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The First Cause Argument, also referred to as the Cosmological Argument, essentially suggests that, as there is no commonly accepted hypothesis to completely explain the original origin of the universe, then God (or Gods or other supernatural agency) must exist to have caused everything else.
 Argument structure
The argument from a first cause requires the following observations to be made:
- Everything that comes into being must have a cause
This is determined from both observation and the logic behind causality. Everything that is observed in the universe has some form of cause behind it and this forms the basis of conservation of momentum and energy. Within causality there is a unifying logic between an effect (something caused) and an affect (cause). An affectless effect and an effectless affect are logically nonsensical propositions.
- An infinite regress of causes is impossible
Disallowing an infinite regress of causes is, technically speaking, an assertion and just a requirement for the argument to work. However, a form of pleading can be made that while an infinite regress of temporal causes may be allowable, an infinite regress of non-temporal causes may not. In other words, a sequence of events in time may be able to go infinitely forward through the future and back through the past but time itself must have some other form of cause.
- We must therefore arise at a first cause
Following from disallowing an infinite regress of causes, there must be a point where a First Cause appears. This is the concept first developed by Aristotle and expanded upon by Aquinas as the "unmoved mover" or the "uncaused causer".
- This first cause is God
Argument from semantics then follows. Is this the Christian God that Aquinas described, or some form of exotic particle that is the pipe dream of physicists? Is it just the deist god? Generally speaking in theological arguments using this, the first cause is defined as God or God is defined as the first cause. The nature of this is not covered by the argument.
 Further assumptions
 Self causing
Related to the infinite regress of causes is the idea that something may cause itself to come into being. Aquinas argues that this is impossible on account of it never having been empirically observed but also because of the impossibility and absurdity of an object causing itself. Specifically for an object to cause itself to come into being, it must be prior to itself. This expressly forbids the universe from causing itself, which would otherwise scupper the conclusion.
 God's cause
The argument primarily exists to justify the existence of a first cause. This is an ultimate cause for the universe that doesn't need a cause itself to come into being. In the theological extension to apply the argument to God's existence, the first cause is defined as God and God is defined as the first cause. As Aquinas said at the end of his first cause argument:
“”Therefore it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of God.
Therefore God, as the first cause, is exempt from having a cause itself. This is usually dismissed as a form of special pleading by detractors of the argument. There is no reason, at least within the first cause argument itself, that God should be immune to causality but the universe is not.
 Problems With The Argument
Through modern science, specifically physics, natural phenomenon have been discovered that do not follow causality, meaning that they do not follow a line of cause and effect. Such phenomenon are Radioactive Decay and the spontaneous appearance of virtual particles. In the case of radioactive decay, the only knowable property is the half-life of an unstable isotope of an element. The reason why radioactive decay contradicts the cosmological argument is that it truly is random and uncaused. While one may know that a particular amount of an element will decay over a certain period of time, it is impossible to know which specific atoms will decay, giving it the quality of being random. Decay is also uncaused and unable to be interrupted.