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Para-fascists are far-rightists who show nationalistic tendencies, but do not show totalitarian tendencies, or lack some of the elements of general fascism, represented by Nazism and Italian fascism. In general, para-fascists express ultra-nationalist sentiment and a bit of authoritarianism but respect democratic systems and do not support totalitarianism, such as Rick ScottDonald Trump does not count because he went full fascist after plotting a failed coup — and the modern far-right populists in Europe, show this tendency. In addition, Chiang Kai-shek, who showed an authoritarian right-wing tendency but preferred Confucian patriarchy over fascist totalitarianism, is also cited as a para-fascist.[1] Wiktionary defines para-fascism as being populist while abstaining from the most extreme elements of fascism.[2] One could say that a para-fascist has just not yet had sufficient opportunity to become a fascist.

By the definition of Aristotle Kallis, para-fascism can be defined as "a larger category of regimes that adapted or aped ‘fascist’ formal and organizational features, but did not share the revolutionary ideological vision of genuine fascism".[3]:220

Para-fascism represents singular elements of the constellation of the definition of fascism:

Fascism may be defined as a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy, and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal constraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion.
—Robert Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism[4]:218


  1. W. Warren Wagar (2004). H.G. Wells: Traversing Time.
  2. para-fascism Wiktionary.
  3. ‘Fascism’, ‘Para-fascism’ and ‘Fascistization’: On the Similarities of Three Conceptual by Aristotle Kallis (2003) European History Quarterly 33(2):219-249. doi:10.1177/02656914030332004.
  4. Paxton, Robert O. The Anatomy of Fascism. (2005) Knopf. ISBN 1400040949.