|Thank my various Gods!|
Hindutva (which can be literally translated into English as "Hinduness"[note 1]) is a word coined by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his 1923 pamphlet entitled Hindutva: Who is a Hindu? It forms the basis of the Hindu nationalist movement in India.
The Hindu nationalist movement, though primarily concentrated in India, has global presence and a section of the Indian diaspora living in the Europe and North America fund Hindutva groups in those countries, as well as in India.
- 1 What is Hindutva?
- 2 Hindutva in practice
- 3 Hindu nationalism
- 4 What do adherents of Hindutva notion say?
- 5 Manipulating public education
- 6 Pseudoscholarship
- 7 Hindu nationalist phraseology
- 8 Hindutva movement worldwide
- 9 External links
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
What is Hindutva?
Savarkar, the founder of the Hindutva notion, was an atheist[note 2] and admirer of Mussolini's Italian fascism and Hitler's Nazism.[note 3] As per Savarkar, who defined Hindutva as an ethnic and political identity, a Hindu is a person whose ancestors lived in the land he called "Akhand Bharat" (Greater India, which consists of India and several nation states in the Indian subcontinent) as well as the land in which their religion originated. Here religion means all religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, i.e. Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. He excluded all religions originated outside of India. Savarkar's concept of Hindutva was ethnic, of which religion was a part of. But another key figure in the Hindu nationalist movement, M. S. Golwalkar, reversed this relation. Golwalkar said, "with us culture is but a product of our all-comprehensive religion, a part of its body and not distinguishable from it." By "all-comprehensive religion", he meant Hinduism.
Many of Savarkar's views were contradictory. Savarkar tried to project himself as a progressive who rejects religious dogma by writing that the term Hindutva was not reserved for "believers of the dogmas and religious practices that go by the name Hinduism". On the other hand, as per the tradition in Hinduism, he emphasized the "protection" of cows, saying, "To protect and sustain the cow is our personal and familial duty. At least in the case of Hindusthan, it is also our national duty." Most modern Hindutva advocates involve dogmas and religious practices as an integral part of their ideology.
Hindutva is a far-right-wing ideology. The three essentials of Hindutva are common nation (rashtra), common race (jati) and common culture/civilisation (sanskriti). Lancaster University lecturer Amalendu Misra notes that for Savarkar, a common ancestry, a common history and a common religion form the basis for national identity. Thus, the essentials of Hindu identity, as per the notion of Hindutva, are the following:
- bond of common blood or blood purity, which was central to Nazi ideology,
- common civilization,
- common culture and
- common law and rites.
There are contradictory statements and views among people associated with the Hindu nationalist movement regarding the question of irreligion and atheism. Y. Sudershan Rao, who was appointed the head of the Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) after the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) formed government in 2014, tries to explain the meaning of "Hindu" arguing, "Hindu in ancient times was a name given to people who were living to the east of the Indus river up to Kanyakumari. Hindus were religious, nonreligious and irreligious. As a historian, I look at it that way." This argument includes irreligious people as Hindu, if Hindu is defined as an ethnic identity. On the other hand, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the largest Hindu nationalist organization in India, constructs the idea of an "ideal Hindu family". According to a leader of the organization, "We also want people to see to it that their households look like proper Hindu homes: a tulsi plant, images of Hindu gods, the gayatri mantra, etc. should ideally be physically there." This idea of an "ideal Hindu family" obviously excludes atheists, contradicting the view that irreligion comes within the Hindutva fold.
Hindutva in practice
Hindutva advocates are accused of practical violence like riots, forcibly converting non-Hindus to Hinduism, suppressing freedom of speech and freedom of expression by banning books, films and other cultural mediums which they don't like, and terrorizing people through mob violence. In general, Hindutva advocates reject the idea of freedom of choice. In India, an umbrella organization called the Sangh Parivar champions the concept of Hindutva. The Sangh comprises organizations such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Bajrang Dal, Vishwa Hindu Parishad and others.
Hindu nationalism is an ethno-religious nationalism that aims to make secular India a Hindu state (Hindu Rashtra).
Goals of Hindu nationalists are:
- To remove India's status as a secular country and make Hinduism the state religion of India.
- To make Hindi the national language of India.
Actions by Hindu nationalists
The Babri Mosque was a historic monument in India which was destroyed by Hindus due to a gripe regarding the location of a historical temple. Ayodhya is said to be the birthplace of the Hindu Avatar of Vishnu, Rama. It is further noted that Babur's commander-in-chief Mir Baki destroyed an existing Hindu temple at the site. The Babri Mosque was one of the largest mosques in the state Uttar Pradesh, where 31 million Muslims lived. The ensuing riots are known as the Ayodhya Riots.
In India's 2014 general election, the ruling Nehru-Gandhi dynasty leading the Congress Party lost its national legislative majority for the first time at the hands of the Hindu-centric, right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party. As a result of this change of power, the position of Prime Minister of India went to Narendra Modi, a militant Hindu nationalist previously implicated by Indian courts in enough religious violence that the United States had prohibited him from entering the country for quite a while. Later they welcomed him to the US and Obama visited him in India in 2015.
What do adherents of Hindutva notion say?
Forced sterilization of people on the grounds of their religion
Sadhvi Deva Thakur, vice-president of a Hindutva organization called Hindu Mahasabha, says that Muslims and Christians living in India should be forcibly sterilized, and for the purpose of doing this, the government should impose a state of emergency.
|—Sadhvi Deva Thakur|
She also urged Hindus to have more children to increase their population.
The Hindutva organization Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha (ABHM, translated into English as All India Hindu Assembly) wanted to impose a conservative dress code on school and college-going girls. Dharmapal Siwach, vice-president of the ABHM, also argued that the use of cell phones should be banned in the premises of educational organisations as he believed use of cell phones lead to "increasing obscenity". Siwach also believed that girls must wear dupatta, a kind of long scarf.
“”Vulgar clothes lead to incidents of rape. To curb increasing obscenity in society, a particular dress code should be introduced in schools and colleges. The attire should cover the body and not be indecent. Moreover girls should be banned from wearing tight jeans and tops.
|—Dharmapal Siwach of the ABHM|
“”We are not against girls wearing jeans but we are against girls wearing skimpy clothes.
|—Lalit Bhardwaj, spokesperson of ABHM|
“”The time has come when a Hindu woman must produce at least four children in order to protect Hindu religion.
|—Sakshi Maharaj, BJP MP|
After this remark, another BJP political said that Hindu women should have five children.
“”I want to tell my Hindu mothers and sisters that if they don’t have five children, there will be no equilibrium in India in future.
|—Shymal Goswami, BJP politician|
ABHM vice-president Dharmapal Siwach wanted to criminalize cohabitation.
“”Our culture is getting affected due to live-in- relationship (cohabitation) and hence a law prohibiting live-in-relationships should be enacted.
|—Dharmapal Siwach of the ABHM|
Manipulating public education
Hindutva writer Dinanath Batra, who runs an organization euphemistically named Shiksha Bachao Andolan (Save Education Movement)[note 4], believes religious education should be an integral part of school curriculum.
“”What we need in India is value-based education, education that will build character. We can’t do that without religion, so religious studies[note 5] must become a part of school curriculum.
Batra has written some school textbooks which are taught in the Indian state of Gujarat, where the Hindu nationalist BJP forms government. If one explores these in depth, what is written in his books are bound to give laugh as well as shock to any educated sane person. An example of blatant racism and horrible misinformation is given below:
“”Once Dr Radhakrishnan[note 6] went for a dinner. There was a Briton at the event who said, "We are very dear to God." Radhakrishnan laughed and told the gathering, "Friends, one day God felt like making rotis[note 7]. When he was cooking the rotis, the first one was cooked less and the English were born. The second one stayed longer on the fire and the Negroes were born. Alert after His first two mistakes, when God went on to cook the third roti, it came out just right and as a result Indians were born."
|—schoolbook written by Dinanath Batra|
The above passage endorses classification of people based on skin color. It claims that Indian people are "just right" while people with lighter or darker skin color are the result of something going wrong.
Another blatant example of racism from his book is where people with darker skin color are depicted as violent criminals:
“”The aircraft was flying thousands of feet high in the sky. A very strongly built negro reached the rear door and tried to open it. The air-hostesses tried to stop him but the strongly built negro pushed the soft-bodied hostesses to the floor and shouted, 'Nobody dare move a step ahead'. An Indian grabbed the negro and he could not escape. The pilot and the Indian together thrashed the negro and tied him up with a rope. Like a tied buffalo, he frantically tried to escape but could not. The plane landed safely in Chicago. The negro was a serious criminal in the Chicago records and this brave Indian was an employee of Air India.
|—schoolbook written by Dinanath Batra|
The Sangh Parivar and Hindutva advocates in general also indulge in a lot of pseudoscientific claims. For example, it is not uncommon to find Hindutva proponents claiming that the discoveries of modern science are actually re-discoveries of what had been found ages ago by the ancient Hindu saints. Also, they tend to justify things like Ayurveda using pseudoscientific blabber.
Vedic Science is a concept used by Hindutva advocates to denote to the scientific tradition of ancient India.[note 8] Astrologer Gayatri Devi Vasudev writing for The Organiser, a publication of the main Hindutva organization in India, RSS, claimed that the distinction of science and pseudoscience (or protoscience) is Eurocentric and inapplicable to Vedic Science:
“”Western scientific thought draws on the traditions of Greek rationalist thinking according to which only what is within the purview of the five senses is taken cognisance of. Scientific methods follow some kind of closed scientific reasoning which insulates itself against facts that its methods cannot account for. How else can they [scientists] dare dismiss Jyotisha (astrology) which sees a level of existence beyond the purview of the five senses?
“”The idea of 'contradiction' is an imported one from the West in recent times by the Western-educated, since 'Modern Science' arbitrarily imagines that it only has the true knowledge and its methods are the only methods to gain knowledge, smacking of Semitic dogmatism in religion.
Pseudohistory and pseudoarcheology
In 2014, after the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power, it appointed Y. Sudershan Rao, a history professor associated with a RSS-affiliated organization, as the head of the Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR). Rao believes that material evidence is not necessary to write the history of India. He said,
“”Western schools of thought look at material evidence of history. We can’t produce material evidence for everything. India is a continuing civilisation. To look for evidence would mean digging right though the hearts of villages and displacing people. We only have to look at the people to figure out the similarities in their lives and the depiction in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. For instance, the Ramayana mentions that Rama had travelled to Bhadrachalam (in Andhra Pradesh). A look at the people and the fact that his having lived there for a while is in the collective memory of the people cannot be discounted in the search for material evidence. In continuing civilisations such as ours, the writing of history cannot depend only on archaeological evidence. We have to depend on folklore too.
|—Y. Sudershan Rao, head of the Indian Council of Historical Researh|
His statement is full of fallacies and other nonsense which is refuted below.
|Rao's argument||RationalWiki responds|
|Western schools of thought look at material evidence of history.||Historians actually use a method called oral history to record non-material evidence. It deals with collective memory and individual construction of history, so Rao is straw manning here. The difference between oral history and Rao's "method" (if you can call it that) is that the former has a critical approach, whereas Rao simply takes folklore at face value. Rao also sets up a false East/West dilemma, a technique used by fundamentalists in Asia to attack the supposed Euro- and Americentric scientism of "Western" academia and replace it with their preferred brand of pseudoscience.|
|We can’t produce material evidence for everything. India is a continuing civilisation.||See my hands waving!. Sorry Rao, as Christopher Hitchens so pithily put it: "What can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence." Rao also forgets to explain what "a continuing civilisation" is and why it means we should ditch normal criteria for conducting historical enquiries. Rao seems to be taking a page from the book of paranormal woo peddlers who make all kinds of excuses for why their branch of woo doesn't work when subjected to controlled experiments. Try imagining a Dane, making this same argument and insisting that the tales of Thor and the Jörmungandr has to be taken as fact(oids), because Denmark is part of "a continuing Norse civilisation". Try again.|
|To look for evidence would mean digging right though the hearts of villages and displacing people.||Argument from adverse consequences. It's also a red herring or possibly an escape hatch bordering on an emotional appeal ("Oh, the poor farmers!" - as if anyone suggests that it's necessary to move in with bulldozers and demolition crews and raze the houses of villagers. Contrast with how we've acquired knowledge of other ancient, but still inhabited, sites, such as Rome, Jerusalem, Jericho or Istanbul).|
|We only have to look at the people to figure out the similarities in their lives and the depiction in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.||If this seems familiar, it's because it's a Hindu version of the old biblical literalist nugget of "these events were real, hence the entire Bible must be correct!" Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, Rao. Rao is also begging the question, because he use the fact that folklore match written epics which were originally oral epic as evidence that the written version is correct. This is patently absurd because it amounts to using the correspondence between the depiction of Spider-Man in the movies and in the comics as "evidence" that Spider-Man must be real and that the movies are essentially documentaries. It's what we call circular evidence.|
|For instance, the Ramayana mentions that Rama had travelled to Bhadrachalam (in Andhra Pradesh). A look at the people and the fact that his having lived there for a while is in the collective memory of the people cannot be discounted in the search for material evidence.||Here Rao combines the appeal to tradition with an argumentum ad populum. Why would the fact that countless people have believed something for a long time mean it's real? Loads of people believed in the pantheon of the Greco-Roman or ancient Egyptian religions, but practically no one do so now. Why should we accept Rao's myths?|
|In continuing civilisations such as ours, the writing of history cannot depend only on archaeological evidence. We have to depend on folklore too.||And so we return to the hand waving, ad hoc'ing and argument by assertion. Yeah, Rao, keep repeating it and it will magically become a good argument...|
Revisionism of science and technology
Y. Sudershan Rao claimed that Indians used to fly aircraft, conducting stem cell research and using cosmic weapons 5000 years ago and believes that the Indian epics the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, which were written two millennia ago, are not fiction, but essentially history books.[note 9] He argues humans did not develop the art of fiction writing until a few centuries ago, hence, the events and things described in these epics must be real.
“”We all read about Karna in the Mahabharata. If we think a little more, we realise that the Mahabharata says Karna was not born from his mother’s womb. This means that genetic science was present at that time. That is why Karna could be born outside his mother’s womb.
In the textbook Tejomay Bharat written by Hindutva writer Dinanath Batra which is taught in schools in the Indian state of Gujarat, it is claimed that television was invented in the age of Mahabharata ca. two millennia ago:
Dinanath Batra's textbook also claims that cars are an example of something first invented in ancient India:
Hindu nationalist phraseology
- Family values: The Hindu nationalist community use the code word "family values" to oppose sexual relations between people who are not bound by heterosexual marriage. It is used somewhat in the same sense Christian conservatives use it in the US.
- Indian culture is another code word used by Hindu nationalist groups this one to describe anything that suits their agenda; anything they don't like becomes something that is "against Indian culture".
- Marxist is used as a snarl word by Hindu nationalists to refer to criticism of their agenda, similar to how American wingnuts whine about "Cultural Marxism". While there are real Marxist academics, being a Marxist does not necessarily diminish the validity of their criticism, Hindu nationalists usually dismiss any criticism of their agenda as "Marxist". This way Hindu nationalists try to discredit one of the most brilliant historians of ancient India, Romila Thapar, as a "Marxist", which in reality she is not. In 2003, Thapar was appointed to the Library of Congress's Kluge Chair in 2003. Her appointed faced hostility from Hindutva fundies, who, in an online petition, described her as a "Marxist and anti-Hindu", but the Library of Congress ignored those fundies and, as philosopher Martha Nussbaum put it, treated the petition with "the indifference that it deserved".
- Sickular is a word used to describe seculars. Here, Hindu nationalists are being less civil and don't hide their hostility towards secularism.
Hindutva movement worldwide
The Hindutva movement is not an Indian-only phenomenon. It is present worldwide, in Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and many other countries. A number of organizations, mostly in the form of non-profits, constitute the movement and a section of the Hindu Indian diaspora in different countries support these organizations. An average supporter of an Hindutva organization may not adhere to the extremist beliefs of these organizations, but they join or support these organizations out of a perceived sense of alienation in a country where Hindus constitute a religious minority.
In the United States, Hindu nationalists take the benefit of the liberal secular atmosphere of the pluralist American society and draw on multiculturalist discourse for their presence, at the same time they fund cultural and political organizations in India that spread hatred and commit acts of violence against India's religious minorities. In Australia, Hindu nationalist organizations legitimise their activities through the rhetoric of liberal multiculturalism. At the same time, just like the American Hindutva organizations, they promote hatred against religious minorities in India.
Exposing Hindu nationalists
- Hindu nationalists are gaining power in India - and silencing enemies along the way, The Independent
- Hindu nationalists flex muscles in Narendra Modi’s India, Financial Times
- The Triumph of the Hindu Right Foreign Affairs
Hindu nationalist propaganda in education
- Delete and control - the Parivar's mantra, article about manipulation of school textbooks
- The Hindutva Movement and Reinventing of History – by Nobel Laureate Dr. Amartya Sen, Friends of South Asia
- The Hindutva View of History, Rewriting Textbooks in India and the United States
- The Politics of Hindutva and the NCERT Textbooks, Atishi Marlena
Hindu nationalist pseudoscholarship
- Peddler of myths, article examining manipulation of History
- Postmodernism, Hindu nationalism and `Vedic science'
Hindu nationalism in Europe and North America
- The foreign hand, article shows how Hindutva groups collect dollars in America and then send it back to extremist organizations in India
- In god's name, article explaining how the Vishwa Hindu Parishad of America grew
- The Parivar in America, an article about Hindu nationalist activities in the US
- Trans-atlantic thrust, another article about their activities in North America
- London art gallery closes M.F. Husain exhibition after paintings vandalised, Hindu nationalist suppression of freedom of expression in the UK
- Western Hindutva: Hindu nationalism in the United Kingdom and North America
- Hindu Nationalism in the United States, a report examining Hindutva groups in the US
- Speak Out Against the Hindutva Assault on California's History Textbooks, Friends of South Asia
- Hindutva Abroad, The California Textbook Controversy, Purnima Bose
- National mysticism
- Nationalist pseudohistory
- Nationalism in history textbooks
- 969 Movement
- Christian Identity
- Hindutva or Hindu-tva, Sanskrit -tva, neuter abstract suffix, So in English it is Hindu-ness.
- His atheism is not incompatible with Hinduism, see Atheism in Hinduism
- Savarkar said this about Nazism and fascism, "Surely Hitler knows better than Pandit Nehru (refers to Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India) does what suits Germany best. The very fact that Germany or Italy has so wonderfully recovered and grown so powerful as never before at the touch of Nazi or Fascist magical wand is enough to prove that those political ‘isms’ were the most congenial tonics their health demanded." 
- Shiksha (Hindi) means education, Bachao (Hindi) means save, Andolan (Hindi) means movement.
- By using the term "religious studies", he does not refer to the secular academic discipline religious studies which analyzes religion from a non-religious point of view. He refers to theology when he uses the term.
- Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the first vice-president of India.
- Flat bread made from wholemeal flour and consumed in the Indian subcontinent.
- Quite similar to the Hare Krishnas use of the term "Vedic creationism" to give their brand of creationism some ancient Indian patina.
- Similar to how some people read the Bible.
- Aanashva is a name of a kind of rath, rath is a Hindi word which means chariot.
- Yantra is a Hindi word which means machine, hence yeantra-rath means a machine chariot.
- Nandy, Ashis (2003). Time Warps: The Insistent Politics of Silent and Evasive Pasts. Delhi: Orient Longman. p.71. ISBN 9788178240718. OCLC 49616949.
- Kumar, Pramod (1992). Towards Understanding Communalism. Chandigarh: Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development. p.348. ISBN 9788185835174. OCLC 27810012.
- Vasant Kaiwar, Sucheta Mazumdar, Antinomies of Modernity: Essays on Race, Orient, Nation, p.47-48
- ^ Sushil Mittal (2008). Studying Hinduism: key concepts and methods. Routledge. pp.272–. ISBN 978-0-415-30126-8. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- Cow-protection and cow-worship
- Les Back and John Solomos (2000), Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader, p.591, ISBN 9780415156714. "It is important to note the marriage between far-right-wing Hindutva ideology and western New Ageism in the works of writers like David Frawley (1994, 1995a, 1995b) who is both a key apologist for the Hindutva movement and the author of various New Age books on Vedic astrology, oracles and yoga."
- Sharma, Arvind (2002). "On Hindu, Hindustan, Hinduism and Hindutva". Numen 49 (1). JSTOR 3270470.
- Amalendu Misra, Identity and Religion: Foundations of Anti-Islamism in India, p.159-160
- "Savarkar, the proponent of Hindu blood as a unifying factor of cohesion, admiringly cited the example of the Nazis with respect to the theory of purity of blood making for a strong nation of one people." I. K. Shukla, Hindutva: An Autopsy of Fascism as a Theoterrorist Cult and Other Essays, p. 64
- Ramayan, Mahabharat historical sources, West dubs them myth: Y Sudershan Rao Economic Times
- RSS focuses on Hindu family values to unify community Hindustan Times
- Jesuit Joseph Tieffenthaler wrote in 1768: "Emperor Aurangzeb demolished the fortress called Ramcot, and erected on the same place a Mohammedan temple with three cupolas. Others believe that it was constructed by Babor." (Quoted by R.S. Sharma et al.: Historians Report, p.19)
- Muslims, Christians should be forcibly sterilised: Sadhvi Deva Thakur, India Today
- Hindu Mahasabha Leader Sadhvi Deva Thakur Says Muslims, Christians Should Be Forcibly Sterilised, Huffington Post India
- Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha warns girls: ‘Vulgar clothes lead to rape'; wants ban on jeans, cell phones Financial Express
- Never demanded ban on jeans but half-jeans, claims Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha DNA
- Every Hindu woman must produce at least 4 kids: Sakshi Maharaj Times of India
- India MP Sakshi Maharaj: Hindus must have more babies BBC
- After Sakshi Maharaj’s ‘4 kids’ remark, a BJP leader now asks Hindu women to bear five children Indian Express
- India’s new school textbooks favor Hindu nationalist themes, making minorities uneasy Washington Post
- What the government of Gujarat is encouraging children to read is dismaying Quartz
- Top Indian educationalist accused of racism over portrayal of criminal 'negroes' The Telegraph
- Vasudev, Gayatri Devi. 2001. Vedic astrology and pseudo-scientific criticism, The Organiser (an English-language publication of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh), reprinted in The Astrological Magazine, cited after Sokal (2006:38)
- Mukhyananda, Swami. 1997. Vedanta in the Context of Modern Science: A (Comparative Study. Mumbai [Bombay]: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
- Ancient India had aeroplanes, nuclear weapons, says chief of India's premier history body India Today
- ‘Ramayana, Mahabharata Are True Accounts Of The Period...Not Myths’ Outlook
- The Tajmahal is Tejomahalay
- Fears grow in India about Hindu 'Modi-fication' of education, Reuters
- Plastic surgery to IVF: Things BJP says hum Indiawaale had before the world did Firstpost
- Science lesson from Gujarat: Stem cells in Mahabharata, cars in Veda Indian Express
- Hating Romila Thapar Himal Southasian
- [http://www.rediff.com/us/2003/apr/25us1.htm Romila Thapar's appointment to Library of Congress opposed] Rediff
- Nussbaum, Martha Craven (2008). The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future. Harvard University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-674-03059-6.
- 'Mota maal' to 'Sickular': 10 ridiculously viral terms that drive Indian social media CNN IBN
- Hindutva Bigotry in America
- Kamat, Sangeetha and Biju Matthews (2003), 'Mapping political violence in a globalized world: The case of Hindu nationalism', Social Justice, 30:3, pp. 4–16.
- Goldie Osuri (2011), 'Transnational Bio/Necropolitics: Hindutva and its Avatars (Australia/India)', Somatechnics. Volume 1, Issue 1, Page 138-160
|Articles on RationalWiki about Hindu nationalism|
|Bharatiya Janata Party - David Frawley - Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh - Hindu University of America - Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh - Sanskrit - Vishwa Hindu Parishad of America|