiming that they would have gladly eaten corpses that were over a year old and most likely buried under meters of sediment is beyond reason. Most carnivores are unable to eat vegetables, and fungi do not grow too prolifically in the Middle East.

After the flood the animals would have severe trouble finding fresh water, and would have died of dehydration. The flood would have salinated the soils so all water runoff would have had high concentrations of salt. Most animals, unless they are specially adapted, cannot, and will not, drink salt water.[25]

The survivors of the ark would also face extreme difficulties breeding. The flood would have destroyed the structures necessary for reproduction. Avian species like the eagle require high trees to make their nests in.[26] These would not exist for many years after the flood, by which time the reproductive fitness of the birds would have deteriorated leading to the extinction of that "kind."

Post flood plant survival

In line with the usual bias that people totally forget about non-animals when it comes to talking about life (i.e., Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea, Bacteria, or whatever the current version of taxonomical structure says) no one thinks what happens to the plants? Apart from in the context of feeding the animals, plants are almost completely ignored. This might be hand waved as the story concludes with Noah sending out a dove to search for land, and subsequently returning with an olive branch (Genesis 8:10) as if somehow the plants all miraculously survived and the water left no mark as it drained away. Often enough, plants do survive intense flooding, and flood plains may even benefit from it. However, with the massive turbulence, excessive sediment, the 29,000 ft depth of water that would block out all sunlight to the dry land, and the year-long duration of the flood this simply doesn't work. Everything would be completely wiped out.

After this, many species of plant life would go extinct as at no point in the story is Noah concerned with preserving seeds, cultivating bacteria or keeping specimens of fungi. Assuming he was, and this was left out of the Bible for some reason, that only heaps more work onto an already hilariously implausible task. Plant life would undoubtedly be eradicated along with animal life on Earth, so it's only hope would be from any seeds that survived. Seeds of land plants tend to spontaneously germinate in water and without good soil to embed in would die pretty quick. Aquatic plants have mixed results when their seeds are stored in water, while they are certainly in the right environment some do not survive to be viable after more than 6-7 months soak in water without germinating - so how could they possibly have survived the flood.[27]

Even then, assuming that seeds survived, the conditions to regrow would be unlikely to be perfect to grow. The masses of silt and debris would be fairly uniform across the world - the flood was global, remember? - yet different plants have adapted for different conditions and different soil types. In order to reproduce and spread many plants need a symbiotic relationship with animals and insects for pollination and seed dispersal. Often this can be remarkably specific with only one species of plant working with one species of insect. While some can do this just with the wind, an environment where you're reduced to only a few individuals across the entire planet in hostile conditions is hardly conducive to this.

In short, the problems with the animals are actually the least of the problems with the flood story. Plants are the first rung of the trophic scale, directly photosynthesising solar energy into food, and as a by product are what convert choking carbon dioxide into breathable oxygen. Without the ability to sustain a full plant based biosphere throughout the flood, Noah's task would be futile!

Re-population

The global flood story requires that only eight people were left alive in 2349 BCE, given the standard Ussher chronology.[28] This simply does not allow enough time for humans to repopulate the earth.[29] In 2000 BCE only 350 years after the flood the population of the world was 27 million.[30] To go from a population of eight to a population of 27 million in 350 years would require a population growth rate of 136.07%. That is 129% more than the fastest-growing portions of the world today.[31] Comparing the populations of 1650 and 2000, 350 years apart, we see that it is possible for population to increase rapidly with improving living standards (food provision, health and welfare etc.). However such growth is incompatible with bronze/iron age civilizations where child mortality was at levels you'd associate with most wild animals.

Sexually reproducing species reduced to a population of eight individuals often experiences a catastrophic (and almost certainly extinguishing) genetic bottleneck; and the more rapid the re-expansion of this population, the more intense the inbreeding and the greater the rate of propagation of harmful recessive traits. Only in the extremely implausible case in which all eight individuals happened to have no or very few harmful recessive traits there might be a possibility of repopulation without serious consequences to the species' survival - but this case would not explain the existence of known recessive genetic disorders.

The Bible also places the date of construction on the Tower of Babel roughly 100 years after the great flood.[28] Saying a population could go from 6 people (Noah and his wife don't count, they didn't have any more children) to enough people to build the Tower of Babel as it is described in the Bible is absurd. This tower was so great that it threatened God, so it must have been greater that the pyramid of Khufu which took 30,000 people to build.[32] Even a growth rate of 500%, which is absurd beyond all imagination, would only produce about half the required people to even begin to think about such a construction project.

The Americas

Throwing out a few of the more extreme aspects of the flood, there are still some problems. Even if the flood only covered the tallest Near-East mountains, like Mt. Ararat, that still amounted to a flood that was 17,000 feet above mean sea-level, which would cover all the Americas except for certain peaks in the Andes and Alaska, and there would have been little time for all those people to prepare a year's worth of food and migrate to the high ground under conditions that would dump 17,000 feet of water in 40 days. So the Americas would have been completely depopulated. Since the flood is a supposedly recent event, there would have been no land bridge between Russia and Sarah Palin's house[33] to bring in fresh ancestors of the Native American people we have today.

Japan

Interestingly, some 19th century Japanese scholars, most notably Hirata Atsutane and Motoori Norinaga, used the global flood legends of other parts of the world to argue for the supremacy of the Japanese Gods and Japanese people, who have no flood story.[34]They claimed that the fact that Japan experienced no flood showed that it was both the highest point on Earth and, combined with other factors, also the 'centre', insofar as the surface of a globe has one, making it the closest place on Earth to the realm of the Gods. This to them demonstrated the veracity of the Japanese creation myth, in which Japan comes first and foremost.

Rainbow

An interpretation of the "first" rainbow.

In Genesis 8, shortly after the flood, God created a covenant with man saying that he will never again send a flood to kill all life. To seal this covenant, the Bible claims God created the rainbow, implying that there never was a rainbow before the flood.[35] To the ancient Hebrew authors of this narrative, who were completely ignorant of modern science and believed the rainbow to be a physical object, this would have seemed perfectly plausible, but under the scrutiny of modern science this idea makes no sense. There are only three possible scenarios that create an environment where rainbows would not form.

There was no rain.
The Biblical text states that a dew would water the ground each morning. This would imply that it did not rain within the time frame of the narrative. A scientific manner to test this assertion would be to prove or disprove the arising implications such statement would have.
There was no sunlight.
Terrestrial life is dependent on sunlight, in this scenario all life would have died.
Light did not refract.
If light did not refract, sight would be impossible. It is light refracting in the lens of the eye that allows sight by focusing the light onto the retina.[36]

Other oddities in the narrative

Number of animals

The Bible is contradictory about the number of animals Noah had to take.[37] Genesis 6 states quite clearly that Noah had to take two of every sort including two of the fowls:

And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.[38]

Genesis 7 agrees partly with Genesis 6 but it says that, instead of two of the fowls, Noah was to take seven of the fowls:

Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.[39]

Sons of God

The first two verses in Genesis 6 contradict 2000 years of church teaching as well as the Bible itself.

And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.[40]

The "Contemporary English Version" of the Bible describes the sons of god as "supernatural beings"[41] so it could not be that the bible is referring to ordinary men as the sons of god.

Human lifespan

Main article: Biblical longevity

After God has seen how wicked humanity is, he decrees an upper limit on the age of humans.

"In the future, their normal lifespan will be no more than 120 years."[42]

This statement is contradicted by Noah living 350 more years after the flood.[43] Although he and any other exceptions[44] may have been grandfathered in. While the 120 years figure is often touted as the rough maximum age for humans, modern humans have been documented as living slightly more than 120 years. Specifically the record is held by Jeanne Calment, who died aged 122.[45] This record is likely to be broken in the future as more people than ever are living beyond 100.

Though since it did say "normal", that could mean "typical", meaning statistical outliers such as Jeanne Calment are just that, acceptable statistical outliers. But 120 years is not typical by a long shot. Average life expectancy is very much dependent on where you live, your social standing, general health and occupation. Taking into account child mortality, average life expectancy has been way below 120 years for most of human existence. It's only in recent years, and with much thanks to the reduction in child mortality, that the figure has increased above 50. Even so, the typical "death from old age" is still in the region of 60-80, again depending on various other factors, and nowhere near 120.

Giants

The Bible claims that before and after the flood there were "giants."

Genesis 6:4 There were giants in the earth in those days;[46]
Numbers 13:33 And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak[47]

The giants described in the Bible were intelligent and could talk, so they would not have been classified as animals. This means that Noah would not have taken them on the Ark.[48] There is also the problem of their size; the giants described in the Bible make other people look like "grasshoppers" according to Numbers, although this may be a little metaphorical - as is much of the Bible in case literalists didn't get the point already. The Book of Amos found in the Hebrew Bible describes them as being "as tall as Cedars", trees that grow up to 60 metres in height. 1 Samuel 17 describes Goliath as "six cubits and a span", around 10ft.[49] The remains of such giants or any other ape/humanoid of that sort of size have yet to be discovered, although it hasn't stopped people jumping on this meme and falling for some interesting hoaxes.[50] The tallest men recorded are all under 9 ft (even Robert Wadlow), and are usually tall due to a genetic or hormonal abnormality and in many cases suffer debilitating illnesses because of this and die young. A race or tribe of such excessively tall people is unlikely to exist. Other books are more modest, and Benaiah is described as 7 1/2 ft, which is more in keeping with known sizes of tall people who are still strongly built and still physically able such as professional wrestlers and rugby players.

Continuity of ancient civilizations

In the 24th century BCE, several ancient civilizations - notably Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley - had existed, and continued to exist, without any sign of total extinction from a global flood. Egypt has a continuous written history going back to about 3100 BCE, (plus archaeological evidence of continuous habitation going back to 9000 BCE - see also Young Earth Creationism) and the only floods they talked about were the annual flood of the Nile River which irrigated their crops.

Why bother?

Another slightly odd thing is the weirdly over-complicated solution which God apparently decided he needed to kill everybody and everything. Getting an ark built, bringing the animals, caring for them, rearranging the geology of the planet, finding all that water, getting the animals something to eat after the water went away etc etc. It's a massively overly-complicated solution for an omnipotent being. A whole series of magical acts great and small which he would have needed to micro-manage when all he needed to do was wave an arm (or whatever appendage He waves when casting spells) and make the people he didn't like die or disappear or whatever. Whither omnipotence?

Absence of microorganisms

Notably absent from the description of Noah's Ark are bacteria, protozoans, algae, fungi, plankton, planerean and archaea. How did he take the millions of types of microbes along? It seems that lots of types of microbes have been found, and there is no mention of the creation of microbes that don't already live in animals harmlessly after the tale of Noah. Generally, a book of wisdom should at least explain that some diseases are caused by microbes, and not bad smells or blood. If a benevolent God knew all of this, keeping it away from humans is practically indirect murder. The paradoxes surrounding the supposed benevolence of many monotheistic Gods are not related to this subject; however, an ark capable of holding so many animals, and microbes (because if let loose they could just infect the animals and humans) would take up a huge space.

Not least is the fact that many microbes have very specific needs that could not have possibly been provided in the bronze/iron age. This includes refrigeration, incubation, high pressure and low pressure environments, incredibly diverse food substances (many which can't share the same space because some are toxic to others), diverse gas or fluid environments (again exclusive to each other, such as for aerobes and anaerobes). Providing such reliable and diverse environments would take... well... pretty much a whole planet not covered in broth.

Real "great floods"

Several real "great floods" are thought to have occurred in prehistory, including the flooding of the Mediterranean basin, forming the Mediterranean sea, and the breaching of the Bosporus strait, which resulted in the Black Sea increasing to three times its original size,[51] and flooding several shoreline communities whose foundations can still be seen today. These may have been the root of the stories of great floods which pervade Middle Eastern culture, and have had an effect as far north as Scandinavia (whose myths may also include a folk memory of the ice ages). Megafloods associated with the breaking of ice dams as the last ice age was ending have also occurred.[52]

Isaac Asimov posited a hypothesis that a large meteorite struck the Persian Gulf and created a tsunami that washed over the lowlands and killed a lot of people. This is feasible, and it is the sort of thing that could be verified by geologists.

See also

External links

Footnotes

  1. Genesis 6-8
  2. Genesis 7:12
  3. In Biblical Hebrew "40" days or years is often a metaphor meaning "a long time," much as we say something might happen "once in a million years."
  4. Meteorologist, Jeff Haby - Atmospheric water vapour
  5. Answers.com - How much rain falls on the planet in one day
  6. Due to the heat from the Earth's mantle
  7. All about popular issues
  8. Claim 4 - Noah's Ark
  9. 9.0 9.1 faq-Noahs ark
  10. Genesis 1:29,30 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.
    And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. Apparently there were no carnivores before the flood.
  11. BibleStudy.org
  12. Answers in Genesis
  13. 13.0 13.1 A critical look at Noah's voyage
  14. Talk origins:Problems with Noah's Ark
  15. Fish Cause Problems for the Global Flood
  16. Safety investigation of Noah’s Ark in a seaway
  17. Extreme science
  18. 18.0 18.1 The Impossible Voyage of Noah's Ark
  19. 19.0 19.1 PATTERNS OF OCEAN CIRCULATION OVER THE CONTINENTS DURING NOAH'S FLOOD
  20. Simberloff, Daniel, 1988. The contribution of population and community biology to conservation science. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19: 473-511
  21. Bible study
  22. Aig:Flood chronology
  23. Three Sisters: evidence for Noah's Flood
  24. Like, several decades while those trees sprouted, grew, and matured.
  25. Ocean Water: Salinity
  26. See the Wikipedia article on eagles
  27. Muenscher, W.C. 1936. Storage and germination of seeds of aquatic plants. New York (Cornell University) Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 652, pp. 1-17.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Time line of the Bible
  29. The Whole Silly Flood Story
  30. World Population Growth History Chart
  31. CIA world fact book
  32. Ancient Pyramids at Giza
  33. See the Wikipedia article on Beringia.
  34. Through Japanese Eyes by Richard Minar
  35. Taking Back the Rainbow
  36. The first Rainbow? - Noah's ark is mythology and nothing more.
  37. Internal Contradictions in the Bible
  38. Genesis 6:19-20 (KJV)
  39. Genesis 7:2-3 (KJV)
  40. Genesis 6 (KJV)
  41. Genesis 6:4
  42. Genesis 6:3 (NLT)
  43. See Genesis 9:28 (KJV)
  44. Genesis 11:11-32
  45. Oldest human beings
  46. Genesis 6:4 (KJV)
  47. Numbers 13:33 (KJV)
  48. Noah's flood:Global or local?
  49. Giants in the Bible
  50. Urban Legends About.com - Email: Giant Skeleton Found in Middle East
  51. Noah's Flood at Scientific American Frontiers
  52. Megaflood at Nova
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