Erasmus Darwin (1731–1802), was an English physician, natural philosopher, physiologist, inventor and poet. He was one of the founder members of the Lunar Society, a discussion group of pioneering industrialists and natural philosophers. His grandson was Charles Darwin. He developed a theory of evolution, which, though similar to Lamarckism, probably inspired Charles's thoughts on the subject. His first name, Erasmus, is after the Dutch Humanist philosopher of that name.
 Other achievements
- Inventing the horizontal windmill, a speaking machine and an artificial bird.
- campaigning against slavery.
- making a sketch of a liquid-fuelled rocket.