Bronze-level articleTranshumanism

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[Transhumanism] epitomizes the most daring, courageous, imaginative and idealistic aspirations of humanity.
—Francis Fukuyama[1]

Transhumanism (or H+), an intellectual movement, is greatly influenced by science fiction and presents an idealistic point of view of what technology could do for humanity in future, not what it can do; it's all hypothetical.[2] Transhumanism explores the benefits and repercussions of what technology could do for humanity; however, it assumes the technological boundaries are nonexistent.[3]


[edit] Speculation

How plausible is transhumanism? In the 1930s, many sensible people were sure human beings would never get to the Moon and that was just one of many predictions that turned out incorrect.[4] Early 21st century people do not know one way or the other what will be possible in the future. However, the scientific claims of transhumanism still need to be examined critically, because some of these technoscientific prophecies may not be plausible.[5]

While frequently dismissed as mere speculation at best by most rationalists[6] (especially in light of the many failures of artificial intelligence), transhumanism is a strongly-held belief among many computer geeks, notably synthesizer and accessible computing guru Ray Kurzweil, a believer in the "technological singularity," where technology evolves beyond humanity's current capacity to understand or anticipate it, and Sun Microsystems founder and Unix demigod Bill Joy, who believes the inevitable result of AI research is the obsolescence of humanity.[7]

[edit] The promise of transhumanism

Certain recent technological advances are making the possibility of the realization of transhumanism appear more plausible: Scientists funded by the military developed an implant that can translate motor neuron signals into a form that a computer can use, thus opening the door for advanced prosthetics capable of being manipulated like biological limbs and producing sensory information.[8] This is on top of the earlier development of cochlear implants, which translate sound waves into nerve signals; they are often called "bionic ears."[9]

Even DIY transhumanism or 'biohacking' is becoming an option, with people installing magnetic implants, allowing them to feel magnetic and electric fields.[10] Others have taken to wearing belts of magnets, in order to always be able to find magnetic north. Prosthetic limbs with some level of touch are also now being developed, a major milestone. [11]

[edit] Criticisms

[edit] Scientific criticisms

[edit] Singularity

The example of the singularity is instructive; for a great many people, at least part of the singularity hinges on being able to create a true artificial intelligence. While it's reasonable to contend that the complexity inherent in the human brain is entirely the result of mundane physics, and therefore can be reproduced in principle, singularitarians[12][13] tend to assume that the emulation of human intelligence not being impossible means having the ability to in the near future.

[edit] Whole brain emulation

"Whole brain emulation" (WBE) is a term used by transhumanists to refer to, quite obviously, the emulation of a brain on a computer. While this is no doubt a possibility, it encounters two problems that keep it from being a certainty anytime in the near future.

The first is a philosophical objection: For WBE to work, "strong AI" (i.e. AI equivalent to or greater than human intelligence) must be attainable. A number of philosophical objections have been raised against strong AI, generally contending either that the mind or consciousness is not computable or that a simulation of consciousness is not equivalent to true consciousness (whatever that is). There is still controversy over strong AI in the field of philosophy of mind.[14]

A second possible objection is technological: WBE may not defy physics, but the technology to fully simulate a human brain (in the sense meant by transhumanists, at least) is a long way away. Currently, no computer (or network of computers) is powerful enough to simulate a human brain. Henry Markram, head of the Blue Brain Project, estimates that simulating a brain would require 500 petabytes of data for storage and that the power required to run the simulation would cost about $3 billion annually. (However, in 2008, he optimistically predicts this will be possible in ten years.[15]) In addition to technological limitations in computing, there are also the limits of neuroscience. Neuroscience currently relies on technology that can only scan the brain at the level of gross anatomy (e.g., fMRI, PET). Forms of single neuron imaging (SNI) have been developed recently, but they can only be used on animal subjects (usually rats) because they destroy neural tissue.[16]

[edit] Immortality, cryonics and mind uploading

First, let me say that I’m all in favor of research on aging, and I think science has great potential to prolong healthy lives…and I’m all for that. But I think immortality, or even a close approximation to it, is both impossible and undesirable.
P.Z. Myers[17]

Another transhumanist goal is mind uploading, which is one way they claim[18][19] we will be able to achieve immortality. Aside from the problems with WBE listed above, mind uploading suffers a philosophical problem, namely the "swamp man problem." That is, will the "uploaded" mind be "you" or simply a copy or facsimile of your mind? However, one possible way round this problem would be via incremental replacement of parts of the brain with their cybernetic equivalents (the patient being awake during each operation). Then there is no "breaking" of the continuity of the individual's consciousness, and it becomes difficult for proponents of the "swamp man" hypothesis to pinpoint exactly when the individual stops being "themselves."

Cryonics is another favorite of many transhumanists. In principle, cryonics is not impossible, but the current form of it is based largely on hypothetical future technologies and costs substantial amounts of money.

[edit] Radical life extension

Fighting aging and extending life expectancy is possible — the field that studies aging and attempts to provide suggestions for anti-aging technology is known as "biogerontology". Aubrey de Grey has proposed a number of treatments for aging. In 2005, 28 scientists working in biogerontology signed a letter to EMBO Reports pointing out that de Grey's treatments had never been demonstrated to work and that many of his claims for anti-aging technology were extremely inflated.[20] This article was written in response to a July 2005 EMBO reports article previously published by de Grey[21] and a response from de Grey was published in the same November issue.[22] De Grey summarizes these events in "The biogerontology research community's evolving view of SENS," published on the Methuselah Foundation website.[23]

[edit] Scientific disputes

Worst of all, some transhumanists outright ignore what people in the fields they're interested in tell them; a few AI boosters, for example, believe that neurobiology is an outdated science because AI researchers can do it themselves anyway. They seem to have taken the analogy used to introduce the computational theory of mind, "the mind (or brain) is like a computer." Of course, the mind/brain is not a computer in the usual sense.[24] Debates with such people can take on the wearying feel of a debate with a creationist or climate change denialist, as such people will stick to their positions no matter what. Indeed, many critics are simply dismissed as Luddites or woolly-headed romantics who oppose scientific and technological progress.[25]

[edit] Ethical and political criticism

[edit] Bioethics

Transhumanism has often been criticized for not taking ethical issues seriously on a variety of topics,[26] including life extension technology,[27] cryonics,[28] and mind uploading and other enhancements.[29][30] Francis Fukuyama (in his doctrinaire neoconservative days) caused a stir by naming transhumanism "the world's most dangerous idea."[31] One of Fukuyama's criticisms, that implementation of the technologies transhumanists push for will lead to severe inequality, is a rather common one.

[edit] Elitism and political utopianism

A number of political criticisms of transhumanism have been made as well. Transhumanist organizations have been accused of being in the pocket of corporate and military interests.[32] The movement has been identified with Silicon Valley due to the fact that some of its biggest backers, such as Peter Thiel (of PayPal and Bitcoin fame), reside in the region.[33][34] Some writers see transhumanism as a hive of cranky and obnoxious techno-libertarianism.[35][36] The fact that Julian Huxley coined the term "transhumanism" and many transhumanists' obsession with constructing a Nietzschean ubermensch known as the "posthuman" has led to comparisons with eugenics.[37][32] Like eugenics, it has been characterized as a utopian political ideology.[38] Jaron Lanier slammed it as "cybernetic totalism".[39]

[edit] Religious objections and relations

Some tension has developed between transhumanism and religion, namely Christianity.[citation needed] Some transhumanists, generally being atheistic naturalists, see all religion as an impediment to scientific and technological advancement and some Christians oppose transhumanism because of its stance on cloning and genetic engineering and label it as a heretical belief system.[40] Other transhumanists, however, have attempted to extend an olive branch to Christians.[41] Some have tried to reconcile their religion and techno-utopian beliefs, calling for a "scientific theology."[42] There is even a Mormon transhumanist organization.[43] Ironically for the atheistic transhumanists, the movement has itself been characterized as a religion and its rhetoric compared to Christian apologetics.[44][45]

[edit] Politics

The very small transhumanist political movementWikipedia's W.svg has gained momentum with Zoltan IstvanWikipedia's W.svg announcing his bid for US president, with the Transhumanist Party and other small political parties gaining support internationally.

[edit] So now what?

The important thing about transhumanism is that while a lot of such predictions may in fact be possible (and may even be in their embryonic stages right now), a strong skeptical eye is required for any claimed prediction about the fields it covers. When evaluating such a claim, one will probably need a trip to a library (or Wikipedia, or a relevant scientist's home page) to get up to speed on the basics.[46]

[edit] In popular culture

A common trope in science fiction for decades is that the prospect of transcending the current form may be positive, as in Arthur C. Clarke's 1953 novel Childhood's End or negative, as in the film The Matrix, with its barely disguised salvationist theme, or the Terminator series of films, where humanity has been essentially replaced by machine life. Change so radical elicits fear and thus it is unsurprising that many of the portrayals of transhumanism in popular culture are negative. The cyberpunk genre deals extensively with the theme of a transhumanist society gone wrong.

Among the utopian visions of transhumanism (fused with libertarianism) are those found in the collaborative online science fiction setting Orion's Arm. Temporally located in the post-singularity future, 10,000 years from now, Orion's Arm is massively optimistic about genetic engineering, continued improvements in computing and materials science. Because only technology which has been demonstrated to be impossible is excluded, even remotely plausible concepts has a tendency to be thrown in. At the highest end of the scale is artificial wormhole creation, baby universes and inertia without mass.[47]

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

[edit] Further reading

[edit] References

  1. Bailey, Ronald (August 25, 2004). "Transhumanism: the most dangerous idea?". Reason. Retrieved February 20, 2006. 
  2. Hughes, James (2004). Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4198-1. OCLC 56632213. 
  3. Mercer, Calvin. Religion and Transhumanism: The Unknown Future of Human Enhancement. Praeger. 
  4. Incorrect predictions on Wikiquote
  5. Is Transhumanism scientifically plausible? Post- Predictions and the Human Predicament
  6. A Rationalist Approach to Transhumanism and the Singularity
  7. The Robot Menace
  8. Scientists Race to Create ‘Biological’ Prosthetic Arm for Wounded Soldiers, RedOrbit
  9. See the Wikipedia article on Cochlear implants.
  10. Scrapheap Transhumanism, H+ Magazine
  11. [1], Wired
  12. Predictions made by Ray Kurzweil
  13. Three levels of human emulation
  14. See North Carolina State University's Strong AI page for arguments for and against strong AI and other issues relating to it.
  15. Template:Cite magazine
  16. New imaging method developed at Stanford reveals stunning details of brain connections, Stanford School of Medicine
  18. ‘Mind Uploading’ & Digital Immortality May Be Reality By 2045, Futurists Say
  19. The immortalist: Uploading the mind to a computer
  20. Huber Warner et al. Science Fact and the SENS Agenda, EMBO Reports. 2005 November; 6(11): 1006-1008.
  21. de Grey, Aubrey (July 2005). "Resistance to debate on how to postpone ageing is delaying progress and costing lives". EMBO reports. 6 (S1): S49–S53. Template:Doi. PMID 15995663.
  22. de Grey, Aubrey (November 2005). "Like it or not, life-extension research extends beyond biogerontology". EMBO reports. 6 (11): 1000. Template:Doi. PMID 16264420.
  23. de Grey, Aubrey. "The biogerontology research community's evolving view of SENS". Methuselah Foundation. Retrieved on July 1, 2008.
  24. 10 Important Differences Between Brains and Computers, ScienceBlogs
  25. The Trouble with "Transhumanism": Part Two, IEET
  26. A Conversation on the Ethics of Transhumanism, IEET
  27. Jaynce C. Lucke and Wayne Hall. Who Wants to Live Forever?, EMBO Reports. 2005 February; 6(2): 98-102.
  28. Medical Ethics Symposium Demystifies Cryonics
  29. Susan Schneider. Transcending and Enhancing the Human Brain, Science Fiction and Philosophy.
  30. MJ McNamee and SJ Edwards. Transhumanism, Medical Technology, and Slippery Slopes, Journal of Medical Ethics. 2006 September; 32(9): 513-518.
  31. Transhumanism, Foreign Policy. See also the response by Nick Bostrom.
  32. 32.0 32.1 If Only Glenn Beck Were a Cyborg, CounterPunch (Oh God.)
  33. No Death, No Taxes, The New Yorker
  34. Immortality 2.0: A Silicon Valley Insider Looks at California's Transhumanist Movement
  35. The Ultimate Escape: The Bizarre Libertarian Plan of Uploading Brains into Robots to Escape Society, AlterNet
  36. The Politics of Transhumanism, presentation to the 2001 Annual Meeting of the Society for Social Studies of Science
  37. Stefan Lorenz Sorgner. Nietzsche, the Overhuman, and the Transhuman, Journal of Evolution and Technology. Vol. 20; Issue 1 – March 2009, pgs. 29-42.
  38. Michael Hauskeller. Reinventing Cockaigne: Utopian Themes in Transhumanist Thought, Hastings Center Report 42, no. 2 (2012): 39-47.
  39. One Half a Manifesto,
  40. Christianity versus Transhumanism, Wired
  41. Why Christianity and Transhumanism Are Not Enemies, H+ Magazine
  42. Problems of Transhumanism: Atheism vs. Naturalist Theologies, IEET
  43. Mormon Transhumanist Association homepage
  44. Pitching the New Transhumanism Religion in the NYT, First Things
  45. The title of this thread at the Kurzweil forum says it all: "Beginning to Lose Faith in the Singularity/Transhumanism."
  46. Of course, people should always do this any time they encounter extraordinary claims.
  47. See and
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