Epperson v. Arkansas
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Epperson v. Arkansas is a 1968 court case, handled by the United States Supreme Court, to challenge a 1920s statute preventing the teaching of evolution (specifially, human evolution) in Arkansas public schools (in lieu of creationism, specifically that which is found in the Book of Genesis).
The Supreme Court found in favor of the plaintiff, stating the statute was in violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. In addition, their decision asserted that the State of Arkansas (and, by extension, any other state) had no right nor any interest to prevent the teaching of theories critical to the views of any religion.