Rape culture

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Rape culture is the ways in which a society trivializes, rationalizes, or even condones rape and other acts of sexual violence. Rape culture includes a variety of issues from the way raped individuals are treated by police to the way rape is portrayed in fiction and by the media.

Modern rape culture is steeped in institutionalized misogyny, having at its core cultural features of a society that is defining, politicizing, and ultimately controlling women's bodies. Rape culture, like all other aspects of culture, informs individual behaviors on many levels - often in ways the individual isn't even aware of.

Contents

[edit] What rape culture involves

Rape culture, at least in North America, informs our entire legal system, from legislating offenses, to criminal investigations, to the trial and punishment.

  • Victims are defined and unofficially classified based on how well they conform to a (deeply offensive and sexist) specific set of standards. Standards which are almost always based on assumptions about women's value in general. A white virgin who has been beaten is a more proper victim than a Hispanic co-ed who has a boyfriend. Being raped by a stranger, vaginally, is more titillating taken more seriously than being a male victim. The more "real" a rape is, largely informs how the investigators and litigators will deal with a case.[1][2]
  • Because of the overall sexism in rape culture, men do not get raped. That is, of course they get raped, but because of the way rape victims are seen by society, men who are raped are either ignored or labeled as sissy, or gay, or simply weak, in order to maintain the illusion that "men do not get raped". And in the same vein, women cannot rape men. Men, society teaches, are always horny, always seeking the next conquest and always ready for sex. So how could they be raped? Because of these very attitudes, society is extremely slow to address, much less change, the way male rape victims are treated.[3] [4] The FBI did not even classify male rape as rape until 2012.[5] Women are also perceived as being incapable of raping other women, often because sex between two women is portrayed as 'not real sex'. Woman on woman rape is also often not illegal, most notably in places where the definition of rape necessitates penetration by a penis. This is still true throughout most of the world, and until recently the US as well.
  • Rape culture fosters the misconception that incidents of false or politically motivated rape accusations are commonplace, in order to create a cloud of doubt on all potential rapes. While there will always be some scumbags who make intentionally false accusations of any kind of crime, one gets the impression that false rape accusations get so much attention in order to preemptively shame into silence victims who do not have ironclad cases. This can create a chilling effect on rape victims who don't want to be accused of lying and/or be subject to the media circus afterwards.
  • In rape culture society, rapists are still seen as men with potential parental rights to children they conceived through raping a woman. 31 states still allow a convicted rapist to sue for custody of any children.[6] In an environment like in the USA, where rape is being questioned as a legitimate reason for abortion, this issue becomes even more chilling.

Rape culture involves our society at large, and how we view both the victim and the perpetrator.

  • Victim blaming is a notable feature of a rape culture. If the victim can be shown to be "out of line" at any point, society turns on her, often demanding she at least voice some sense of remorse for her behaviors that lead to the rape. Was she dressed "like a slut?" Did she lead the guy on? Had she been out partying? Is she pretty? Was she "friendly" (wink-wink, nudge nudge) with the boys? If so, then shouldn't she have at least expected the likelihood of being raped, and done something to prevent it? Even if a rape victim actually does meet the maximum standards for sympathy, the implication is that the rapist's transgression against traditional values and polite society was more important than the actual act of violence done to the victim.[7][8][9]
  • Rape culture frequently whitewashes the perpetrator, especially if the victim is less, "victim-y", or the rapist is a cultural hero of some kind.[10]In recent years, we've watched as society attempts to give passes to football players, pop music and rap icons, and even the occasional wiki host (Julian Assange)). Whitewashing takes many forms, including excuses such as "He's a man, she was leading him on, he couldn't help it", but also sympathy directed at the perpetrators, especially when they are young.[11]. If the rapist is a celebrity, you will rarely hear him referred to as a rapist, and in fact, many people invoke the celebrity's work as some kind of justification to lessen or drop charges.[12][13]

White-washing takes many forms, including excuses such as "The victim was clearly trying to attract sexual attention", but also sympathy directed at the perpetrators, especially if they are young, or considered promising.[14]. If the rapist is a celebrity, you will rarely hear him or her referred to as a rapist, and in fact, many people invoke the celebrity's work as some kind of justification to lessen or drop charges.[15][16]. [17]

Rape culture affects how society discusses sex and rape:

  • Rape culture often uses rape as a subject of jokes, in ways not seen with similar crimes like murder. For example, memes such as "surprise sex!" attempt to minimize rape, while at other times, rape apologia such as "if they orgasmed, it wasn't rape" are thrown around as 'jokes', where the fact that the speaker 'obviously didn't mean it' (which the reader must simply assume) are the only reason not to take the statement at face value. However, actual rapists may interpret these statements as signs that others agree with them, or even encourage them to commit the act.
  • Rape culture often uses threats of rape (real or just voiced) as a way to intimidate people, often women, into submission. This is especially prevalent on the internet.[18]
  • Eroticization and romanticization of rape in popular culture, without showing the negative side effects or at least imploring a heavy degree of due diligence from the audience. This isn't to say that people shouldn't be allowed to have any form of entertainment and fantasy they want as long as it doesn't involve a real-world crime. However, the lackadaisical or ambiguous messages sent by a rape-happy heteronormative pop culture often ends up creating an environment in which actual rape can be pushed into the aforementioned grey area.
  • Rape culture flourishes because of the urban legend that women don't want sex, and must be "encouraged" to have sex. Played out in the old joke "No! Don't! Stop! No, don't stop!"
  • Rape culture flourishes in societies where teens are not taught how to talk about sex and about what they each want. Paired with the above, this leads to instances where neither party is quite sure what the other wants and can lead directly to rape. Contrast this with an ideal situation where women are taught as young girls that it is ok to say no or yes, but be clear, and where boys are taught to only accept a strong yes as a yes.
  • Rape culture both informs and is informed by a society's mixed messages about sex in the media and on tv. Women and girls should be pure and somehow above sex, and yet everything is sold to them through sex.

Rape culture involves sexual exploitation, harassment and other forms of sexual violence:

  • Instances of sexual harassment are often seen as a personal issue between a victim and her aggressor, even in a work environment. Sexual harassment is often portrayed as a hassle a company must deal with, to protect itself legally, rather than a real moral or ethical transgression.
  • The downplay of causal factors to rape such as but not limited to a generalized culture of violence, misogyny, homophobia and transphobia.
  • Jokes and other humor about rape is generally viewed as problematic due to trying to bring levity to the horror of sexual assault. In particular, jokes that marginalize victims by framing rape as a forgivable and just retribution for some other action (usually grossly disproportionate to the punishment e.g. "leading a man on" or "heckling a comedian"[19]) propagates rape culture[20]. This includes jokes with male victims and especially prison rape, which feminists are just as much against as ones about male-on-female abuse (common in cop shows, even treating rape as part of the criminal's punishment which they deserve).[21]

[edit] Addressing the "not all men" defense

Rape culture, like all other aspects of culture, impacts people on a subconscious level long before it becomes part of their conscious choices. Rape culture is the result of thousands of years of human history which has defined women and their place in society. And it should be understood that way. Unfortunately, discussions about rape culture can make men feel cornered, attacked or defensive.

Rape culture is not a conscious conspiracy by men to keep women "in their place". It is not something that men are generally even aware they participate in. In fact, when specific behaviors that reinforce rape culture are pointed out, most men will try to change them, to the extent they can.

Discussing or admitting that rape culture exists does not mean anyone believes men think rape is somehow a good or valued thing. Nor does it mean that someone is accusing you of being a rapist. Discussing the fact that in America, 27.2% of women have been sexually harassed and 18.3% have been raped, and 11.7% of men have been sexually harassed and 1.4% raped at least once in their lives does not mean anyone thinks that specifically men are more to blame.[22] But it does mean a culture exists which makes it hard for victims to come forward, to talk, or to heal. And, the very fact that a culture informs the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of a society does mean that all people in a rape culture carry some aspect of it in their personality - despite the desire to say "not me".

[edit] In practice in the US

  • Rape kits, used to collect evidence of rape, have been frequently charged back to the victim. Alaska under Sarah Palin is perhaps the most well known example, but at the time, over 20 states were doing the exact same thing. Victims (or their families) of muggings, theft or murder are not charged with the cost of collecting evidence.
  • A US reality of close to 1 in 5 women having experienced rape or attempted rape, and close to 1 in 4 women facing sexual violence of some kind.[22]
  • A prison industry where more than 10% of the men will be raped at some point in their incarceration. Because it is "expected" and they are "just criminals" little to nothing is done about this epidemic,[23] though the late Andrea Dworkin took this problem seriously.
  • Debates in the US House attempting to articulate what a "legitimate" rape is, vs... well, we aren't sure vs. what. The specific language they were debating was "forcible rape", which is the only type of rape that would be covered by US aid from the Violence Against Women Act, would be used for FBI and CDC statistics about the commonality of rape and pregnancy and diseases born from those rapes, and would of course be the defining example for any exception to abortion law, or access to federal funds for abortion.
  • In the US at least, it is becoming more and more common for rape victims to find their pictures in the media, specifically on the internet[citation needed] an incredibly disturbing thing to do to the victim of any crime, and a demonstration of complete lack of empathy for the victim by people who do this, and the societies that allow this kind of nonsense to happen.
  • Twitter, Facebook and other social media are often outlets for images of rape victims and/or support for rapists, especially when so-called "popular" students are involved. Steubenville[24] is the most recognized incident. In this small football-obsessed town, two star football players brutally raped a girl at a party, bragged about it on social media, and were left unscathed by local law enforcement. It took a social media outrage and intervention from the state's attorney general for them to be prosecuted, and even then they got off pretty light.
  • #yesallwomen arose as response to a misogynist act of domestic terrorism aimed at punishing women for not being sexually available. Story after story came out about what women go through, each and every day. The fear, the desire to hide or dress down, the sense of having to be on guard from men who want to hit on them during a bus ride home, the checking in with friends because every day this very rape culture breeds a world where women do not feel safe. In many anecdotes men are accustomed to touching women as if it is their right, and seemingly get offended when told to stop. Men catcall the pretty women they see, push them into conversations they do not want to be in, and of course frequently do not take no for an answer - at least not easily: "Can I sit here?" -Shrug and return to reading. "What's your name?" -mumble and continue reading. "Would you like to go out with me?" -No, I don't want to go out. "Why, do you have a boyfriend?" -No, I am just not interested. "Why? Are you a lesbian?" -No, I just don't like your type. "How can you know that if you haven't tried me?" The game is endless, and as the hashtag showed, the sense of fear that this person simply won't stop with verbal harassment is in every woman's mind.[25]

[edit] Continuing fights against rape culture

  • Rape shield laws[wp] and victim confidentiality laws are specific attempts by various governments to fight rape culture. The former is to fight various victim blaming tactics often used by defense lawyers (most commonly invasive questions about sexual history) while the latter is to prevent harassment and discrimination of victims.
  • In 2013, after sustained pressure from women's groups, both Twitter and Facebook reviewed their policies around incidents of rape, threats of rape, and jokes about rape. Facebook agreed to view any images of rape, or humor specifically supporting rape or violence against women as hate speech and agreed to remove those types of images. Twitter, a medium that is a haven for threats of rape against outspoken women[26][27][28][29] agreed in early August, 2013 that it would provide a better way to report such threats.

[edit] Criticism of the term and its use

While most rational people don't deny some of the ideas surrounding the concept of rape culture (including some legal problems involving rape cases), some of these same people and entities question whether rape culture is truly prevalent in the United States, as well as criticize the way some who are... enthusiastic about social justice use the term more as a snarl word. Like so many other issues, debates and conversations about rape culture often include people working from different ideas of what it is.

In their recommendations to the White House regarding campus rapes, the rape prevention group RAINN (Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network) had the following to say about rape culture[30]:

In the last few years, there has been an unfortunate trend towards blaming "rape culture" for the extensive problem of sexual violence on campuses. While it is helpful to point out the systemic barriers to addressing the problem, it is important to not lose sight of a simple fact: Rape is caused not by cultural factors but by the conscious decisions, of a small percentage of the community, to commit a violent crime.

Furthermore, an argument can be made that insisting that rape culture is prevalent in a situation can actually take responsibility away from those committing the crime and instead try to indict the broader (and subjective) culture. To some, rape culture suggests that young people are being ill-informed about what rape is, or even worse, are being taught that it's not a serious crime, when that is simply not (or no longer) the case. You wouldn't blame a child for throwing rocks at cars when he's never been taught better, and society ignores and/or apologizes for the rock throwing. More thoughts from RAINN:

By the time they reach college, most students have been exposed to 18 years of prevention messages, in one form or another. Thanks to repeated messages from parents, religious leaders, teachers, coaches, the media and, yes, the culture at large, the overwhelming majority of these young adults have learned right from wrong, and enter college knowing that rape falls squarely in the latter category.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

[edit] Footnotes

  1. A particularly ugly example of this.
  2. An example where rape victims are taken less seriously based on gender
  3. [1]
  4. [2]
  5. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/recent-program-updates/new-rape-definition-frequently-asked-questions
  6. [3]
  7. The blog Yes Means Yes refers to this stereotyping as the social script of stranger rape.
  8. What Counts as Rape: The Effect of Offense Prototypes, Victim Stereotypes, and Participant Gender on How the Complainant and Defendant are Perceived
  9. What Counts as Rape: The Effect of Offense Prototypes, Victim Stereotypes, and Participant Gender on How the Complainant and Defendant are Perceived
  10. Why Are Colleges So Terrible at Following Up on Rape Accusations Against Football Players?
  11. Consider, in the media coverage of the Steubenville case, it was not uncommon to hear how "his life has been changed forever", or to see written pontifications of how spending time in jail will ruin his scholarship potential but almost nothing suggesting the young victim's life has been irrevocably changed.
  12. Woody Allen's Defenders and Rape Culture
  13. Over 100 In Film Community Sign Polanski Petition
  14. This may however be a result of high-profile cases where the accused was clearly not guilty of rape, but vilified nonetheless for rape.
  15. Woody Allen's Defenders and Rape Culture
  16. Over 100 In Film Community Sign Polanski Petition
  17. The Jimmy savile foundation comes to mind
  18. Some factions of the GamerGate phenomenon have been accused of rape threats as an attempt to silence other factions of GamerGate. Ironically, the Anti-GamerGate crowd has also been guilty of rape threats http://techraptor.net/content/understanding-pro-anti-gamergate
  19. Why Daniel Tosh’s ‘Rape Joke’ at the Laugh Factory Wasn’t Funny
  20. A woman walks into a rape, uh, bar
  21. Why Your Justin Bieber Prison Jokes Perpetuate Rape Culture
  22. 22.0 22.1 http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/nisvs_report2010-a.pdf
  23. http://bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=4373
  24. Wikipedia Steubenville article
  25. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/30/an-open-letter-to-all-my-male-friends
  26. http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/twitter-trolls-send-mary-beard-2123303
  27. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/jul/29/labour-mp-stella-creasy-twitter-rape-threats
  28. http://jezebel.com/if-comedy-has-no-lady-problem-why-am-i-getting-so-many-511214385
  29. http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/aug/04/caroline-criado-perez-twitter-rape-threats
  30. [4]
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