Crusades

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Kill them all. God will know his own.
—attributed to abbot Arnold Amaury
The most signal and most durable monument of human folly that has yet appeared in any age or nation.
David Hume, 1778[1]

The Crusades were a series of military expeditions aimed at the conquest, maintenance and restoration of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (and sometimes other places). Yes, the followers of so-called "religions of peace" openly stated that they would kill millions for political power to keep the Holy Land in the hands of their religion.

They might have been considered a response to Islam's four hundred years of unbridled expansion, had they been aimed at, for example, the conquered Christian lands in Spain, rather than the relatively peaceful and enlightened areas in the Levant. However, this analysis fails to take into account the long-fought conflicts at the edges of Europe, such as the Arab-Byzantine wars. Also, the First Crusade was in essence a papal response to a request from the Byzantine Roman Emperor to help him against the expansionist Seljuk Turks, who had whooped his predecessor's ass at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.[2] The first one worked remarkably well, with Jerusalem being recaptured (though with way too much killing of innocents). After that, they all went downhill. One even attacked the city of Byzantium (was Constantinople, now Istanbul), dealing the last remnant of the Roman Empire a devastating blow from which it never recovered.

Crusades were also launched against pagan tribes in eastern Germany and Poland, and one (the Albigensian Crusade) was sent against a heretic Christian group, the Cathars (it is this crusade that the famous quote at the top of the page was from[2]). It was similarly a horrible period for Jews, with the slaughter of thousands mostly by the Christian side.[3]

Contents

[edit] Consequences of the Crusades

The importance of the Crusades (at least the first four) in European history cannot be overstated. The Crusades helped to re-link Western Europe to the Silk and Spice roads. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire that part of the world remained largely isolated and outside of various trade routes (too unstable). Crusaders returning home often brought with them "exotic" eastern goods and Western Europeans were willing to trade for them. The desire for silks and spices encouraged the Western Europeans to try and find ways to cut out the middlemen and trade directly with China and India, basically encouraging countries to begin exploring the world. Along with the flow of goods came a flow of ideas.

Many ancient Greek and Latin texts had been forgotten about in the West but were preserved, studied and commented on by the Eastern Romans and Arabs.[4] These "new" ideas flowed west (also north from formerly Muslim Spain) and found a ready home in Medieval Europe's trading hubs — especially the Italian city-states. The rediscovery of these texts in the West, as well as a renewed appreciation for the ancient heritage, helped to spark the Italian Renaissance.

Conversely the Crusades helped cement a form of radical Islam that would continue centuries later.

Of course, it wasn't all silks, spices, and books that the new trade routes brought west: the new trade routes also brought the Black Death to Western Europe, resulting in the death of roughly one third of its population.

In modern usage, a "crusade" is any mission or movement based on strong moral or ideological backing, such as Campus Crusade for Christ. Often, it denotes a foolish endeavor.

[edit] Crusade vs Jihad

Muslim demagogues often compare American servicemen to European crusaders in propaganda.[5] You can thank George W. Bush (and Wahhabism) for that one. Well, that and U. S. Military arms inscribed with passages from the New Testament.

While Jihad has a few more meanings than merely 'killing infidels', "Jihad of the Sword" means "waging war against the enemies of Allah", and "Jihad of the Tongue" means spreading Islam. In these senses, "Jihad" and "Crusade" are more or less mirror images of each other. The people performing Jihad, called "Mujihadeen", are effectively Crusaders of a different religion. In more modern terms, the "Offensive-Jihad" of Sayyid Qutb that most non-Muslims think of when they hear the term 'Jihad', can be more or less summed up with the page quote. The irony should not be lost on anyone.

[edit] The Crusades

  1. 1095-1099: First CrusadeWikipedia's W.svg - The Pope calls European nations to defend their ally, the Eastern Roman Empire, from Islamic invaders. Partly due to recruitment efforts and the effort of Peter to Hermit the People's Crusade took off and arrived before the "official" crusade pillaging and looting as they went through Europe to the Middle East. Because they consisted of mostly untrained peasants and a handful of minor knights they were quickly destroyed by the Turkish army. Then the professional armies of the "actual" crusade actually arrived and manage to capture Jerusalem.
  2. 1147-1149: Second CrusadeWikipedia's W.svg - After the fall of the Crusader State Edessa, the Christians call in reinforcements to the Middle East to regain their lost territory. They fail badly.
  3. 1187-1192: Third CrusadeWikipedia's W.svg - Christians led by Richard the Lionheart once again (badly) attempt to retake captured territories. They get denied by Saladin. "Good" King Richard I slaughtered over 3,000 prisoners during this Crusade.
  4. 1202-1204: Fourth CrusadeWikipedia's W.svg - Logistic problems and the lack of funding force the Crusading armies to take on a side quest and re-install an exiled monarchWikipedia's W.svg in Constantinople in exchange for funding, only to have him back out of the promise of payment at the last second. With no money to pay the seamen, no food and winter approaching fast, the Venetians sent the Crusaders to sack Constantinople. The crusaders took over and set up an unpopular Catholic monarchy that lasted about half a century but the Byzantine Empire was badly truncated (largely due to land grabs the Venetians took as payment) and the Empire never fully recovered. No Muslims (that we know of) were harmed in the making or prosecution of this crusade.
  5. 1212?: Children's CrusadeWikipedia's W.svg - Two boys have visions and inspire 30,000 children to go and free the holy land. It goes about as well as can be expected with the children either dead or sold into slavery. Thought by some scholars to be the amalgamation of two different crusade misadventures this crusade is sometimes presented as the source of the Pied Piper of HamelinWikipedia's W.svg story.
  6. 1217-1221: Fifth Crusade - Set out for Israel and got to Egypt instead. Needless to say, it didn't go anywhere.
  7. 1228-1229: Sixth Crusade - Successful recapture of Jerusalem—by politicking and negotiation instead of fighting!—but not for long.
  8. 1248-1254: Seventh Crusade - King Louis IX of France gets captured in battle, then bankrupts his country bailing him out. Remnants of Crusader territories destroyed.
  9. 1270: Louis IX captures Tunis.
  10. 1271-1272: Financial troubles and the capture of the last major Christian fort of Acre spells the end for the Crusades.
  11. 1989: The Last Crusade - Han Solo and his father, James Bond, find a magic cup, become immortal, and whoop the Nazis.[6]
  • 1209: DIE, CATHARS (in Southern France)! The source of the apocryphal quote at the top of the page.
  • 1212: Children's Crusade - Cute except for the fact that the kids were way too young to be doing this sort of thing, and many ended up sold into slavery.[7] Credited as being the source of the Piped Piper story.

It is important to note that, while this list seems simple enough, there is not at all agreement amongst Medievists about the actual number of crusades, due to the loose definition of the word. A good example of this are the so called Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagan peoples in what are now the Baltic States. [8] While contemporaries referred to it as a crusade, nowadays it is often not included amongst the 'official' crusades, nor is the repression of the Cathar heresy. Also the 8th and 9th Crusade are together called the 8th Crusade by some scholars.

[edit] Pseudohistory

If ever someone tries to tell you that the Crusades were caused or provoked by the Muslim peoples of the Levant, they are wrong. Pope Urban II called for them, and Christian forces carried them out. Muslim forces fought back.

If someone ever tries to tell you that the Catholic church and the Jews of Europe were on the same side during the Crusades, it's up to you determine whether that's an example of fractal wrongness or not even wrong. Not only were much of Europe's Jews marginalized, ghettoized, and pogromed, before, during, and after the period, no Jews had any reason to participate in the 'reclamation' of Jerusalem for global Christianity. Instead, Jews were the subject of much Crusader violence on account of their not being Christians.

[edit] External links

[edit] References

  1. The History of England
  2. 2.0 2.1 The Crusades: A Short History, Jonathan Riley-Smith. ISBN 0-300-04700-2
  3. The Crusades, PBS
  4. Just don't tell that to the Islamophobes.
  5. [1] World Islamic Front Statement, courtesy of the Federation of American Scientists
  6. "You have chosen... wisely."
  7. Possibly fictitious.
  8. http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/crusades/cruurban.html
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