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Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar. Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five Pillars of Islam. During this period in the hours of daylight, non-Muslims in Islamic countries are expected to hide themselves away in curtained rooms whenever they want to drink a cup of coffee, eat a doughnut, have a smoke, or fancy a quick shag. Sex on the beach is a definite no-no. In countries where alcohol is licensed for debauched foreigners then they had better have stockpiled enough to see them through until the Eid.
Owing to a difference of 11-12 days between the lunar and solar years the month of Ramadan advances through the seasons. In the Arabian peninsula, it passes through both the relatively mild days of January and the blistering heat of August. During Ramadan, devout Muslims are forbidden to eat, drink, smoke, and have sex or impure thoughts from the earliest daylight (though not sunrise) to sunset for a period of one (lunar) month. Some adherents even go so far as not swallowing their own saliva. Although this activity is called fasting, for some it involves dining on special comestibles through the night until dawn, leaving them too exhausted to work the next day. In the Qu'ran, it is specifically stated that fasting is not required for those who would suffer a special hardship from the fast, such as pregnant women, travelers, and the ill - although they are expected to make up for it a later date. When Ramadan occurs during the heat of summer it is advisable to refrain from venturing onto the public highways of Saudi Arabia as the incidence of traffic accidents caused by dehydrated drivers reaches a cyclic peak at this time. After Ramadan comes Eid al-Fitr (Festival of Breaking Fast) when Muslims have a blow-out feast, wear their best clothes, and fire guns into the air (mileage may vary from country to country). During Eid there is a palpable relief that Ramadan is over which is felt among both believers and non-believers.
 Fasting near the north pole e.g in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway
The obligation to fast from the first daylight to sunset might seem problematic for Muslims living in the polar regions where daylight lasts for several months during the summer months. Under such circumstances, Muslims usually follow the timetable of either the nearest major city with a normal day-night cycle, or that of Mecca. Although this solution is of course not mentioned in the Qur'an or Hadith. It is just one of the examples of the belief in a flat earth
 Fasting in the Qur'an
In the Qur'an, this practice is mentioned:
- O those who believe, the fasts have been enjoined upon you as were enjoined upon those before so that you be God-fearing. (Qur'an 2:183)
 Types of Fasting in the Quran
- 1. Food Fasting(Sawm ut Taam).2:187
- 2. Money Fasting(Sawm ul Maal).
- 3. Word Fasting(Sawm ul Kalam).
- Usually "Fasting" means Food Fasting
 Ramadan and war
Prior to the Iraq War, there was a self-imposed taboo in the West against conducting military operations during the month of Ramadan. If the Pentagon contemplated air strikes in Afghanistan, Somalia, or Sudan that would extend into Ramadan, this was the occasion of stories on Reuters warning of the anger of Muslims which would be triggered by such an action. During the occupation of Iraq this taboo was moot, because Muslims were angry all the time.