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Rosicrucianism was something of a woo-peddling secret society based largely on alchemy that transformed into a New Age-y religion in modern times. It has its origins in two anonymously authored manifestos from the early 17th century called Fama Fraternitas RC and Confessio Fraternitas. The subject of these books was a doctor and philosopher called "Frater CRC," renamed to Christian Rosenkreuz (or "Rosy Cross") in a later, third book. Various pseudohistories have popped up around these books.[more detail please] The writings were widely dismissed as hoaxes, but attracted some alchemists, scientists, and Freemasons.
The modern version of the movement came about largely due to the founding of the Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (AMORC) in 1915. AMORC and other various sects of the religion exist today and operate in a milk before meat fashion. You send away for their "lessons" and receive booklets that include information on Rosicrucian theology as well as how-to guides on all sorts of woo like "mental alchemy," telekinesis, telepathy, regeneration, and "attuning" with the "Cosmic Consciousness."