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Polyamory is the idea that romantic/domestic partnerships can involve more than two people. Unlike swingers, who are generally looking for sexual thrills outside of marriage, "polys" form long-lasting relationships and family units based on partnerships and shared intimacy between several people, sometimes but not necessarily involving folks with sexual orientations greater than zero on the Kinsey scale.
Like the spectra of sexual orientations and gender identities, polyamory comes in many forms and levels of intensity, such as "monogamish", "solopoly", "coupling up" and "relationship anarchy", and each polyamorous relationship is ultimately defined by its participants. Unlike sexual orientation/gender identity, polyamory is a conscious lifestyle choice, although there are those that would argue that polyamory is natural and monogamy is the choice.
 Helen Fisher
In her book, Why We Love, anthropologist Helen Fisher notes that romantic love has a certain insane, over-the-top aspect about it, above and beyond what would be considered "strictly necessary" (from, say, an evolutionary or biological viewpoint). Richard Dawkins summarizes her argument in his book, The God Delusion (the summary of which is also quoted in the book Sex at Dawn):
“”Rather than the fanatically monogamous devotion to which we are susceptible, some sort of 'polyamory' is on the face of it more rational....We happily accept that we can love more than one child, parent, sibling, teacher, friend or pet. When you think of it like that, isn't the total exclusiveness that we expect of spousal love positively weird?
 Are they poly?
If you ever hear somebody talking about their "primary" or their "secondary," you're dealing with a poly.
If you're reading their profile and among their favorite books are Sex at Dawn, The Ethical Slut and Robert A. Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land, you're probably reading the profile of someone who practices polyamory or is "poly-curious".