| It doesn't stop|
at the water's edge
A political party is an organization dedicated to gaining political power for both the party and its members.
A typical political party will endorse a "platform," which represents their stands on various issues of the day. Depending on the party, and the issue, adherence to every point of these platforms is not necessarily required. Often what is more important in governing situations among larger parties is what is called "party discipline," where members are expected to vote a certain way on certain bills, however close or distant the issue at hand is to the actual platform.
So-called "catchall" parties will usually have very long, intricate, and watered-down platforms that reflect their large base of member voters. Smaller parties, which often form in reaction to a single issue or small group of issues being neglected (in their opinion) on the political stage, will often have short, concise platforms.
 Party systems
National party systems differ considerably in the number and relative strength of their parties. This is mostly due to two factors: the severity of social fault lines ("cleavages") in a society, be they ethnic, economic or religious; and the voting system a country employs. Highly pluralistic societies and proportional voting systems tend to increase the number of parties, while uniform societies with majoritarian elections usually have fewer of them. At the most basic level, the party systems are classified as one-, two- or multiparty systems. A one-party-system doesn't necessarily mean that the state in question is authoritarian and doesn't allow competition — maybe one party is just so awesome that nobody else wants to vote for another (the Swedish Social Democrats used to dominate the system in this manner, for example). Two-party systems tend to be most closely associated with majoritarian first-past-the-post election systems, as in the United States. Sometimes, these systems do allow other parties to rise, like the British Liberal Democrats, but the aftermath of the 2010 election was the first occasion on which their existence had an actual impact on government formation. Finally, multiparty systems with many smaller parties tend to occur in countries with many deep social divisions (Belgium) or very low entry hurdles (Israel). Studying and comparing party systems is a major branch of political science, and there is a multitude of studies that explore these relationships in more detail.
 Party systems around the world
- PT - Workers Party (Center-left, social democratic, social liberal, populist)
- PSDB - Social Democrat Party of Brazil (Center-right, social liberal)
- PMDB - Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Center-left to center-right)
- PDT - Democratic Labor Party (Center-left, populist)
- PV - Green Party (Center-left, Environmentalist)
- Democratas - "Democrats" (Center-right, ironic)
- PP - Progressive Party (Right-wing, also ironic)
- PSC - Social Christian Party (Centrism, Christian democracy)
- PR - Party of the Republic (Center-right, Populism, Conservatism)
- PTB - Brazilian Labor Party (Center-right, Brazilian nationalist and populist, more irony)
- PSOL - Socialism and Freedom Party (Left-wing to far-left)
- PCdoB - Communist Party of Brazil (Left- to far-left, Communism, Marxism-Leninism)
- PSB - Socialist Party of Brazil (Left, Social-democracy, Democratic Socialism)
- PCO - Workers' Cause Party (Far-left, Trotskyism)
- PCB - Brazilian Communist Party (Yeah, another one, Far-left, Marxism–Leninism)
- PHS - Humanist Party of Solidarity (Distributism, Christian Democracy, Monarchism)
- Main article: Political parties of Canada
The parties having seats in Parliament:
- Liberal Party (centrist, seems to have resigned itself to the Conservatives' austerity. Often derided (or applauded) for their strategy of pursuing (or stealing) the most popular ideas in the country at the time to stay in power. To be fair, it worked for 80 of the first 110 years of Canada's existence, so there you go.)
- Conservative Party (Center-right to right-wing) Conservatism in Canada has, like its counterpart in the United States, shifted further to the right in recent years, and rather strangely. The Tories were once known as the Progressive Conservative Party, which was centrist by today's standards and even pragmatic enough to win votes from the most hardline Dipper. The Social Credit Party once occupied the space further to the right; with the collapse of the SoCreds during the 1980s, the Reform Party of Canada (1987-2000) emerged with a social conservative platform and its base of support in the Western provinces, replaced by the Canadian Alliance (2000-2003). The Progressive Conservatives and the Canadian Alliance merged in 2003 to become the Conservative Party of Canada, who - at their very best - are like the worst of the Blue Dog Democrats circa 1996 (with the crime bill and welfare reform admiration). Thanks to Harper, who helped spearhead the merger, attempts at social conservatism (tried to ban abortion), transparent xenophobia regarding Muslims (the "burqa ban" nonsense in 2015), an anti-science agenda, and a hard-on for warmongering (tried to merge the Canadian and American militaries together) were all adopted by the Tories. Harper is the most viciously and fervently right wing Prime Minister in their history, but if you put him in America, he'd be the "moderate" (which is a commentary more on America than on Canada).
- Bloc Québécois (Center-left to left-wing, Separatist, nationalistic)
- New Democratic Party (Center-left to left-wing)
- Green Party (Center-left, environmentalist)
- Independent Democratic Union (Far-right, neoliberalism, nearly integrists)
- National Renewal (Center-right, classical liberalism)
- Amplitude (Center, classical liberalism)
- Christian Democratic Party (Centrist, mostly socially conservative)
- Socialist Party (Center-left, social democratic, socialist in-name-only)
- Party for Democracy (Same as above)
- Social Democrat Radical Party (Same as above)
- Communist Party (Ehh... Commies)
- PAN - Nacional Action Party (Center- right, right wing)
- PRI - Institutional Revolutionary Party (Center)
- PRD - Party of the Democratic Revolution (Center- left, left wing)
- PVEM - Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (Center- right)
- PT - Labor Party (Left wing)
- MORENA - National Regeneration Movement (Left wing)
 United States
The United States has a two party system, with these two parties:
- Democratic Party (Center to center-right)
- Republican Party (Right-wing to far-right, supposedly a mainstream party but embraces the agenda of UKIP and Alternative for Germany)
In addition, some of these parties have won seats at very local levels, but never at a national level. Some Senators and Representatives, however, do have views that fall in line with some of these.
- Green Party (Center-left, environmentalist, tend to peddle woo)
- Libertarian Party (Libertarian, duh)
- Reform Party (Center-right with a side of nuts)
- Modern Whig Party (Center-right)
- Justice Party (Social democratic. center-left)
- Constitution Party (Paleoconservative, far-right)
- National Socialist Movement Party (Batshit insane racists, far-right)
- Communist Party USA (What it says on the tin, far-left)
- Socialist Party (A number of variations are scattered about, and not all agree with each other, center-left to far-left)
- Peace and Freedom Party (Self-described as "committed to socialism, democracy, ecology, feminism and racial equality", center-left to left-wing)
- Working Families Party (Social democratic, progressive, populist. Center-left.)
- Prohibition Party (Founded in 1869, it's the oldest minor party in the USA, and notorious for finishing in last place in every Presidential election. Right-wing to Far-right.)
(major parties in bold)
- Liberal Party of Australia (center-right to right-wing, conservative) Australian conservatives are, ironically, represented by the Liberal Party of Australia, so named because it was first formed on a platform of economic liberalism (although they are center-right by global standards). They stand for traditional values, and all the other stuff that US conservatives stand for (except gun control, and quite a lot of their members are pro-choice). They generally support some government intervention in the economy, particularly in health care and education, but aren't socialist by any means (they especially don't like the unions). The former leader of the Liberal Party, Tony Abbott, is a devout practicing Catholic and a cold opponent to abortion. For some reason, the Religious Right doesn't have much of a voice in Australian politics, but clearly it does exist. The fundies are represented by the Christian Democratic Party, the Family First Party (which has no representation on the federal level). Though, the current leader of the Liberal Party, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, is actually a borderline liberal (he is from the smaller, moderate faction of the party). The Liberals are in a perpetual "coalition" with the National party. Realigned themselves to the center (and even to the right) since Bob Hawke and Paul Keating in the 1980s, who balanced social spending for pensions, social wages, family benefits, retirement funds, education, and healthcare, with deregulation of the financial sector, dismantling of the tariff system, public sector privatization, and mandatory detention for asylum seekers. Add in a decade of conservative rule by John Howard, and you're right at where we are now, where every Labor leader (from Rudd to Gillard and Shorten) parades policies virtually indistinguishable from Tony Abbott and Malcolm Turnbull.)
- Australian Labor Party (Center-left to center-right, USDemocratic Party Style big tent party) now represents "labor in name only" considering it is dominated by conservatives
- The Greens (Left-wing, environmentalist)
- The Democrats (Liberal, centrist, sometimes center-left; de facto merged into the Greens)
- National Party of Australia (Conservative, Agrarian)
- Christian Democrat Party (The Fred Nile Group) (Christian, Conservative)
- One Nation (Far-right)
- Socialist Alliance (Far-left, Communist)
- Help End Marijuana Prohibition (HEMP) (Stoned)
 New Zealand
- Labour (Center-Left in name only. This is the party that introduced privatization and neoliberalism to New Zealand in the 1980s)
- National (Center-Right)
- Greens (Center-left to Far-Left)
- Progressives (Left)
- United Future an exclusively centrist party.
- ACT (Classical liberalism, law-and-order conservatism, Far-Right)
- New Zealand First (Centrist  anti-immigration)
- Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party (Left and Right)
- Maori Party (Maori Rights)
- The New Zealand National Party won the 2008 elections and are traditionally considered to be a right leaning party, however their policies would be considered more liberal than Barack Obama's. While there is economic conservatism, social conservatism is almost unheard of, until the shit hits the fan.
 Europe - or something like that
- National Coalition Party (Right-wing)
- Social Democratic Party of Finland (Social democratic)
- Center Party (Centrist, agrarian)
- True Finns (Populist, euroskeptic, social conservative, not racistDo You Believe That? but number one with racists)
- Green League (Environmentalist, social liberal, also either right-wing or Stalinist, depending on who you ask)
- Left Alliance (Left-wing)
- Christian Democrats of Finland (Social conservative, centrist)
- Swedish People's Party of Finland (Swedish speaking minority, technically center-right but also so flexible that they fit in almost any coalition government)
- Democratic Movement (MoDem) (centrist. Reasonable success.)
- Green Party (left-wing, environmentalist)
- Union des Démocrates et Indépendants (center-right, allied with the UMP)
- Socialist Party (PS) (in practice, center-left and social democratic at the very best, the current president being social liberal. Francois Mitterand, the president, is part of the liberal centrist wing of the party.)
- Les Républicains(LR) (conservative, from center-right to positions close to the FN's)
- National Front (FN) (Racist, ultra-conservative, Islamophobic. Now the third largest party.)
- Left-wing Front (left-wing (or far-left for american standards),includes the Communist Party)
- New Anticapitalist Party (far left)
- Pirate Party (minor - but very popular with poor 20 and 30 somethings who need to download stuff).
- Christian Democratic Union (centrist, has chancellery)
- Christian Social Union (center-right, in union with the CDU only exists in Bavaria)
- Free Democratic Party (FDP) (libertarian, classical liberalism, neoliberalism)
- Green Party (centrist, environmentalist)
- Social Democrats (centrist - or not... or still... we will wait for their decision.)
- The Left (right-wing. Just kidding, it's what the label says.)
Since the two biggest parties have both moved to the center over the last decade, the space there is getting rather crowded, and people find it increasingly hard to figure out the differences. On the plus side, ideological differences have mostly vanished, and policies are rather stable across administrations. On the negative side, ideological differences have mostly vanished, and policies are rather stable across administrations.
Parties with at least one seat in the Dutch House of Representatives:
- People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD); historically a centre-right party, recently increasing more right-wing in in most economic and social policies.
- Johan Houwers; independent split from the VVD in 2015 after being convicted for fraud and didn't want to give up his seat.
- Labour party (PvDA); centre-left worker's party.
- Group Kuzu/Öztürk, also known as Denk; formed after 2 members split from the PvDA in late 2014 over disagreements on immigration policy.
- Party for Freedom (PVV); Geert Wilders's populist party which rarely pass up an opportunity to be wrong.
- Roland van Vliet; independent split from PVV earlier 2014 after Wilders proved just a tad too racist for his liking.
- Groep Bontes/Van Klaveren aka. VoorNederland; new party formed after 2 MPs split from PVV early 2014 for no apparent reason.
- Socialist Party (SP); socialist with populist tendencies.
- Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA); probably the most centrist party.
- Democrats '66 (D66); progressive centrist party.
- ChristianUnion (CU); social Christians, focused on bringing the compassionate and humanist side of the Bible into practice. Mostly centre-left, but more conservative on some religious issues.
- GreenLeft (GL); left party with focus on environmental issues.
- Reformed Political Party (SGP); fundamentalist Christian party.
- Party for the Animals (PvdD); left party with focus on environmental issues, animal rights.
- 50Plus; mostly centre-right with a focus on the elderly.
- Norbert Klein; independent split from 50Plus in 2014 after a power struggle in the party.
Most of these parties are also represented in the Dutch senate; which also has the "independent senate party" (OSF). Since few people care about the senate, no one really knows who they are or what they stand for.
These parties are represented in the Norwegian parliament.
- The Labor Party (Arbeiderpartiet): The social democrats, which has dominated Norwegian politics since 1935.
- The "Progress" Party (Fremskrittspartiet): The right-wing populists, who think Norway would be better off with fewer taxes and immigrants. Some argue the name is misleading. Currently in power.
- The Conservative Party (Høyre): The liberal-conservative party. Likes to pull the brakes. Currently in power.
- The Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti): The socialist opposition party, which used to criticize the Labor Party from the left. Being in its first government (a coalition with the Labors) tore the party down, and it is now struggling to survive.
- The Centre Party (Senterpartiet): A centrist agrarian party with strong isolationist and traditionalist inclinations. Formerly called Bondepartiet ("Farmer's Party"). Strongly opposes membership in the European Union. Popular on the countryside.
- The Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti): The morally conservative party, which is skeptical to homosexuality and other ungodly things.
- The Liberal Party (Venstre): A social liberal party which used to be the biggest party of the left (until the interwar years), but now is more of a center-right shadow of its former self, notable as one of two parties opposing increased surveillance and supporting people's right to download music without being sued.
- The Green Party (Miljøpartiet de Grønne): Currently the most radical party represented in the Parliament. Used to be in the fringe of Norwegian politics, but is now a growing political force. Notable as the only party which declares no affiliation to the historic right/left-wing blocks of politics. Popular in the largest cities.
- Civic Platform (center-right, in power until 2015)
- Law and Justice (hard right, Christian democratic with heavily conservative social stance, their former MP is currently the president of Poland and the party is in power)
- Polish People's Party (agrarian, conservative, often regarded as populist due to a tendency of switching alliances, currently in coalition government with Civic Platform)
- Alliance of Democratic Left (center-left, successor to the United Workers Party of Poland - the former ruling party during communism era - and mostly consists of their former members)
- Your Movement, formerly Palikot's Movement (social-liberal, heavy focus on social issues like LGBT rights, relaxing drug laws and separating the state from the church; former member Anna Grodzka was Poland's first transgender MP)
- Coalition for Restoration of Rzeczpospolita Freedom and Hope (as ridiculous as their name, conservative-liberal, the current party of European Parliament favorite comedian, the Polish Nigel Farage, Janusz Korwin-Mikke after he got kicked out yet again)
- National Movement (
NazNationalist, conservative and populist, the heads behind Independence March - an annual road debricking, rainbow-burning celebration in Warsaw)
- Kukiz' Party (They don't really have name or a party platform, yet are somehow popular thanks to their vocal leader, musician Paweł Kukiz)
 Republic of Ireland
- Fine Gael (center-right)
- Labour Party (center to center left, practically in the pocket of FG)
- Fianna Fáil (big tent party - currently the third largest party, although between 1932 to 2011 was always the largest party in the Dáil. Suffered a massive defeat in 2011, losing 57 seats due to massive economic mismanagement and corruption)
- Sinn Féin (centre left to left wing. Pretty long and chequered history. Formerly the political wing of the PIRA. Currently led by Irelands most polarizing beard, Gerry Adams)
- Green Party (centrist, environmentalist)
- Socialist Party/Anti-Austerity Alliance (AAA) (far left Trotskyists, expelled from the Labour Party in 1991.)
- Socialist Workers/People Before Profit Alliance (PPA) (far left Hippie Trotskyists based in Kingstown)
- Independents (tend to have socialist leanings)
- Direct Democracy Ireland (right-wing, freeman on the land nutjobs.)
 Russian Federation
Note: almost every one of these lies as to its location on the political spectrum, and all these parties are loyal to Putin
- United Russia - Claims to be the centrist party, actually populist. Putin and Medvedev are members of this one. Actually Putin is the Chairman. Largest party.
- Communist Party of the Russian Federation - Yep. They are still around. Some members openly revere Stalin. 2nd largest party.
- A Just Russia - Claims to be a social democratic party, which comes from the fact that the Socialist and Green Parties merged into it. Nevertheless, sometimes proposes quite authoritarian laws. 3rd largest party.
- Liberal Democratic Party of Russia - Not really liberal or democratic, actually expressing right-wing nationalist positions on the majority of issues. Currently the smallest party in the federal parliament.
- Yabloko - The closest to a liberal party and the only major party that challenges Putin on his foreign policy. Has no seats in the federal parliament, but some regional parliaments have MPs from the party.
- Swedish Social Democratic Party (Social democratic)
- Moderate Party (Liberal conservatives. What a paradox.)
- Green Party (Environmentalist)
- Liberal People's Party (A right-leaning but socially liberal party for the farmers and workers.)
- Center Party (A center-left party with a semi-environmentalist agenda.)
- Sweden Democrats (Nationalist conservatives.)
- Pirate Party (Let's go torrent!)
- Christian Democrats (Socially conservative)
- Left Party (Like their name. They are feminists and activists. They advocate socialism, as if Sweden isn't socialist already.)
As Swiss parties are in a perpetual coalition on the federal level political differences tend to mostly manifest themselves when it comes to referenda which are quite common in Switzerland.
- Swiss People's Party (nationalist, radical right)
- Social Democratic Party (center-left)
- Christian Democratic People's Party (center-right)
- Free Democratic Party (libertarian)
- The Greens (center-left, environmentalist)
- The Green Liberals (a strange eco-libertarian blend)
- Conservative Democratic Party (centre-right, like British Tories)
 United Kingdom
- Labour Party (Since Tony Blair, Classically liberal, slightly center/conservative; seems to be back on track as a left-wing party under Jeremy Corbyn, unless they throw him out of course)
- Conservative Party (Wishes it was conservative, but under David Cameron and Theresa May they are practically moderates with dashes of fiscal conservatism, but with outlying socially conservative factions.) The UK Conservative Party (often going by its old political nickname of the Tory Party) would, in all irony, be defined as liberal by US conservatives. This is because in UK politics there is less of an extreme divide between the left and the right - it could be said that all parties are essentially battling for a middle ground, with only a slight hint of left/right political alignment, mostly inserted due to party tradition. While in the last decade the Tories have struggled with presenting a united front and have been through various leaders, it recently elected David Cameron as leader. In 2010 they formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats. As a sign of evil liberal infection within the party, it supports publicly funded healthcare (the NHS) and has many Muslim members - a Muslim stood for a seat in Parliament representing the Conservative Party in a recent election (he lost... for some reason). They also seem to be okay with abortion and civil partnerships for gay couples and aren't too hot on compulsory religious indoctrination either, and Cameron was able to pull off full gay marriage rights in England and Wales under the coalition, at the dismay of most of his party. However, their fiscal policies are still within the realms of conservatism. Much of the 2010 UK election was fought over what to do with the economy to pull it out of the recession; characteristically, the Conservative Party favoured immediate spending cuts to cut the country's budget deficit while the more left-wing Labour Party preferred to hold off any cuts until later and pay for it with a tax rise.
- Liberal Democrats (Center or liberal if you're a yank. Historically have been both market-friendly and supportive of more democratic systems of voting (so they can win more). Nick Clegg put them somewhere between Ed Miliband's Labour Party and David Cameron's Conservative Party, remaining supportive of austerity while largely forgetting what other ideas they used to have.)
- Scottish National Party (SNP for short, slightly centre-left but behaves like conservatives, campaigns for independence for Scotland, and has no connection with the British National Party)
NaziNational Party (very similar to the American Nazi Party, except slightly more subtle about it)
- UK Independence Party (also known as Diet BNP - or BNP Lite if you don't get the reference first time)
- Green (Environmentalist, Left-wing)
- Official Monster Raving Loony Party (with the slogan "Vote for insanity, you know it makes sense!")
- Indian conservatism is represented by Hindu nationalism. The Bharatiya Janata Party is the chief conservative party in India.
“”To read, let alone write, a detailed account of all of Israel's parties - their permutations, alliances, and mutual betrayals - is a punishment fit for the worst sinners in hell.
|— Martin van Creveld|
There is a reason for the old adage "two Jews three opinions". A two percent threshold and a purely proportional system of representation have done the rest.
In general though, the two major parties of left and right for most of Israel's history have been Labor (under varying names and alliances) and Likud (dito). Recently both have taken hits, the former due to its largely dovish stance on the peace process falling out of favor, the latter due to Ariel Sharon splitting off his own party (Kadima, if you were curious).
- Liberal Democratic Party (Hold on to your hats: conservative, they ruled for almost 54 years! Continuously! You know, except those 11 months in 1993 and 1994 The only party in a democratic nation to beat them in terms of longevity of reign is Mexico's PRI that - as chance would have it - is currently in power again after a brief absence from it)
- Democratic Party of Japan (center-left, in power 2009-2014)
- New Komeito Party (conservatives and centrists linked to Soka Gakkai Buddhist sect)
- Your Party (What's on the tin! No just kidding, another conservative party)
- Japanese Communist Party (democratic libertarian-socialists - also pacifists, they kept the name, though)
- Social Democratic Party (exactly what's on the tin)
- People's New Party (conservative, populist, nationalist - they have a nice logo, though)
- Sunrise Party of Japan (nationalist, right wing)
- New Renaissance Party (conservative - yes, the irony hurts!)
 North Korea
- Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland (All these parties are loyal to the regime)
- Workers' Party of Korea (Wins all elections, represents all workers. Oh right, everyone is employed by the government.)
- Korean Social Democratic Party
- Chondoist Chongu Party
 South Korea
- Grand National Party (the party name in Korean is a play on words, it can mean "Korean National" and also "Great National" - oh, yeah, they are conservative)
- Democratic Party (liberals, social democrats)
- Liberty Forward Party (right-wing, liberal conservatives, built around Lee Hoi-chang)
- Future Hope Alliance (liberal conservatives, support party for Park Geun-hye, daughter of Park Chung-hee)
- Democratic Labor Party (nationalist, left-wing, democratic socialists)
- Creative Korea Party (centrism, center-left)
- New Progressive Party (center-left)
- The Communist Party (Wins all elections, represents all workers. Sure.)
In many African countries the political scene is dominated either by the former independence movement or movements against a native dictatorship and/or ethnicity based parties. As such the name of a party does not necessarily include its ideology.
 South Africa
- Prior to its first democratic elections in 1994, South African politics was dominated by the conservative National Party, which governed the country on the basis of "Christian nationalism" and "separate development" - the basis for apartheid.
- The Conservative Party of South Africa only came into being in 1982, when a group of ultra-conservatives, led by Dr. Andries Treurnicht (a Dutch Reformed Church minister), broke away from the National Party. They objected to the creation by PW Botha, of the so-called Tricameral Parliament (which gave token representation to Indian and coloured South Africans, whilst ignoring black South Africans) and other reforms, which the Conservative Party felt were a threat to white minority rule. In other words, the Conservative Party of South Africa came into being, because they felt the ruling apartheid regime wasn't being racist enough.
- The main party since the end of Apartheid is the ANC or African National Congress which started out as an-anti Apartheid movement. They have won all national elections in which blacks could vote. Today the ruling African National Congress while being nominally socialist/social democratic is such a large party that individual planks of the platform and several high ranking members are quite conservative, especially on social issues. There are also numerous smaller explicitly Christian parties of any ethnic composition.
- The main opposition party (Democratic Alliance) is a Centrist catch all party that tries to style itself after the Obama-era Democrats.
- ZANU-PF: Party of Robert Mugabe "wins" all elections
 Erm... "elsewhere"
- In Antarctica:
- The Snow and Ice Party (Supports incremental change at a glacial pace.)
- On the Moon:
- The Vacuum Party (Supports cleaning up all that dust, and pronto!)
- The Gravity Party (Supports long jumpers and golfers in attempts to beat Earth records.)
- The Secessionists (Supports leaving Earth orbit and applying for planethood status.)
- On Pluto
- The Planetist party (supports the demotion of Neil deGrasse Tyson and applying for planethood; wins almost all elections among ten year old earthlings)
- The Dwarf Planetist Party (repeated calls by little people to change the name have fallen on deaf ears)
- ↑ This fact is usually described as Duverger's Law.
- ↑ Rae, Douglas (1967): The Political Consequences of Electoral Law, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.
- ↑ Grofman, Bernard and Lijphart, Arend (eds.): Electoral Laws and their Political Consequences, New York: Agathon Press, 2003.
- ↑ The Prohibition Party's membership has fallen so far, their 2012 Presidential ballot received 518 votes nationwide, and their 2016 Presidential Convention consisted of a conference call.
- ↑ New Zealand First is hard to place on the spectrum as they have policies that do not fit either tag very well. In the past they have formed governments with both Labour and National; strong anti-immigration, anti-foreign ownership and high superannuation are the cornerstones of its policy
- ↑ There was considerable debate when this party was formed as to whether it was racist to have a party that only represented one ethnic group, but given New Zealand's MMP system of government, coupled with the specifically Maori seats, this representation should end up being roughly proportional and they'll end up working with other parties that support whatever they want at that point in time, just like everyone else
- ↑ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10335923
- ↑ Nowadays roughly five percent of Finland's population are native speakers of Swedish. Historically Swedish was the main language of the educated classes and as such some Finns resent the Swedish speaking minority for its former dominant role. The number of Swedish-speakers has been slowly declining since Finland gained independence and while both groups learn the language of the other in school most Finns are more comfortable speaking English
- ↑ Dienst Communicatie, Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal (2012). Zetelverdeling plenaire zaal september 2012.
- ↑ 
- ↑ Well, allegedly. Despite a 500% increase in NHS privatisation under their rule and a reclassification of what counts as healthcare – i.e. counting the bed that a patiant stays in after an operation as "hotel fees".
- ↑ Conservative Muslim forum UK
- ↑ But, under the Tory majority government, elected a "minister for equalities" who voted against same sex marriage rights.
- ↑ Blow for Cameron as 128 Tory MPs vote against gay marriage. New Statesman. Published 21 May 2013. (They really should have thought about renaming that article...)