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Ayatollah (from the Arabic: آية الله (āyatu allah), meaning "Sign of Allah") is a term for someone with a great deal of learning in the Shi'a branch of Islam. All that it implies is a great deal of study and knowledge of doctrine and sacred writings of Shi'ism. They are given the power to issue edicts on matters of interpretation, as well as teach and act as judges.
In Shi'ite Islamic nations, the ayatollahs are the supreme arbiters of power. For example, the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (successor of Khomeini) is the 'Supreme Leader' of Iran. President Hassan Rouhani has some influence over economic policy, but he does not command the army, nor the internal security forces, and his influence over foreign policy is subject to the approval of Khamenei.
In Islam generally, a mujtahid is an Islamic scholar who is competent to interpret divine law (Sharia) in practical situations using ijtihad (independent thought). The equivalent rank for a woman is mujtahida