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Anita Sarkeesian is a feminist social critic who documents the often-sexist portrayals of women (and to a lesser extent sexual and racial minorities) in popular media such as video games and movies. Sarkeesian runs a YouTube channel and website, both titled FeministFrequency.
While Sarkeesian is well-known in Internet feminist circles and her work has been used in university classrooms, she is most noted for the hatred she has received from anti-feminists, especially Gamergate, which include constant harassment and death threats. This transformation from feminist to target of often-misogynistic hate gave rise to the term "Anita's Law" and brought to light sexism in the video gaming community.
Sarkeesian was born to Armenian-Iraqi parents in Toronto, and later moved to California. At California State University, Northridge, she earned a BA in Communication Studies, then went on to York University for an MA in Social and Political Thought. During her graduate education, she wrote a thesis titled "I’ll Make a Man Out of You: Strong Women in Science Fiction and Fantasy Television," in which she developed her critique of portrayals of women in geek culture.
She entered the world of feminist vlogging on May 20, 2009 (three years before the shitstirring began) with a vlog post discussing the renewal of Dollhouse and the cancellation of Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles. Some highlights:
- She has hailed sci-fi series Caprica for outing a gay character without making it some pointlessly huge deal (but lamenting that he is, nonetheless, a murderer);
- Spent time explaining that provocative beer-serving fembots are, by their very nature, sexist (like we didn't already know that);
- Pointed out showing men as lying sexist idiots in the media is bad for men as well;
- Why HuffPo needs to stop the pseudoporn linkbaiting and "articles";
- Explains why just because 'sex sells' doesn't mean it's OK to use half-dressed women to sell crap;
- Pointed out that just because an actress is an adult, if she's most known for playing a child it's still a problem sexualizing her; and
- Pointed out that from 1960 to 2010, only seven winners of the Academy Award for Best Picture featured a male and female ensemble cast, four were primarily about a woman, and the remaining 39 were about one or more men; as well as the incredibly low levels of representations of women in film production, and that there is a very low pass rating for such Oscar-nominated movies even today.
Sarkeesian did a series titled Tropes vs. Women that focused on stereotypical portrayals of women in movies. The run included: "The Manic Pixie Dream Girl," "Women in Refrigerators", "The Smurfette Principle", "The Evil Demon Seductress", "The Mystical Pregnancy", and "The Straw Feminist". The project was scrapped for the much larger and more in-depth series of the same name which focused on video games. The series met intense criticism, much of it from anti-feminists and MRAs; in particular, Thunderf00t posted a series of responses.
Another major video series focused on the differences in the way toy ads (and toys themselves) target different genders. Sarkeesian focuses on how products for girls focus on being pretty and cooking, cleaning, and children), while products for boys focus on being strong/violent and adventure. The series included: "Toy Ads and Learning Gender", "LEGO Friends - LEGO & Gender Part 1", and "The LEGO Boys Club - Lego & Gender Part 2".
“”[T]here are some solid criticisms you can level at [Sarkeesian's] work. I'm not 100% on her side, you know. She's not perfect by a long shot and her video series seems already to be a little off base, with some of the examples she's named as targets. But we can't talk about that anymore, because the debate's not about whether she's right or wrong. The debate was invalidated when people tried to ruin her life en masse. The chance to debate her on merit was lost once people started threatening to rape her.
In May 2012, Sarkeesian launched a Kickstarter campaign to fund the production of a series of videos to expand her Tropes vs. Women series to look into video games. Her proposal was fully funded for US$6,000 by the end of its first day, and a couple of weeks later she had 8 times what she had initially asked. Soon thereafter, she became the target of numerous threats and a sustained campaign of cyberbullying from the, let's say, uncivilized part of the gaming world and other Internet denizens. She was threatened with physical assault, rape, and murder, failed attempts were made to hack her various accounts and find out her personal information (such as phone number and home address), and her videos were mass reported for everything from piracy to terrorism. Newgrounds user Bendilin Spurr actually created a game called Beat up Anita Sarkeesian which allowed players to simulate doing exactly what the game's title implied. Her Wikipedia article was repeatedly vandalized, and she has had to deal with literally millions of insulting comments, many of a profoundly batty nature, as well as some driven by misplaced anti-Semitism. There were accusations that Sarkeesian had deliberately provoked some of this behaviour by posting on 4chan's /v/ board, though due to the anonymous nature of the board and a userbase infamous for false flag trolling, both on- and off-site, proving such is difficult at best.
Sarkeesian has taken ownership of the abuse and marshaled it to demonstrate the prevalence of sexism in the gamer community. The fact that she did not keep silent about what she was experiencing led to media coverage of the vitriol sent her way and a further outpouring of support for the Tropes vs. Women in Video Games project, pushing it to nearly US$160,000 when the original 30 day projection was done.
Mirror's Edge Catalyst
Sarkeesian held a conference at DICE and tweeted about it, this apparently sparked with a user on Destuctoid who goes by the name "TheKodu" and decided to make a blog post based solely on that. They then go on to state that she was hired by EA to "help" make Mirror's Edge 2.
|So what is Ms Sarkeesian meant to be doing for EA ? Well EA thought it would be a great idea to set her to work "helping" the team making, possibly the only female lead game EA has really going still in, the Mirrors Edge series... "I can relate to a lot of fellow female gamers who did not get into this game due to its difficult controls", that’s what she’s reported to have said.|
Reported to have said in only one very unreliable source: a post on 4chan that she debunked, the blather continues, taking way too long to say nothing of worth. Alas, in fact they have no reliable sources for anything they just claimed except that the DICE event itself actually occurred. If you think that the comments on the blog would reflect a measured, sceptical approach to such unsupported claims, you must not have been paying attention. Someone went so far as to make a petition  to get her fired from a position she didn't even have. Of all the faults of EA, twice winner of the "Worst company in America" award, apparently the most egregious is hiring someone that some people have intense hatred for. Which they didn't actually do.
EA attempted to put the myth to rest:
|This petition is based on inaccurate information. EA is not working with Anita Sarkeesian on development of Mirror’s Edge.|
But that only prompted more conspiracy-minded replies, including:
|So if she isn't working with DICE as part of the development team, then what is she doing?
She must surely be having some kind of input into the games development but with EA answering the questions asked, without really answering them, leaves too much open to interpretation. Even if she is there to make sure the game is being developed in an unsexist (is that even a word?) way, then she would surely be involved in the games development.
And if not this game then what else?
EA needs to answer these questions clearly and precisely.
Anything else is just political speak which we all know is bullsh*t.
|Look who ever at EA decided to write this response, clearly was drunk. We need confirmation that the woman in question (Anita Sarkeesian) is not collaborating, providing input nor working on anything that has to do with anything you (EA and partners) are developing.
"Anita Sarkeesian, is not nor ever was a registered party assisting in the development of EA: Mirrors Edge. We have not requested nor recieved any input from Anita Sarkeesian on Mirrors Edge, and have developers working without her opinion on the game." Just say that, literally all you have to say is in that sentence and then the 48,000 people won't dislike you enough to sign a petition against you! :D
So yeah, unless you come clear and clarify this, I'm still gonna dislike you EA. Seriously, where you are right now, having this kind of publicity, is kind of the wrong publicity. You're just gonna make that grave deeper my friends. But I trust you won't make any dumb decisions, we don't need another Enron.
How EA's statement could be read as anything other than a simple blanket clarification is an open question. As of January 2015 the petition is still being signed. At least the people signing it are in the illustrious company of such luminaries as good ol' Adolf.
In 2014, she was offered an award by Game Developers Conference and invited to speak at their event. Somebody decided to call (email really) in a bomb threat to some of the organizations developers and guests saying it would go off unless her award and speaking engagement were rescinded. Needless to say this was a hoax nobody bought (though the San Francisco police swept the venue anyway). Later in the year, she released a new video, but this had the unfortunate timing of being around the same time as the false allegations against indie game developer Zoe Quinn were ramping up into what became Gamergate. The mob, which was already made up of the same people who had been attacking Sarkeesian for years at this point, refocused their attention on her; she received some rather specific death threats over Twitter, causing her to flee her apartment for an evening.
About a month and a half later she was scheduled to speak at a Utah State University event on October 15. On the morning of October 14, university staff received an anonymous e-mail threat, which warned that "a Montreal Massacre style attack [would] be carried out" unless the event was cancelled. The author of the threat claimed that "feminists have ruined my life and I will have my revenge, for my sake and the sake of all the others they've wronged," and that this would be "the deadliest school shooting in American history." The university initially remained determined to proceed with the event as planned. However, Sarkeesian ultimately cancelled her appearance after learning that the university could not restrict concealed firearms under Utah state law. In an interview with ABC's Nightline the following January, Sarkeesian revealed that she now has an armed escort for any public speaking engagements.
Following all that's happened, she has expanded her video series to cover positive representations of women in video games as well planning to examine representations of men and masculinity.
Sarkeesian disabled the like/dislike feature and comments on all of her YouTube video, and strictly moderates the Feminist Frequency Twitter account. As an experiment, Sarkeesian left the like/dislike feature open on a newly-released video; it got about 100 dislikes before it could have even been completely watched.
There has been a recognised effect from the attacks on Sarkeesian:
- The rabid attacks against her, turning her into a victim and pushing public attention towards her, are probably the major reason why she managed to get so much money from her Kickstarter, which has allowed her to make a living as a feminist activist and commentator.
- Industry professionals have gone out of their way to stand up for her, and have since showered her in a truckload of awards for awareness of sexism in video games.
- There is now an adage called Anita's Irony that exists because of her:
Common illegitimate criticisms
Sarkeesian is the subject of an anomalously high amount of bullshit.
Sexism vs violence
- Sarkeesian's claims that sexist tropes in video games make gamers more sexist are just as bullshit as claims that violence in video games makes gamers more violent.
- First, Sarkeesian's point also includes the idea that sexist depictions of women in popular media perpetuate sexist ideas in society, which could occur even without making people sexist. (By analogy, The Birth of a Nation[wp] could promote racist ideas even if it did not make people racist.)
- Second, the claims of Jack Thompson (and others) that video games cause violence have been almost entirely scientifically disproven (see main article), while there is much stronger scientific evidence relating sexism in games and sexist attitudes in gamers (see main article). Further, Sarkeesian cites these studies in the supplementary material to her videos; even if science ultimately proves her wrong, she's at least made an attempt to prove her point with valid science.
Censoring video games
- Sarkeesian wants to ban video games.
- While Jack Thompson and supporters of the "video games cause violence" claim (see above) pushed for legislation to ban them and to hold the developers responsible in murder cases, Sarkeesian has limited herself to criticism of their content. People still froth at the mouth when she expresses her personal opinions on video games, particularly when it regards her personal distaste in violence as a mechanic. People leapt on her when she criticized Fallout 4 and the new DOOM at E3 2015, prompting her collaborator Jonathan McIntosh to tell the mobs that they don't want to ban anything when they're critical of it but only encountered her detractors doubling down on their original conclusions. She's expressed similar opinions with other violent media, saying she didn't find Mad Max: Fury Road a feminist masterpiece which others disagreed with, but there's no MadMaxGate out to get her. Imagine that.
Not a real gamer
- "She lied to us about having been an avid gamer since she was younger! There's a video of her saying she hates games years before doing this series!"
“”Except I'm doing video games, that's not exactly the fandom – I'm not a fan of video games – I actually had to learn a lot about video games in the process[.]
|—not a misquote of Anita Sarkeesian|
- Anita Sarkeesian said this in 2010. It is now 2016. In 6 years people's opinions can change. And she's explained multiple times how she changed her mind because people won't stop obsessing over this soundbite. When she was in grad school in 2010, she didn't consider herself a "gamer" or even a fan of video games because she says she had, "bought into the bogus myth that, in order to be a real gamer, you had to be playing GTA or Call of Duty or God of War or other testosterone-infused macho posturing games which often had a sexist, toxic culture that surrounded them." She was playing video games, but she wasn't a fan of these particular games, and that drove her away from saying she was a "fan". She has photos of herself playing SNES as a child and she had begged her parents to get her a Game Boy, to which they ultimately acquiesced, but she still disliked the culture surrounding video games and was repulsed by its sexism. Ultimately, the Nintendo Wii and its family-friendly marketing and library opened her up to enjoying video games without the aspects that had repulsed her, with Mario Kart and Rock Band opening the way for her to enjoy PC games like Plants vs. Zombies and Spore and even popular games Portal and Half-Life 2.
- It's extremely disingenuous to keep harping about on this one statement she made 6 years ago when in the time since then she's dedicated her life and career to reviewing video games. She gives talks at major tech conferences. She is asked for input at major studios. Also, the same year she said "I'm not a fan of video games" she went to the Canadian Video Game Awards so it's not like she absolutely hated games even back in 2010, 2 months after she said "I'm not a fan of video games" and 2 years before she began her Kickstarter campaign. She simply didn't like the direction the video game industry was headed back then. And she certainly doesn't like the current state of much of the video game fan community, considering how loud portions of it want her dead.
- It's also worth remembering that the people who continuously parrot this above claim against her, are generally the same people who also hitch their wagons to Milo Yiannopoulos, even though he has in the past labeled gamers as "pungent beta male bollock-scratchers and twelve-year-olds" and "unemployed saddos", and blamed gamers and gaming culture for the actions of Elliot Rodger, the latter a mere three months before GamerGate became a thing. Despite him saying far worse things about gamers than Sarkeesian could ever dream of, however, Yiannapoulos is apparently allowed to have adjusted his viewpoints about video gaming with time, though the same benefit of the doubt is not at all allowed to be granted to anything Sarkeesian has said, apparently.
- "Sarkeesian has a history of running scams! She's advertised teleseminars for multi-level marketing guru Alex Mandossian, as well as a seminar manager and coordinator for Bart Baggett, a self-professed handwriting analysis expert featured in a pick-up artist directory!"
- If Alex Mandossian really is a multi-level marketing guru, then due to the way multi-level marketing works, Anita Sarkeesian trying to sell his teleseminars would indicate that she is the victim of a barely-legal scam, not the perpetrator. As for Bart Baggett, the very same article which exposed her for working with a pick-up artist later revealed that none of the work she did with Baggett was related at all to picking up women.
|UPDATE: Mr. Baggett has since contacted me and wished certain points to be amended in this article. I agreed, as the original draft failed to represent his viewpoint or portray him with adequate balance. He wished to clarify that the seminars Anita Sarkeesian assisted him with were self-help oriented and primarily [65% or more] attended by women over the age of 40, and not events purporting to offer strategies to pick up women. In regards to his qualification as a handwriting expert, Mr. Baggett states that in excess of 45 judges, from the state and federal level, have confirmed him to be a handwriting expert and held his testimony admissable in court.|
- Furthermore, even if Bart Baggett's qualifications as a handwriting analysis expert are suspect (most accusations against him from Gamergate conflate his accumen as a forensic handwriting expert with the pseudoscience of graphology), there is still no evidence to show how she had gotten the job with him. The earliest evidence of their professional relationship provided is from 2005, before she had received her masters degree in 2010, and it stands to reason that she had worked with Bart Baggett during college. It's just as likely that she had chosen to work with Baggett out of convenience and not because she agreed with his practices or beliefs.
- "She lied about Hitman: Absolution! You lose points for killing people!"
- As part of her discussion on "Women as Background Decoration" (a video which includes sample footage from dozens of games), Anita Sarkeesian says that in one level of Hitman: Absolution the player can attack exotic dancer characters in order to progress through the level, and they are only there for the sake of being sexualized female characters. This led to a deluge of nitpicking complaints that the player actually loses points for killing civilian characters, such as the stripper, and thus Sarkeesian has concocted a situation which is not exemplary of normal play to make a point. The 90 seconds that she took to discuss this one video game in this one video series led to so much furore, mostly caused by Phil Mason, that she actually made sure to spend a good portion of her 2015 speaking engagement at The Conference as to why this isn't their "smoking gun" to completely dismiss all of her arguments.
- As Sarkeesian says in her video, "in-game consequences for these violations are trivial at best". There is no real penalty for having knocked out the characters, despite a loss in statistical points. And this loss is negated when she hides the NPCs' bodies. She also points out how the game only gives the player the option of either knocking out or killing civilian characters, such as in another level where the player knocks out a stripper character and hides her body in order to set up a situation to beat the level. She makes the comparison to the Grand Theft Auto series where the player is penalized for stealing cars, despite that being the core mechanic of that game. Neither killing civilians in Hitman or stealing cars in GTA result in losing either game, only temporary nuisances that can be negated through further play. And the sandbox nature of these games means there's multiple ways to complete an objective. But this was never the point of her video. It was to say that the developers of Hitman intentionally included partially or fully naked women characters whose sole purpose is to be eye candy or be attacked by the player in some fashion. Anything about the game's points system is a red herring meant to completely detract from her actual argument. She finds the inclusion of the exotic dancers and strippers sexist as well as the ability for the player character to attack them, a conscious decision by the development team.
- To put in other terms, if the developers didn't want the players to interact with/sightsee the strippers, why does the level take place in a strip club?
Stealing Let's Play footage
- "She stole Let's Play[wp] footage from gamers! It means she didn't actually play the games!"
- The second point is irrelevant. There's nothing that says she has to use her own footage, or play video games that are hard to come by in the first place, in order to critique the game. Doing so may allow greater credibility, but it's not an absolute requirement. It should be noted that other popular video game discussion videos (such as those that list the "Top 10 Most [Adjective] [Noun]s!") have similar practices.
The copyright issues are, admittedly, a greyer area. She has claimed fair use under American copyright law for the footage,[note 1] particularly episodes that feature other people's footage, as the original copyright ultimately belongs to the games' creators. It should be noted that YouTube does have a robust (if not alarmingly overzealous) DMCA takedown system available should the Let's Players in question feel legal action is necessary. However, it is certainly a fair criticism that she should at least credit the sources of the videos she uses.
- Beyond which, it's also worth noting that these claims are largely focused on videos she released in 2013. It's 2016 now, and there has been nothing compelling presented by proponents of this argument to demonstrate that gameplay footage used by Sarkeesian in her videos from 2014 to 2016 have been anything other than her own.
Stealing fan art
- "She stole fan art and used it for profit!"
- Sarkeesian acknowledged that she did use fan art of the Dragon's Lair character Princess Daphne which was drawn by Tamara Smith, but had done so unintentionally as she and her team thought it was a piece of promotional artwork for the game. She apologized for the mistake and removed Smith's artwork from a collage it had been used in, even though their use of the artwork would have probably constituted fair use under the transformative rule . She also addressed concerns that Feminist Frequency is a non-profit organization, and is registered as one in California. She also pointed out that Smith had published an open letter before she and her team could respond and was also in direct contact with people responsible for doxxing her, her team, and her family, which made them apprehensive to deal with the issue publically. Others looking into the situation also took note of how Smith did not update her original open letter to acknowledge Sarkeesian's response until a day after the fact.
- "She (and other feminists) chased Joss Whedon off of Twitter!"
- Not even close to correct. In fact, she was the second person to write him a message asking if he was okay.
Number of videos
- "She's a scam artist! She promised us [insert number] videos in [insert timeframe]!"
- Her detractors seem woefully unfamiliar with a whole load of perfectly reasonable arguments about why such funding campaigns for projects tend to arrive late. When the scale and scope of Kickstarters change the people running them generally do need to change their original plans to fit with the larger goal they achieved and to change what they were going to do, which takes time. Tropes vs. Women in Video Games earning more than 25 times its original intended goal means it's perfectly normal and expected for Sarkeesian and her collaborators to take time to figure out how to expand their project and still deliver on what they intended. The fact that Sarkeesian has recently altered her plans for the direction of Tropes vs Women going forward  does not make her a scam artist, as she is still delivering content and simply had to adjust the way she produced the videos due to the strain of harassment she received as well as the above mentioned reason of project creators changing the way they produce content in line with the money received and personal circumstances.
- Her critics often focus on the "12 videos/episodes" plan as well, but this amounts to cherry-picking since it ignores other relevant numbers from the Kickstarter. Sarkeesian was initially only going to examine a "handful of examples for each trope" when she started the campaign, but with how the Kickstarter came out, she has been given the chance to examine hundreds of video games on her own, having referenced 182 games when just covering the "Damsel in Distress" trope and 548 other examples throughout video game history. Let us repeat this for emphasis: Five Hundred and Forty Eight. Beyond maybe a handful of those examples, the overwhelming majority have not been addressed by her so-called "critics".
- Also, her videos were only initially going to be 10-12 minutes long, which would mean that with 12 planned videos, Sarkeesian initially planned to produce between 2 hours to 2 and a half hours of material. Now, because of the expansion of the project, it means that of her episodes, "Damsels in Distress" went very nearly 1 hour and 15 minutes, "Ms. Male Character" went 25 minutes, "Women as Background Decoration" went just over an hour, "Women As Reward" went just over 42 minutes (includes the special DLC "mini-episode"), "Positive Female Characters in Video Games" clocks in at just over 18 minutes, "Strategic Butt Coverings" went just over 6 minutes, "Body Language & the Male Gaze" went nearly 8 minutes, and "Lingerie is Not Armour" went nearly 17 minutes. We can also include the smaller videos in the series - "The Legend of the Lost Princess", "25 Invisible Benefits of Gaming While Male", "5 Ways Men Can Help End Sexism", and the reviews for "Assassin's Creed: Syndicate", "Rise of the Tomb Raider", "Star Wars: The Force Awakens", "That Dragon, Cancer", "Hitman (2016)", and "Quantum Break" - that clock in at a combined 1 hour and 5 minutes. So what happens when we do the math for all this? We get, at the time of writing, a total of around 5 hours and 16 minutes (or 316 minutes) of video footage, divided by Sarkeesian's initial goal of having videos that lasted 10-12 minutes, then essentially within the series she's produced the equivalent of 26 to 31 videos by the initial standards she set. And of course, that's not even including all the speeches at conferences and television appearances she's done, too, since she began the Kickstarter. So when the math is done, Sarkeesian hasn't just delivered on producing the amount of material she's promised, she's over-delivered by more than half.
- It's utter insanity on the part of the mob opposing Sarkeesian to think that an absurdly literal reading on how many episodes she needed to have apparently released now is somehow the only thing that matters when determining the value for money her backers have gained from supporting her project, when in reality we would imagine her backers are actually delighted about how much the project expanded, and that Sarkeesian is out there very efficiently raising awareness about the issues of sexism in video games and in the gaming industry, catching the attention and support of high profile people and organizations, particularly game developers. And unlike the people that her critics latch onto (Sargon, Thunderf00t, Rogue Star, The Sarkeesian Effect creators), Sarkeesian has actually released a financial report for everyone to see, and of course she's also submitted tax forms to the IRS as part of being a non-profit, so it ultimately takes tin-hat conspiracy theories for anyone to believe she's somehow hood-winking the IRS.
- And of course, there's the fact that even if one is not a financial backer or in general a supporter of Feminist Frequency, the fact of the matter is that one can still watch their videos for free on YouTube and there is nothing making them either watch and/or donate to any Feminist Frequency produced video, and for that matter her videos are also free of advertisements, so there's no need to worry about netting Sarkeesian more money through those means. Whereas if one looks at the recent example of The Sarkeesian Effect, one can see that this "documentary", at the time of writing, exists behind a paywall so you can only watch it if you give Jordan Owen more money. Somewhat ironic and hypocritical considering that the documentary claims she is a "scam artist", and yet there has not been nearly the same backlash towards Jordan Owen and Davis Aurini that Anita Sarkeesian has received. Compare also to Sargon of Akkad, who still retains good standing in GamerGate circles despite crowd-funding for a video game, "Necromancer", that never saw the light of the day during the two years Sargon was accepting donations for it.
Common legitimate criticisms
Or at least, criticisms which aren't patently insane.
Prejudice plus power
“”There’s no such thing as sexism against men. That's because sexism is prejudice + power. Men are the dominant gender with power in society.
Sarkeesian's criticisms focus on systemic/institutionalized sexism in which men are given preferential treatment over women. However, objectors assert that individuals may be sexist against men and institutional policies can have adverse effects disproportionately on males, which is also a species of sexism. Some have argued that these facts constitute holes in Sarkeesian's analysis, but it is more a differing approach to understanding the non-binary nature of sexism and privilege.
- Davis Aurini, particularly The Sarkeesian Effect
- Manosphere glossary
- Jonathan McIntosh, her former producer.
- ↑ "The multimedia clips included in this video constitutes a 'fair use' of any copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright law which allows for criticism, comment and scholarship."
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian, "Support My Kickstarter Project - Tropes vs Women in Video Games", YouTube
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian, "One Week of Harassment on Twitter", Feminist Frequency (Tumblr.com)
- ↑ "Caprica and the Queerness of Sam Adama"
- ↑ "Fembots, Advertising and Male Fantasy"
- ↑ "What Liquor Ads Teach Us About Guys"
- ↑ "The Huffington Post's Linkbait Strategy"
- ↑ "Retro Sexism and Uber Ironic Advertising"
- ↑ "Glee, GQ and the Sexualization of Young Girls"
- ↑ "Women's Stories, Movies and the Oscars"
- ↑ "The Oscars and The Bechdel Test"
- ↑ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBBDFEC9F5893C4AF
- ↑ feministfrequency (March 22, 2011). "#1 The Manic Pixie Dream Girl (Tropes vs. Women)". https://youtu.be/uqJUxqkcnKA.
- ↑ feministfrequency (April 6, 2011). "#2 Women in Refrigerators (Tropes vs. Women)". https://youtu.be/DInYaHVSLr8.
- ↑ feministfrequency (April 21, 2011). "#3 The Smurfette Principle (Tropes vs. Women)". https://youtu.be/opM3T2__lZA.
- ↑ feministfrequency (May 19, 2011). "#4 The Evil Demon Seductress (Tropes vs. Women)". https://youtu.be/_VeCjm1UO4M.
- ↑ feministfrequency (July 28, 2011). "#5 The Mystical Pregnancy (Tropes vs. Women)". https://youtu.be/0rhH_QGXtgQ.
- ↑ feministfrequency (September 22, 2011). "#6 The Straw Feminist (Tropes vs. Women)". https://youtu.be/tnJxqRLg9x0.
- ↑ feministfrequency (November 16, 2010). "Toy Ads and Learning Gender". https://youtu.be/rZn_lJoN6PI.
- ↑ feministfrequency (January 30, 2012). "LEGO Friends - LEGO & Gender Part 1". https://youtu.be/CrmRxGLn0Bk.
- ↑ feministfrequency (February 5, 2012). "The LEGO Boys Club - Lego & Gender Part 2". https://youtu.be/oe65EGkB9kA.
- ↑ Jim Sterling, Anita Sarkeesian - The Monster Gamers Created, Jimquisition.
- ↑ Her TEDxTalk was basically just about the attack campaign
- ↑ http://www.destructoid.com/blogs/TheKodu
- ↑ http://www.destructoid.com/blogs/TheKodu/the-sarkeesian-the-dice-and-the-mirror--235992.phtml
- ↑ http://i.imgur.com/hqrKcbD.jpg
- ↑ XOXO Festival (October 7, 2014). "Anita Sarkeesian, Feminist Frequency - XOXO Festival (2014)". https://youtu.be/ah8mhDW6Shs?t=6m13s.
- ↑ https://www.change.org/p/dice-remove-anita-sarkeesian-from-mirror-s-edge-2-game-development
- ↑ http://consumerist.com/2013/04/09/ea-makes-worst-company-in-america-history-wins-title-for-second-year-in-a-row/
- ↑ http://i.imgur.com/svMCvlL.png
- ↑ Bomb Threat Targeted Anita Sarkeesian, Gaming Awards Last March, Stephen Totilo, Kotaku, 17 September 2014
- ↑ Campbell, Colin. "Sarkeesian driven out of home by online abuse and death threats" Polygon.com August 27, 2014
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 32.2 Cimaron Neugebauer, "Terror threat against feminist Anita Sarkeesian at USU", Standard-Examiner
- ↑ Erin Alberty, "Feminist cancels talk at USU after guns allowed despite shooting threat", The Salt Lake Tribune
- ↑ Juju Chang, "When Jumping into Gamergate Turns into Fearing For Your Life", Nightline
- ↑ Stuart Dredge, "Anita Sarkeesian launching new video series focused on masculinity in games", The Guardian
- ↑ https://twitter.com/femfreq/status/402502986942779392
- ↑ Say Mr. Gears of War himself, one of the biggest dudebros out there.
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian, Riot co-founders win GDCA 2014 Special Awards, Gamasutra
- ↑ A Day of Honors for Women in the Video Game Industry, The New York Times
- ↑ Internet Rules and Laws 2.0
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 Anita Sarkeesian, "Women as Background Decoration (Part 1)", Feminist Frequency
- ↑ http://www.zenofdesign.com/sarkeesian-effect-duo-reanimates-defeated-corpse-of-jack-thompson/
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian, "The #Fallout4 crafting system is cool. Imagine how much cooler it could be if it wasn’t SO focused on building stuff to kill other stuff.", Twitter
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian, "This level of extreme violence shouldn’t be considered normal. It's not an excuse to say it’s expected because DOOM. That’s the problem #BE3", Twitter
- ↑ Jonathan McIntosh, "Think about it without getting defensive. No one wants to ban DOOM. But what message does that send to the world about the gaming community?", Twitter
- ↑ Jonathan McIntosh, "So much reading comprehension fail in my mentions.", Twitter
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian, "I’m not one to shy away from expressing unpopular opinions. So here goes. I saw Fury Road. I get why people like it. But it isn’t feminist.", Twitter
- ↑ Jill Pantozzi, "Review: Mad Max: Fury Road Is a Lovely Orgasm for Your Eyes", The Mary Sue
- ↑ Vimeo video. Relevant statements begin at 12:00.
- ↑ http://www.houstonpress.com/arts/8-criticisms-of-anita-sarkeesian-that-are-utter-bullshit-6382966
- ↑ “Women and Pop Culture” Class Visit at SMC, Second Video, 12:49
- ↑ Stephen Totilo, "How Anita Sarkeesian Wants Video Games To Change", Kotaku
- ↑ A SNES controller in the hands of Anita Sarkeesian as a child
- ↑ Colin Campbell, "How Nintendo inspired Anita Sarkeesian", Polygon
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian, "It’s Game Over for ‘Gamers’", The New York Times
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian, "The First Canadian Video Game Awards", Feminist Frequency
- ↑ "What does Anita Sarkeesian's endorsement of internet marketing predators say about her character?", KotakuInAction
- ↑ Brian Whittemore, "Anita Sarkeesian Unmasked: Feminist Icon or Con Artist?", Guardian Liberty Voice
- ↑ Sheelah Kolhatkar, "The Gaming Industry's Greatest Adversary Is Just Getting Started", Bloomberg Businessweek
- ↑ https://medium.com/@adrianchm/anita-sarkeesian-and-hitman-256cd0301463
- ↑ http://venturebeat.com/2014/08/27/critic-anita-sarkeesian-receives-online-death-threats-after-latest-feminist-frequency-video-on-games/
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian - Hate and heroism, relevant part starts around 11:00.
- ↑ http://victorsopinion.blogspot.com/2013/07/anitas-sources.html
- ↑ 64.0 64.1 Aja Romano, "Fanartist who accused Sarkeesian of art theft banned from Reddit", The Daily Dot
- ↑ Rich Stim, "Fair Use: What is Transformative?," Nolo.
- ↑ Anita Sarkeesian, "Recently, it came to our attention that we had accidentally used a piece of fan art...", Feminist Frequency
- ↑ Joss Whedon Calls “Horsesh*t” On Reports He Left Twitter Because Of Militant Feminists
- ↑ Tweet "Good to know I didn't personally drive Joss off Twitter with all the stuff I DIDN'T say about Avengers 2 *eyeroll*"
- ↑ https://archive.is/QoZsp
- ↑ http://money.cnn.com/gallery/technology/2012/12/18/kickstarter-ship-late/index.html
- ↑ https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/566429325/tropes-vs-women-in-video-games/posts/1469466
- ↑ "How Our Tropes vs Women project has expanded and transformed"
- ↑ "Women in the World" Online Harassment Panel
- ↑ "How to be a Feminist" Panel at All About Women
- ↑ "What I Couldn't Say" Panel at All About Women
- ↑ Colbert Report Sarkeesian Interview
- ↑ XOXO Conference Speech
- ↑ Game Developers Choice Ambassador Award speech
- ↑ TEDX talk on Sexist Harassment and Cyber Mobs
- ↑ https://archive.is/EOcDf