Pantheism is the religious belief that God is not merely omnipresent, but that God is the universe.
Proponents of pantheism may point to the fact that, if you define God as something that could create the universe, and create life and nurture it, then you do not need to leave the natural realm to find something that fits the description perfectly; the universe itself does so.
What pantheism means is often open to interpretation, but many versions call on God as the consciousness of all that is. A literal interpretation doesn't stray very far from conventional theology; indeed it builds upon the established God figure present in the Abrahamic religions. In this idea, a person's own individual consciousness is merely a part of the greater whole, the whole that is God himself, who may still possess personable characteristics and may still interefere with life, such as with miracles. St. Paul flirted with this idea of God when St. Luke recorded him saying (in Acts 17:28) "For in him we live, and move, and have our being...".
Pantheism has had a great deal of influence on neopaganism, even if most neopagans couldn't name a single pantheist.
Quite a few cosmologists and physicists generally lean towards the concept of pantheism, such as Stephen Hawking (we presume, as the cheeky git doesn't really clarify), Carl Sagan, and Albert Einstein (unlike Hawking, his quotes and writing are quite explicit that he does not "believe in a personal god", while he also made clear he wasn't a straight-up atheist). In the metaphorical belief, pantheism is taken as meaning that the universe itself fits the description of what God should be perfectly, so rather than inventing a character, it is best to refer to the universe as God. This belief distances itself from the dogmatic world of organised religion, but allows pantheists to play with the colourful language of spirituality, using God in a metaphorical or poetic sense to give the universe and the natural laws far more gravitas. Baruch Spinoza refined the idea of pantheism in the late 1600's, and some later pantheists, such as Einstein, would credit Spinoza as being influential in the forming of their worldview. In this sense, pantheism is synonymous with the term "Spinoza's God".
 Quote mining
Unfortunately, since many respected scientists call this universe "God" in a pantheistic sense, they have been the target of creationist or fundamentalist quote mining. In particular, this is for use in appeals to authority, whereby the pantheistic God they refer to is conflated with the Abrahamic God of the Bible. In reality, the pantheistic "God" usually has little to do with the Bible or any specific religion, even if the belief is that the pantheistic God is also personable, such as what is hinted at in Hawking's writings. This quote mining is especially true of Einstein due to his almost universal respect, and sometimes Hawking and his famous closing line of A Brief History of Time - "for then we should know the mind of God".
 See also
- Pantheism.net - towards a "naturalistic spirituality"