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The Restoration Movement is a Christian movement started in the early 19th century by the Campbellites, who believed all the churches had fallen into apostasy and they were restoring the original church. They reject the term 'denomination' and often insist the correct rendering of their name is 'church [or churches] of Christ', leaving church uncapitalized. They hold beliefs close to most other evangelical Christians, but are perhaps best known for their rejection of the use of musical instruments in church services, because they are not specifically mentioned in the New Testament.
The Campbellite movement was also known as the Stone-Campbell and some scholars group the churches of Christ, and several other new religious movements of the 19th century (such as Mormonism and Seventh-day Adventism), in the separate category of Restorationism, distinct from Protestantism.
One of their early leaders in the 1800s was David Lipscomb, who has seen renewed interest lately for his individualist anarchism and Christian pacifism views, neither of which appears to be influential at all in the modern Church of Christ.
 Related liberal denominations
The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) is a rather tame mainline denomination with Campbellite roots.
The Church of Christ, Scientist has a similar name, but despite the "scientist" part, it doesn't actually involve real science, with its followers rejecting modern medicine in favor of praying sickness away... well, trying to, anyway.
 Nuttery-buttery splinter movements
Moronism has some roots in the Campbellite movement. Sidney Rigdon, one of Joseph Smith, Jr.'s close associates, had been a Campbellite before converting, and many of Joseph Smith's early Mormon converts came from the Campbellites, including some entire congregations who converted en masse. Smith also called his early Mormon church the Church of Christ, before tacking on the more ostentatious bits.