Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia means a splitting of mental functions.[1] It is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, auditory hallucinations, confused or unclear thinking, inactivity, and reduced social engagement and emotional expression.

Contents

[edit] Symptoms

Individuals with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (most reported are hearing voices), delusions (often bizarre or persecutory in nature, hence the term "paranoid schizophrenic")[2], and disorganized thinking and speech. The last may range from loss of train of thought (something called thought blocking), to sentences only loosely connected in meaning (tangentiality), to speech that is not understandable known as word salad in severe cases. Social withdrawal, sloppiness of dress and hygiene, and loss of motivation and judgment are all common in schizophrenia.[3] People with schizophrenia often find facial emotion perception to be difficult[4] In some cases patients can become catatonic, a trance-like state of abnormal motor activity in which the patient may stay frozen in the same position (often quite awkward and uncomfortable) for hours without moving or speaking, allow themselves to be posed by others (something called waxy flexibility), or in some cases enter an agitated motor frenzy. There is a considerable degree of heterogeneity in symptoms.

[edit] Prognosis and social stigma

Schizophrenia is a major cause of disability, with active psychosis ranked as the third-most-disabling condition after quadriplegia and dementia and ahead of paraplegia and blindness.[5] In a large, representative sample from a 1999 study, 12.8% of Americans believed that individuals with schizophrenia were "very likely" to do something violent against others, and 48.1% said that they were "somewhat likely" to. Over 74% said that people with schizophrenia were either "not very able" or "not able at all" to make decisions concerning their treatment, and 70.2% said the same of money management decisions.[6]

[edit] Self-medication and alternative medicine

A significant proportion of people with schizophrenia use cannabis[7] and/or nicotine.[8] It has been widely thought that cannabis and/or tobacco use is a form of self-medication, but there is some evidence that usage is actually causative of psychosis.[9][10]

According to Paul Ekman, learning to detect micro-expression can help develop social skills for schizophrenic people.[11]Other scientists believe MDMA may be useful.[12]

Religion, depending on how a patient views it, can be paralyzing and quite harmful, in that a patient may refuse treatment based on religious beliefs; in certain instances, one might believe that their delusions and hallucinations are actually a divine experience, and therefore deny any need for treatment. On the other hand, religion can also be a very valuable tool in coping with the disorder, especially for those who are active in a religious community.[13] It has been shown that those with schizophrenia who suffer from religious delusions are more religious than those who do not suffer from these delusions.[14]

In a 2014 cross-cultural study, researchers found that schizophrenics from different countries tended to have different types of hallucinations. In the United States, schizophrenics tended to hallucinate of "disembodied voices that hurl insults and make violent commands", whereas in India and Ghana, schizophrenics often reported "positive relationships with hallucinated voices that they recognize as those of family members or God."[15][16]

[edit] Political abuse of diagnosis

Sluggish schizophrenia was coined by Andrei Snezhnevsky, who as one of the chief architects of Soviet psychiatry broadened the symptoms of schizophrenia to include any pesky political dissidents and even those indirectly affected by alcoholism.[17]

[edit] Famous people who have suffered from schizophrenia

  • Larry "Wild Man" FischerWikipedia's W.svg, a outsider musician who was promoted by Frank Zappa
  • Wesley WillisWikipedia's W.svg, another outsider musician, promoted by Jello Biafra
  • Syd BarrettWikipedia's W.svg of Pink Floyd
  • Science fiction writer Philip K. DickWikipedia's W.svg, though diagnosis has been contested
  • Roky EricksonWikipedia's W.svg of The 13th Floor Elevators
  • John Hinckley, Jr.Wikipedia's W.svg, would-be assassin of Ronald Reagan
  • Valerie Solanas, would-be assassin of Andy WarholWikipedia's W.svg
  • Brian WilsonWikipedia's W.svg of the Beach Boys was diagnosed with schizophrenia, but the diagnosis was later retracted.

[edit] References

  1. Baucum, Don (2006). Psychology (2nd ed.). Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron's. p. 182.
  2. Reminds me of conservative Christians.
  3. Carson VB (2000). Mental Health Nursing: The Nurse-Patient Journey W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-8053-8. p. 638
  4. Kohler CG, Walker JB, Martin EA, Healey KM, Moberg PJ (September 2010). "Facial emotion perception in schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review". Schizophr Bull 36 (5): 1009–19.
  5. Ustun TB, Rehm J, Chatterji S, Saxena S, Trotter R, Room R, Bickenbach J, and the WHO/NIH Joint Project CAR Study Group (1999). "Multiple-informant ranking of the disabling effects of different health conditions in 14 countries". The Lancet 354 (9173): 111–15.
  6. Pescosolido BA, Monahan J, Link BG, Stueve A, Kikuzawa S (September 1999). "The public's view of the competence, dangerousness, and need for legal coercion of persons with mental health problems". American Journal of Public Health 89 (9): 1339–45.
  7. Gregg L, Barrowclough C, Haddock G (2007). "Reasons for increased substance use in psychosis". Clin Psychol Rev 27 (4): 494–510.
  8. Sagud M, Mihaljević-Peles A, Mück-Seler D, et al. (September 2009). "Smoking and schizophrenia". Psychiatr Danub 21 (3): 371–5
  9. Pot Can Trigger Psychotic Symptoms For Some, But Do The Effects Last? by Angus Chen (March 06, 2015 11:54 AM ET) NPR.
  10. New analysis of smoking and schizophrenia suggests causal link Fri Jul 10, 2015 4:31am IST Reuters.
  11. http://www.paulekman.com/micro-expressions/
  12. http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/12/17/drug-%E2%80%98ecstasy%E2%80%99-may-help-individuals-with-schizophrenia-autism/21876.html
  13. Danbolt, Lars J.; Møller, Paul, Lien, Lars, Hestad, Knut A. (31 March 2011). "The Personal Significance of Religiousness and Spirituality in Patients With Schizophrenia". International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 21 (2): 145–158.
  14. Mohr, Sylvia; Borras, Laurence, Rieben, Isabelle, Betrisey, Carine, Gillieron, Christiane, Brandt, Pierre-Yves, Perroud, Nader, Huguelet, Philippe (11 October 2009). "Evolution of spirituality and religiousness in chronic schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders: a 3-years follow-up study". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 45 (11): 1095–1103.
  15. Hallucinated voices’ attitudes vary with culture: Schizophrenia symptom turns positive in non-Western nations
  16. Differences in voice-hearing experiences of people with psychosis in the USA, India and Ghana: interview-based study by T. M. Luhrmann et al. (2014) BJPsych Vol 206 Issue 3 DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.139048.
  17. Lavretsky H; The Russian Concept of Schizophrenia: A Review of the Literature; Schizophrenia Bulletin 24 (4): 537–557.
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