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Bronze-level articleWater fluoridation

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Some dare call it

Conspiracy

Icon conspiracy.svg
What THEY don't want
you to know!
Sheeple wakers
Do you realize that fluoridation is the most monstrously conceived and dangerous communist plot we have ever had to face?
—General Jack D. Ripper in Dr. Strangelove, shortly before blowing the world to kingdom come[1]

Since its inception in the 1940s, the scientifically sound concept of fluoridating water has given rise to fear and suspicion in the minds of some.

Fluoride works by converting the outer layer of tooth enamel made of hydroxylapatite, Ca5(PO4)3OH, to fluoroapatite, Ca5(PO4)3F. The latter chemical is less soluble in acidic solutions. The three most commonly added fluoride chemicals are sodium fluoride (NaF), fluorosilicic acid ((H3O)2SiF6), and sodium fluorosilicate (Na2[SiF6]).[2] Fluorosilicic acid is a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer manufacture, a fact which fluoride opponents repeat ad absurdum in an attempt to scare you.[3]

Contents

[edit] History of fluoridation

Henry Trendley Dean[wp] (1893-1962), dentist and epidemiologist, researched and advocated for water fluoridation.
I go to the dentist every six months, I get a cleaning, so... I'm fortunate enough that those fluoride treatments as a child worked. Not getting any cavities.
Daniel Tosh[wp], being serious for once[4]

There are three periods concerning the history of water fluoridation:

  1. Before 1933, the study of mottled tooth enamel, later known as fluorosis.[5]
  2. From 1933 to 1945, the study of the relationship between fluorine and tooth decay. (No, not in Nazi Germany.[6])
  3. From 1945 onward, which focused on deployment of water fluorides, creating pretty rainbows in garden sprinklers …which definitely weren't there before and certainly are not caused by the refraction of light.

Since widespread community water fluoridation began in earnest in the 1940s in the United States, one last bastion of hope for modern anti-fluoridationists has been the city of Portland, Oregon. As of 2014, it is the last of the largest metropolitan cities in the United States to remain unfluoridated,[7] despite four popular vote attempts to add the *ahem* chemical.[8]

In the United States, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 confers the authority for ensuring the safety of public drinking water to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[9]

[edit] Arguments for fluoridation

Good-looking people with strong, fluoridated teeth get things handed to them on platters.
Douglas Coupland[wp][10]

Centralized fluoridation is a safe, simple, and effective way to improve the dental health of the population at large (especially children in the candy cavity-prone years). It is also extremely cost-effective: one study estimated that for every $1 a city invested in fluoridation it saved the average citizen (with a mean dental health cost) $38 on dental care.[11] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers water fluoridation to be one of the top 10 public health advances of the 20th century.[12] The American Dental Association "unreservedly endorses the fluoridation of community water supplies as safe, effective and necessary in preventing tooth decay."[13] The World Health Organization states that "fluoridation of water supplies, where possible, is the most effective public health measure for the prevention of dental decay."[14]

Having been around for 70-odd years and having been the focus of much research, water fluoridation has literally been studied to death (the number of studies seems to have peaked around the late 1960s followed by a general decline[15]). Arguments along the lines of "the jury is out" or "the science is incomplete" are wrong. Thousands of studies and years of actual implementation have not upset the scientific consensus.

A word of advice — if you're the type of person who freaks out about the fluoride in the water supply, it is advised that you never drink tea; this is because the tea plant — both black or green — is exceptionally good at soaking up fluoride in its soil.[16] If you're sane, then well, drinking tea without sugar is a good way to improve your dental hygiene because of its high fluoride concentration. People in China commonly used to brush their teeth with tea as an alternative, though their teeth were still significantly worse off than those of the modern toothpaste user.[17]

[edit] How to actually read studies

In 2006 the National Research Council (NRC) published a review of the EPA's drinking water standard for fluoride.[18] The report noted potential negative effects due to fluoridation, including cognitive impairment, impaired thyroid functioning, and increases in bone fractures, in addition to the fluorosis of children's teeth. The NRC called for a reduction of the EPA's limit of 4.0 mg/L of fluoride in drinking water.[18]

It should be noted that this was a much higher standard than the recommended levels for water fluoridation (targeting levels from 0.7 to 1.2 mg/L).

In June of 2012, some news organizations[19] transmitted a press release by the "NYS Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc." which suggested that a 2012 Harvard meta-study on the effects of water fluoridation and child IQs found "significantly lower IQ" in children. What a ghastly thing to see coming from real scientists, doing real science!

However, if you actually read the paper and look at Table 1, the study compared children in areas with recommended levels of fluoride in water — the same levels that are introduced in the process of water fluoridation (0.5 to 1.5 mg/L) — to children in areas with high fluoride levels (above 1.5 mg/L).[20][21] In other words, and yet again, this paper documents the risks of chronic fluoride toxicity, not water fluoridation.

The authors of the original 2012 meta-analysis[20] published updated statement on the study in September of that year,[22] underscoring that:

Our study summarized the findings of 27 studies on intelligence tests in fluoride-exposed children; 25 of the studies were carried out in China.
In general, complete information was not available on these 27 studies, and some limitations were identified.

So not only were the studies lacking complete information and were limited in scope (both of which greatly harm scientific replicatability), they were also all conducted in China, a country with severely lacking academic freedom from the state.

Fluoride released into the ground water in China in some cases greatly exceeded levels that are typical in the U.S.

The fact that the fluoride levels in the Chinese studies had at times been elevated directly by industrial spills into the ground water supply means that other compounds could possibly have leaked into the water (that were not even looked for by the fluoride studies) and which may just as well — or better — explain the apparent reduction in IQ.

When considering the risks and benefits of fluoride exposure, the level of intake needs to be considered.
These results do not allow us to make any judgment regarding possible levels of risk at levels of exposure typical for water fluoridation in the U.S. On the other hand, neither can it be concluded that no risk is present.

That is to say, pro-fluoridation science does not recommend massive amounts of fluoride being added to water supplies. As with anything, the dose makes the poison. What is literally concluded by the study authors about their meta-analysis of the Chinese research is that it cannot be used to say anything about U.S. water fluoridation. So when this paper is quoted, let the authors of said paper have the last word — it is not relevant to the U.S.

In 2014, a study conducted in New Zealand examined the relationship between fluoridation and IQ directly on a cohort of people born in Dunedin in the 1970s. It found no statistically significant link. The authors suggest that the earlier Harvard study might have been affected by confounding variables, especially urban or rural status.[23]

[edit] In a nutshell

[edit] "Why Is Fluoride Good For Teeth?" (SciShow)

[edit] "All about Fluoridation" (inFact)

[edit] "Fluoride in the Water Isn't Going to Hurt You" (Healthcare Triage)

[edit] Arguments against fluoridation

Most of the arguments against fluoridation are based on ethical and moral issues, namely that water fluoridation is medicating large numbers of people without their explicit consent. Curiously they don't typically complain about regulations that add "drugs" to other foods, like iodine added to salt, Vitamin D added to milk, iron added to cereal, or folic acid added to flour.[24]

Despite fluoride naturally occurring in food and water,[25] a common argument against it is the appeal to nature. Most health effect arguments against water fluoridation (such as toxicity and mottled teeth) base their assumptions on much higher doses of fluoride than are allowed in municipal tap water and the excessive cherry-picking of studies. Additional studies on links between fluoride and cancer, and fluoride and bone fractures have been shown to be invalid.[26] Other arguments are based on the false assumption that if fluoridation worked, there would be no tooth decay.

The favourite adverse effect of the anti-fluoride crowd, dental fluorosis,[wp] is a scary-sounding but rather benign condition in which the teeth become slightly stained. It is a purely cosmetic issue that does not lead to tooth decay, whereas removing fluoride from water does if individuals do not brush their teeth regularly. In all but the most severe cases, the mottling is barely noticeable, and it's only significant in children whose teeth have not finished developing. (By comparison, drinking a lot of coffee or tea can also make your teeth yellow, though this is reversible.) Dental fluorosis is a potential risk but is not problematic if the dosage is controlled. Drinking water with fluoride above "safe dosages", such as that found in some natural ground water wells in developing countries or in brick teas exposed to excessively fluorinated water, can also cause a more serious condition called skeletal fluorosis[wp].

[edit] The EPA Opposes Fluoridation?

Deniers will typically claim 1,500+ EPA scientists are opposed to fluoridation[27]. Upon closer inspection this "study" is actually a grievance letter written in the last century by J. William Hirzy, Ph.D on the letterhead of his local National Treasury Employees Union Chapter 280. The letter -- far from representing the views of 1,500 scientists (actually the union represents all employees which includes non-scientist like lawyers[28]) -- is really the result of a poorly attended meeting of one local union chapter. With only 20 of those union chapter members in attendance, Hirzy and his followers were able to adopt a resolution opposing fluoridation. When it became obvious to the actual wider union that Hirzy and his local chapter were claiming this position represented the view of the actual entire union, chapter officers rapidly disclaimed that view.[29]. The reality is since that chapter's 1999 "grievance" letter, the union representing EPA members has offered no position on fluoridation. Hirzy seems to have gone on to being a "go to" resource for deniers.[30]

[edit] The National Research Council Opposes Fluoridation?

Deniers will hand wave to a 2006 500+ page report by the NRC's Committee Report on Fluoride in Drinking Water and claim that it opposes fluoridation, and of course claims will be accompanied by cherry picked scare quotes[31] The study makes no claims against water fluoridation. The report merely reviews the evidence for safe levels. Science does that from time to time. Reappraises safe consumption levels given changes in technologies and lifestyles. The report gives no support to fluoridation deniers as it suggests 2.0 ppm is a safe level. Most public water is fluoridated at a 0.7 ppm level, a third lower than what the NRC determined was still a safe level. In response to the misuse of the report, the reports chairman has stated "I do not believe there is any valid, scientific reason for fearing adverse health conditions from the consumption of water fluoridated at the optimal level"[32]

[edit] The World Health Organization Opposes Fluoridation?

Deniers will make various claims that the World Health Organization (WHO) opposes fluoridation. By way of evidence they will point to various WHO publications about the need to remove fluoride from water. Deniers miss these guides are for people living in areas where there's a dangerous concentration in the local drinking water due to natural sources and a government unable to fund the technology to reduce it to a safe level. Deniers miss the notion that everything is poisonous in high enough concentrations. For example, Vitamin A is critical to human health but a human (typically a child) can realistically poison himself/herself by consuming too much.[33] The WHO clearly supports fluoridation for populations that would benefit from it. [34]

[edit] Look a Bunch of Western European Countries Oppose Fluoridation!

Deniers will typically list nations that do not fluoridate their water.[35] Mostly they're Western European nations which lends their position a gloss of respectability because, you know, apparently Western Europeans have their shit together. What they ignore is water fluoridation is a public health measure created to benefit the poor[36] without means to access dentists. They typically list nations like Sweden, Finland, Denmark, etc. It goes without saying these nations provide excellent universal health care regardless of family income including free access to dental care for children. Most of these nations have dental care and surveillance at the school level.[37] In addition to better access to childhood dental care, many of these nations don't fluoridate their water because they fluoridate their salt. For example Switzerland, Germany, and France don't fluoridate their water but they fluoridate their salt.[38]

[edit] The Nazis Freakin' Fluoridated the Water in Death Camps!

This is one of those wonderful examples of an unsourced anecdote mentioned once that gets repeated as fact for decades. The suggestion is the Nazis fluoridated the water to pacify the death camp populations. Apparently starvation, soldiers with guns, and machine gun towers that would mow you down if you got too close to the fence were not enough to mollify the death camp population. They needed to drug them up. The claim is generally attributed to an early denier named Charles E Perkins who wrote a book called The Truth about Water Fluoridation. The claim is Perkins source was a worker at a German chemical company that ostensibly supplied fluoride. However, Politifact casts some doubt on the Perkins origin.[39] His actual book makes no mention of this. However, some allege he wrote a follow on letter that made this claim.[40] Suffice it to say there's zero documentation anywhere the Nazis ever used fluoride for mind control purposes.

[edit] The cream of the anti-fluoridation crop

[edit] Conspiracy theories

Impurifying your precious bodily fluids for more than half a century.
General Jack D. Ripper: You know when fluoridation first began?

Group Capt. Lionel Mandrake: I... no, no. I don't, Jack.

General Jack D. Ripper: Nineteen hundred and forty-six. 1946, Mandrake. How does that coincide with your post-war Commie conspiracy, huh? It's incredibly obvious, isn't it? A foreign substance is introduced into our precious bodily fluids without the knowledge of the individual. Certainly without any choice. That's the way your hard-core Commie works.
Dr. Strangelove[50]

Water fluoridation as a commie plot started among the wingnut paranoids during the Cold War, most notably the John Birch Society — the "dark age" claims of which were being debunked in public at least as early as 1962.[51] The conspiracy theory gained currency among far-left moonbats after it mutated in the early 1990s into a plot by the aluminum industry to dispose of their fluoride wastes by dumping them into the water supply for profit.[52] The implication that Big Pharma is out to poison you and that the scientific consensus is proof of a massive world-wide conspiracy of scientists/dentists makes reasoning with conspiracy theorists particularly difficult.

[edit] Communist plot revealed!

Does a tiger brush his teeth?
Mao Zedong, veterinary dentistry[wp] denialist[53]

Prominent commie Mao Zedong's refusal to brush his teeth is not only definitive proof that the commies were indeed behind US flouride use all along; his aversion to flouride also helps to explain his super-appaling dental hygiene.[54] The cranks agree — resist world communism by not listening to scientists, instead following the Dear Leader's example.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

[edit] Footnotes

  1. http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/amk/doc/0055.html
  2. Water Fluoridation: A Manual For Engineers and Technicians, CDC
  3. Fluoride Action Network: Fluoridation Chemicals
  4. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/d/danieltosh575328.html
  5. See the Wikipedia article on History of water fluoridation.
  6. Truth about fluoride doesn't include Nazi myth, PolitiFact
  7. Water Fluoridation Status of the 50 Largest Cities in the United States, Wisconsin Dental Association (San Jose, which ranks above Portland in population, was unfluoridated until 2012.)
  8. Why Portland Is Wrong About Water Fluoridation, Scientific American
  9. Basic Information about Fluoride in Drinking Water, EPA
  10. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/d/douglascou411342.html
  11. Do cities really save $38 for every $1 they spend on fluoridation?, PolitiFact
  12. Here, here, here and here
  13. What the National and International Experts Say About Water Fluoridation, Ontario Dental Association
  14. Water Fluoridation, WHO
  15. PubMed has over six thousand citations to studies regarding water fluoridation, and this is by no means a complete registry of every study ever done.
  16. Do fluoride levels in cheap tea pose a health risk?, NHS
  17. Concerns over China's teeth, BBC
  18. 18.0 18.1 Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards, National Research Council
  19. What the fuck is wrong with you, Reuters?
  20. 20.0 20.1 Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by Anna L. Choi et al. Environ. Health Perspect. 2012 Oct; 120(10): 1362–1368. Published online 2012 Jul 20. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104912.
  21. Harvard School of Public Health: Impact of fluoride on neurological development in children
  22. Statement on Fluoride Paper by Anna Choi (September 11, 2012).
  23. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand by Jonathan M. Broadbent et al., American Journal of Public Health Volume 105, Issue 1, 2015.
  24. http://www.dietitians.ca/Dietitians-Views/Food-Regulation-and-Labelling/Food-Fortification.aspx
  25. Naturally occurring hazards: Fluoride, WHO
  26. Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, US Department of Health and Human Services
  27. http://www.fluoridation.com/epa2.htm
  28. http://nteu280.org/history/
  29. http://www.in.gov/isdh/24525.htm#Does_the_US_EPA_oppose_water_fluoridation
  30. https://openparachute.wordpress.com/tag/hirzy/
  31. http://fluoridealert.org/researchers/nrc/
  32. http://www.ilikemyteeth.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Doull-Email-on-CWF-March-2013.pdf
  33. http://www.ewg.org/research/how-much-is-too-much/up-to-half-of-young-children-get-too-much-vitamin-zinc-and-niacin
  34. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/oralhealth/en/
  35. http://www.slweb.org/50reasons.html
  36. https://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-66/issue-11/592.html
  37. http://www.fyidenmark.com/dentalcare.html
  38. http://fluoridealert.org/studies/caries01/
  39. http://www.politifact.com/florida/statements/2011/oct/06/critics-water-fluoridation/truth-about-fluoride-doesnt-include-nazi-myth/
  40. https://skepticalvegan.com/2013/03/07/water-fluoridation-a-communist-plot/
  41. https://www.google.com/search?q=site:infowars.com+flouride&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=RxVSVrmBG4K5swHtmZ_4AQ#q=site:infowars.com+fluoride
  42. http://store.infowars.com/Fluoride-In-The-Tap-Water--Blue-Shirt_p_453.html
  43. http://www.davidicke.com/headlines/tag/fluoride/
  44. http://www.infowars.com/the-fluoride-deception-whats-added-to-your-water-supply/
  45. Ludwik Gross, a Trailblazer in Cancer Research, Dies at 94, The New York Times
  46. "Water fluoridation DEFEATED in Portland"
  47. "Ralph Nader on Water Fluoridation" (Sigh)
  48. "Erin Brockovich on Water Fluoridation"
  49. https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/FluoridePoisoning/conversations/topics/12181
  50. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0057012/quotes
  51. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1891&dat=19620321&id=M54fAAAAIBAJ&sjid=qNUEAAAAIBAJ&pg=694,2464316&hl=en
  52. Fluoridation of water, The Skeptic's Dictionary
  53. http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20104202,00.html
  54. http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20104202,00.html
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