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Post-Keynesian economics refers to a collection of emerging schools within macroeconomics that are attempting to "go back to the basics" of the work of John Maynard Keynes. In the post-World War II era, after Keynes died, his theories merged with more neoclassical-oriented thought and became the schools called New Keynesianism and neo-Keynesianism. These schools sought to root Keynes' ideas in a microeconomic approach. Post-Keynesians, by focusing more on macro-effects, have in one way moved closer back to Keynes, but have also introduced many ideas not found in his work.
The years since 2008 have been labeled the "Keynesian Resurgence" because of the return to Keynes' work after the dominance of neoclassically oriented schools like New Keynesianism and the Chicago school.
Modern monetary theory
Many Post-Keynesians either fall into the "circuitists" or the "neo-chartalists" (more often called "modern monetary theory"), though these two groups aren't mutually exclusive and there is a good deal of overlap. Both reject the idea of neutral money. Circuitists generally emphasize the role of credit money as primary (loans made by banks) while neo-chartalists emphasize the role of high-powered money (hard cash and credit lent to banks by the Federal Reserve). Circuitists base their theories on Augusto Graziani's Theory of the Monetary Circuit as well as Keynes. Neo-chartalists base their theories on the original chartalist ideas of Abba Lerner and their later reformulation by Warren Mosler.
Although the Post-Keynesians are a diverse group, many share similar beliefs, some of which may include;
- The government as a sovereign issuer of money. This is a commonly known fact, but important especially to neo-chartalists as they draw many implications from it. They believe that most people, the government included, act as if the nation still ran on the gold standard.
- The government doesn't collect taxes or spend them. Taxes "destroy" currency and spending "creates" currency because fiat currency is only backed by the government's faith. So taxing money out of the economy is the same as destroying it. (The money, not the economy)
- Financial transactions always create an offsetting liability. There are always three parties, not two, involved in a transaction: buyer, seller, and bank. This is because all money is credit. Cash ("high-powered money") is a liability of the Fed, credit (like credit cards) is a liability of your bank, and that credit is created by loaning out against the bank's reserve of high-powered money. Some post-Keynesians add the government as the insurer and protector of transactions and property rights being a fourth party.
- Rejection of "crowding out." Government spending does not crowd out monetary resources because spending "creates" more money.
- Rejection of the money multiplier. Banks can loan reserves to each other or get money from the Fed's discount window, making the money multiplier a formality without much real meaning.
- Rejection of equilibrium. Post-Keynesians believe the market is dynamic and rarely if ever in equilibrium, markets might be above or below equilibrium level at any given time.
- Rejection of a natural level of unemployment.
- Rejection of homo economicus.
- Belief that the economy should be viewed in historical time and with uncertainty of future expectations.
- Government spending is limited by high levels of inflation, not tax revenue.
- Importance of the credit cycle as part of the business cycle. Mostly modeled off of Hyman Minsky's "Financial Instability Hypothesis" which states that excessive credit given out "endogenously" over long periods of stability will necessarily lead to riskier investments, and therefore instability. This continues until speculators realize an asset's price is artificially inflated, causing them to sell it all at once, causing the asset price to fall to the ground. That results in what is called a "Minsky moment," and thus financial crisis.
The above has, in turn, led many Post-Keynesians to support policies such as;
- Full employment at all times. Keynesianism on 'roids. Some support a job guarantee, whereby the government hires unemployed workers either directly or indirectly through private contracting.
- Stricter financial regulations.
- Restructuring credit markets and debt (debt-to-equity swaps).
- Low taxes except in cases of increased inflation to "destroy" excess currency. (Liberals that don't like taxes!)
- Unbalanced budgets as a counter-cyclical policy. Deficits when unemployment is high, surpluses when inflation is high. (Much like Keynes.)
- Limitations on private debt.
- Mosler Economics, run by neo-chartalist Warren Mosler
- DebtWatch, run by circuitist Steve Keen
- Monetary Sovereignty, run by Post-Keynesian Rodger Malcolm Mitchell (as a bonus, Mitchell occasionally bashes woo by comparing it to what he sees as outdated economic thought)
- New Economic Perspectives, run by neo-chartalist Stephanie Kelton
- billy blog, run by Australian neo-chartalist Bill Mitchell
- Social Democracy For The 21st century: A Post Keynesian Perspective, also focuses on debunking postmodernism.