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The term Judeo-Christian is a term to refer to the aspects of a culture, including an assumed direct connection and shared history, that reflect that culture's roots within the Christian and Jewish world. In a historical or academic context, it would refer to anything that rises from ancient Christianity or Judaism, however in the real world, the "Judeo" generally only refers to Judaism in so far as the Old Testament is "from" Judaism. It does not refer to actual practices, beliefs, and worldviews of the Jewish people.
Originally, the term was used simply to refer to Jewish converts to Christianity. It didn't come into use in its modern sense until some time during the interwar period (WWI-WWII) in the US. Growing anti-Semitic sentiment led theologically liberal Christians and Jews to promote the notion of a common "Judeo-Christian" heritage as a reaction. It wasn't until the post-war era that conservative and fundamentalist Christians would lay claim to Judeo-Christian values (but remain uninterested in the inclusion of liberal Christians, liberal Jews, and non-Republican Palestinian Christians).
After 9/11, when conservatives highlight "the Judeo-Christian roots" of the United States there is an unspoken subtext of excluding Muslims. Of course, Jews and Catholics are still trying to figure out why 9/11 changed everything.
 See Also
- What Do We Mean By 'Judeo-Christian'? Shalom Goldman, Religion Dispatches