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Non-binary gender

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Gender
Icon gender.svg
Spectra and binaries

Non-binary gender is a form of identity and refers to any gender identity that does not fall into the category of male or female. It has nothing to do with aspects of anatomy that are visible or that are currently measurable by science, but rather with one's personal self-identification. This feeling of not being male or female may be due to neurology.

Many modern cultures consider non-binary genders a form of transgender identity, and non-binary people may describe themselves as trans. Other cultures and traditions see them as simply another way of existing, and non-binary people from those cultures don't necessarily describe themselves in transgender terms. A non-binary person is not necessarily the same as a transsexual or an intersex person (though they can be), and as many transsexuals and intersex people view themselves as being either men or women, they will often take umbrage at being placed into a third category without being asked.

There is a misconception that the concept of non-binary genders is relatively new -- that it is supposedly a product of the Internet age, largely spurred by users of the social media website Tumblr as a means to appear unique or special. However, several cultures around the world have had more than two gender types for millennia. Anthropologists who have documented these roles tend to use the term Cogender.Wikipedia's W.svg

Why do some people identify as non-binary?[edit]

Nobody knows yet. Non-binary transgender identity has yet to be evaluated scientifically, unlike binary transgender identity which has been studied extensively. As science recognizes that a binary-identified transsexual is neurologically the gender that they identify as (see Causes of transsexualismWikipedia's W.svg), and science recognizes that the physical body can naturally manifest physical ambiguity of sex (see Intersex), one can speculate that non-binary people might be neurologically intersex.

Examples of traditional cogender identities[edit]

It should be noted that not everyone who holds a traditional cogender role regards themselves as being a non-binary. They may view themselves as binary trans men or trans women. Little research is available in this area.

Africa[edit]

The Americas[edit]

Detail of Dance to the Berdashe, painted by George Catlin
  • MuxesWikipedia's W.svg (also spelled "muxhes") are amab (assigned male at birth) people in Zapotec cultures in Oaxaca (southern Mexico) who dress and behave in ways otherwise associated with the female gender; they may be seen as a third gender.[2] Some marry women and have children while others choose men as sexual or romantic partners.[3] According to anthropologist Lynn Stephen, muxe "may do certain kinds of women’s work such as embroidery or decorating home altars, but others do the male work of making jewelry."[4]
  • TravestisWikipedia's W.svg is a term used in some South American cultures to refer to amab people who have a feminine gender identity and are local socio-political identity. Travestis have been described as a third gender, but not all see themselves this way. By the mid-2010s, a majority of South American trans social movements and activism tend to acknowledge travesti as both a possible gender identity, and a possible socio-political identifier for trans women. Those who acknowledge non-binary genders also tend to see travesti as a possible all-encompassing label for all feminine amab people whose gender identity is not male dominant. (NOTE: "Travesti" may also mean "cross dresser", as it literally means "travestite".)
  • Two-SpiritsWikipedia's W.svg (also referred to by the term berdaches in historical literature, which is considered both obsolete and offensive) is a modern umbrella term used by some indigenous North American tribes for gender-variant people in their communities. The presence of amab two-spirits "was a fundamental institution among most tribal peoples."[5] According to Will Roscoe, amab and afab (assigned female at birth) two-spirits have been "documented in over 130 North America tribes, in every region of the continent."[6] Two-spirit individuals are viewed in some tribes as having two identities occupying one body. Their dress is usually a mixture of traditionally male and traditionally female articles, or they may dress as a man one day, and a woman on another. According to Sabine Lang many tribes have distinct gender and social roles.[7] Amab two-spirit people, regardless of gender identification, can go to war and have access to male activities such as male-only sweat lodge ceremonies.[8] However, they may also take on "feminine" activities such as cooking and other domestic responsibilities.[9] Two-spirits might have relationships with people of either sex.[10] According to Lang, afab two-spirits usually have sexual relations or marriages with only females.[11] Specific tribal identities include the Lakota WinkteWikipedia's W.svg and the Zuni LhamanaWikipedia's W.svg.

Asia[edit]

A bissu
  • BaklasWikipedia's W.svg are amab people in the Philippines, who generally (but not always) behave like women and usually exclusively attracted to men. Some self-identify as women rather than a third gender.
  • The Bugis peopleWikipedia's W.svg of Indonesia have five genders.[12] These genders, aside from cisgender men and cisgender women, are the calabai (pronounced "cha-lah-bye" literally "false woman"), who are amab people who take the role of heterosexual women, the calalai (pronounced "cha-lah-lye", literally "false man", who are afab people who take on the role of heterosexual men, and the bissu, who can be described as "gender transcendent", in that they are a combination of the other four and are considered necessary for all genders to harmoniously coexist. The closest equivalent to a bissu in the English speaking world would be a pangender person.
  • HijirasWikipedia's W.svg are amab people in south Asia who behave like women. They have legal recognition in India and Bangladesh as a third gender.
  • KathoeysWikipedia's W.svg (pronounced "kah-toy") are amab people in Thailand who behave like women. Some identify as women, others as men, and others identify as a third gender. They are often referred to as "ladyboys" in English, although this term is now considered derogatory.
  • Yinyang renWikipedia's W.svg are people in Chinese society whose personalities and behaviors appear to be intermediate between more ordinary masculine and feminine cases. Involved characteristics may include elements such as assertiveness, esthetic sensitivity, etc., as well as lack of strong discrimination between preferred sexual partners on the basis of their sex.

Europe[edit]

A sworn virgin in Rapsha, Albania
  • Balkan sworn virginsWikipedia's W.svg are afab people who behave as men. This practice is mostly found in northern Albania, but it has been recorded as existing, to a lesser extent, in Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia, and Montenegro. An afab person becomes a sworn virgin by swearing an irrevocable oath, in front of 12 village or tribal elders, to practice celibacy. Then they are allowed to live as a man. They will then be able to dress in male clothes, use a male name, carry a gun, smoke, drink alcohol, take on male work, act as the head of a household (for example, living with a sister or mother), play music and sing, and sit and talk socially with men.[13] An afab person can become a sworn virgin at any age. Breaking the vow is punishable by death, but it is dubious if this is still enforced. Sworn virgins who are alive today refuse to break the vow for fear of losing the respect of their communities. There are many reasons why an afab person would have wanted to take this vow, and observers have recorded a variety of motivations. One said they became a sworn virgin in order to not be separated from their father, and another in order to live and work with her sister. Several were recorded as saying they always felt more male than female. Some hoped to avoid a specific unwanted marriage, and others hoped to avoid marriage in general. This practice has died out in many places, but still continues in some areas. Albanian sworn virgins appear to benefit from a certain degree of male privilege; they are allowed to smoke, visit taverns, and generally display a carriage of confidence and independence rarely found among cisgender women in patriarchal Albanian culture.
  • FemminielliWikipedia's W.svg, or femmenielli (singular femminiello), a term that derives from the singular Italian femmina, "a female," and -ello, masculine diminutive suffix, are androphilic amab people with feminine gender expression in traditional Neapolitan culture. It may be hard to define this term within modern Western notions of "gay men" versus "trans women", since both these categories overlap to a degree in the case of femminielli It has been noted that this term is not derogatory and does not carry stigma, instead femminielli are traditionally believed to bring good luck. Ironically Achille della Ragione suggests that recent surveys have shown that Neapolitans have a generally negative view of what he calls "the politically correct model of homosexuality of a hypocritical do-gooder society" (implying the mainstream Western gay culture), yet he contrasts femminielli as enjoying a favorable attitude in Neapolitan society.[14] Achille della Ragione has written of social aspects of femminielli. "[The femminiello] is usually the youngest male child, 'mother's little darling,' (..) he is useful, he does chores, runs errands and watches the kids." A certain incompatibility between the notions of femminiello and (often foreign-born) transsexuals can be observed, e.g., a news headline reading Rivolta ai quartieri Spagnoli: i femminielli cacciano le trans ("Revolt in the Spanish Quarter: femminielli drive out the transsexuals.") They may have a historical connection to the Galli of ancient Rome.

Oceania[edit]

  • Akava'inesWikipedia's W.svg are amab people who behave as women among the Cook Islands Māori. While the usage of "'Akava'ine" for a binary transgender female is recent, it is known that pre-Christian Cook Islands Māori societies held the presence of a third gender. An amab of effeminate nature who dressed like a woman was considered neither exclusively female nor male, but was treated as an equal among women, and regarded with respect by the rest of the community, as they excelled in the domestic duties of both women and men.[15]
  • Fa'afafinesWikipedia's W.svg are third gender people of Samoa and the Samoan diaspora. A recognized identity/role since at least the early 20th century in Samoan society, and some theorize an integral part of traditional Samoan culture, fa'afafine are (generally) amab, and explicitly embody both masculine and feminine gender traits, fashioned in a way unique to this part of the world. Their behavior typically ranges from extravagantly feminine to mundanely masculine.
  • FakaleitisWikipedia's W.svg (or leitis or fakafefines or ladies) are Tongan amab people who behave in a relatively effeminate manner. Although fakaleiti in Tonga do not necessarily associate with transgender or gay and lesbian identities in the Western world, those who grow up in Tongan migrant communities in New Zealand, Australia, and the United States may find a greater level of community and affinity to similar identities than fakaleiti in the island kingdom.
  • MāhūsWikipedia's W.svg in traditional Hawaiian culture are third gender persons similar to the Tongan fakaleiti and Samoan fa'afafine. In modern day Hawaii it is a commonly used slang word for transvestite and transgender persons.

In Islamic texts[edit]

  • MukhannathunWikipedia's W.svg ("effeminate ones", "men who resemble women", singular mukhannath) is classical Arabic for people who might now now be called transgender women, perhaps poorly distinguished from eunuchs. Various "mukhannathun" appear in several hadith.[16] In one hadith the Islamic prophet Muhammad banishes a mukhannath to a region near Medina, but prohibits people from killing them.[16] They could be said to be Muslim trans women accepted as they are "within the boundaries of Medina and Mecca".[17] Outside of the religious text they are strongly associated with music and entertainment.[17]

In Jewish texts[edit]

  • The androgynosWikipedia's W.svg is a "hermaphrodite" or someone displaying both male and female characteristics. The androgynos is one of the four non-binary genders in the Talmud, Mishnah and other rabbinic texts.[18][19][20] There is also the tumtumWikipedia's W.svg, (from Hebrew טומטום, meaning "hidden") a person whose sexual characteristics are intermediate or obscured. There is also the ay'lonit, which is an afab person who develops male characteristics at puberty and is infertile. There is also the saris, which is a person who is amab but develops female characteristics as puberty and/or is lacking a penis. A saris can be “naturally” a saris (saris hamah), or become one through human intervention (saris adam).[18]

Recorded extinct cogender identities in history[edit]

Statue of a Gallus
  • EnareesWikipedia's W.svg (or enareis) were Scythian shamans recorded by Herodotus, and described as effeminate or androgynous. Scythian shamanism involved religious ecstasy through the use of entheogens; they had no temples and worshiped the forces of nature.[21]
  • GalaWikipedia's W.svg (Akkadian: kalû) were mostly amab priests of the Sumerian goddess Inanna, significant numbers of the personnel of both temples and palaces, the central institutions of Mesopotamian city states, individuals with neither male nor female gender identities. Their hymns were sung in a Sumerian dialect known as eme-sal, normally used to render the speech of female gods,[22] and some gala took female names.[23] Androphilic proclivities are clearly implied by the Sumerian proverb that reads, "When the gala wiped off his anus [he said], ‘I must not arouse that which belongs to my mistress [i.e., Inanna]’ ".[24] However, in spite of all their references of their effeminate character (especially in the Sumerian proverbs), many administrative texts mention gala priests who had children, wives, and large families.[25] Furthermore, some gala priests were afab.[26]
  • GalliWikipedia's W.svg (singular: Gallus) were amab eunuch priests of the of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis, whose worship was incorporated into the state religious practices of ancient Rome. The Galli castrated themselves during an ecstatic celebration called the Dies sanguinis, or "Day of Blood", which took place on March 24.[27] At the same time they put on women's costume, mostly yellow in colour, and a sort of turban, together with pendants and ear-rings. They also wore their hair long, and bleached, and wore heavy make-up. They wandered around with followers, begging for charity, in return for which they were prepared to tell fortunes. On the day of mourning for Attis they ran around wildly and disheveled. They performed dances to the music of pipes and tambourines, and, in an ecstasy, flogged themselves until they bled.[28]
  • KoekchuchWikipedia's W.svg is an extinct gender identity recorded among the ItelmensWikipedia's W.svg of Siberia. These were amab individuals who behaved as women did, and were recorded in the late 18th century and early 19th century.

Emerging non-binary gender identities in the West[edit]

Genderqueer pride flag, created by Marilyn Roxie.
  • GenderqueerWikipedia's W.svg is a catch-all term for any gender identity outside of the gender binary and cisnormativity.[29]
  • BigenderWikipedia's W.svg describes a gender identity that shows a tendency to move between two distinct genders, most commonly feminine and masculine gender-typed behavior, depending on context. Some bi-gender individuals express a distinctly "female" persona and a distinctly "male" persona, feminine and masculine respectively; others have shades of grey between the two. One may also find that they are two genders at the same time. It is recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a subset of the transgender group. A 1999 survey conducted by the San Francisco Department of Public Health observed that, among the transgender community, less than 3% of those who were assigned male at birth and less than 8% of those who were assigned female at birth identified as bigender.[30]
  • PangenderWikipedia's W.svg is a gender identity in which a person identifies as being of all genders. This has been criticized as all genders presumably includes nuerotype/culture specific gender, and this is considered appropriative and nuerotype genders can only apply to that nuerotype, and no one is all ethnicities and nuerotypes at once.
  • TrigenderWikipedia's W.svg is a gender identity in which one shifts between or among the typical behaviors of male, female, and a third gender.[31][32][33]
  • Agender (meaning "without" or "a lack of" a "gender"; also genderless, non-gendered, ungendered[34][35]) is a person who identifies as "having no gender" or "without gender identity".[36] It may fall under the genderqueer or transgender[37][38][39] (lit. being "beyond gender") umbrella. It is related to, and may overlap with the gender identity of neutrois, defined as either a neutral or neither gender, or sometimes no gender.[40]
  • Neutrois is a gender identity that is neutral or null. Neutrois people may also describe themselves variously as genderless, neither male nor female, or androgynous, or possibly agender,[40] the lack of a gender, a term with which there is a degree of overlap, although neutrois tends to cover a neutral gender identity, whereas agender tends to cover the lack of a gender.
  • Demigirl (or demiwoman, or demifemale) is a gender identity where an individual who only partially (not wholly) identifies as female. They can be any gender assigned at birth.[citation needed]
  • Demiguy (or demigirl or demiman, or demimale) is a is a gender identity where an individual who only partially (not wholly) identifies as a male. They can be any gender assigned at birth.[citation needed]
  • Maverique Is defined as a third gender, fully separate for the concept of "male", "female" or "neutral".

Xenogender[edit]

Xenogender is an obscure neologism for genders that "cannot be contained by human understandings of gender; more concerned with crafting other methods of gender categorization and hierarchy such as those relating to animals, plants, or other creatures/things." The term was first coined by the tumblr user Baaphomet in 2014.[41] Perhaps needless to say, none of this has any scientific support.

Xenogenders are a result of non binary minors and non binary young adults struggling to describe their gender. Out of a need to have some understanding of their gender, they resort to metaphors and symbolism.[42]

Criticism of Non-binaries[edit]

Since the inception of the modern non-binary movement, it has garnered skepticism, negative criticism, derision and even violence against non-binaries. Many non-binary people are accused of being "special snowflakes", "attention whores", among other names. However, this criticism ignores the fact that gender identity has a largely personal component to it. In addition, something as simple as asserting oneself of their identification tends to cause derision and hatred to be sent that person's way. Until science provides any insight into gender binaries and whether there's any scientific basis to them, there is little in the way of criticism about a nonbinary person, technically speaking, which can be directed towards them in a constructive manner. If the person was claiming to be non-binary merely to garner attention, people scrutinizing them and berating them rather than treating their non-binary identity as just a matter of fact would be feeding the desire for attention. See Troll for more information on this particular part of the topic.

It can also be argued that the dismissal of non-binary identity is extremely ethnocentric, as other cultures have recognized cogender identities. If one insists that male and female are the only genders, one dismisses the self-identification and cultural importance of the various identities described above.

Finally, if exploring one's gender identity is a "trend", as some have called it, then it is better than the previous trend of feeling isolated, alone, and having absolutely no means of articulating one's feelings, let alone finding a community that shares them.

So, in conclusion, there is no reason to be dick to non-binary genders. You're not being morally/intellectually superior, you're just being obnoxious. Use their preferred name and pronouns, and don't make a federal case out of it.

Discrimination[edit]

Non-binary people do face discrimination. About 30% of non-binary people in Australia have suffered thoughts of suicide or self harm in the last 2 weeks.[43] Non-binary people are more likely to suffer drug problems than the general population.[44] Non binary people are more likely to experience physical assaults, police brutality and harassment than trans people with a binary gender.[45] They are more likely to lose their job than cisgender people.[46]

Terms[edit]

Binarism refers to the intersection of racism/colonialism and the insistence that there are only 2 genders (e.g. the erasure of culture-specific genders.)

Exorsexism/enbyphobia (depending on who you're talking to) is the discrimination/erasure of non-binary genders. Eurosexism may not be a good term as it is based on the only the American non-binary activist's experiences. Example: in America, European invaders have erased the existence of Two-Spirited Native Americans. Eurosexism is based the assumptions that the gender binary is purely a European invention and erasure of non-binary genders is the fault of European colonists. Non-American non-white non-binary activists point out it is untrue to broadly apply to all experiences of enyphobia to the fault of European colonists. These people prefer the term "enbyphobia" as the gender binary existed in other non-Europeans cultures before contact with Europeans.

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Epprecht, Marc. Heterosexual Africa?: The History of an Idea from the Age of Exploration to the Age of AIDS, p.61-62
  2. Chiñas, Beverly (1995). Isthmus Zapotec attitudes toward sex and gender anomalies, pp. 293-302 in Stephen O. Murray (ed.), "Latin American Male Homosexualities" Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
    Chiñas (p. 294) defines muxe as “persons who appear to be predominantly male but display certain female characteristics” and fill a “third gender role between men and women, taking some of the characteristics of each.”
  3. Stephen, Lynn (2002). "Latin American Perspectives," Issue 123, Vol.29 No.2, March 2002, pp. 41-59. http://web.archive.org/web/20070129073904/http://www.uky.edu/~tmute2/mexico/MexWeb/Mex+PDFs/stephan-gender-zapotec.pdf Sexualities and Genders in Zapotec Oaxaca. 98.6  KiB
  4. MIANO, M. (2002). Hombre, mujer y muxe’ en el Istmo de Tehuantepec. México: Plaza y Valdés. CONACULTA-INAH.
  5. Gilley, Brian Joseph (2006: 8). Becoming Two-Spirit: Gay Identity and Social Acceptance in Indian Country. ISBN 0-8032-7126-3.
  6. Roscoe, Will (1991). The Zuni Man-Woman, p.5. ISBN 0-8263-1253-5.
  7. Lang, Sabine, Men as women, women as men: changing gender in Native American cultures'.'
  8. "Inventory of Aboriginal Services, Issues and Initiatives in Vancouver: Two Spirit – LGTB". http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/socialplanning/initiatives/aboriginal/tools/directory/twospirit.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  9. Page 72 - http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/aboriginal-services-inventory.pdf
  10. Stryker, Susan (2004). "Berdache". glbtq.com. http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/berdache.html. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  11. Lang, S. (1998), pp. 289–298.
  12. In Indonesia, Non-Binary Gender is a Centuries-Old Idea: Modern Western culture is slowly acknowledging gender fluidity, but "third genders" and other classifications have existed throughout history by Jessie Guy-Ryan (June 18, 2016) Atlas Obscura.
  13. Murray, By Stephen O.; a.o, Will Roscoe; With additional contributions by Eric Allyn (1997). Islamic homosexualities: Culture, history, and literature. New York: New York University Press. pp. 198. ISBN 0814774687. 
  14. Achille della Ragione. "I femminielli". http://www.guidecampania.com/dellaragione/articolo3/articolo.htm#99. "Il napoletano, come dimostrano recenti statistiche, non vede di buon occhio l'omosessuale più o meno dichiarato, quello politically correct, che oggi, altrove, va tanto di moda ed è apparentemente accettato da una società ipocritamente buonista. Ma da noi il femminiello può vivere quasi sempre, soprattutto nei quartieri popolari, in una atmosfera accogliente, segnata dal consenso e dal buonumore." 
  15. The Gender Centre Inc. (1 June 2013). "Polare 3: Like a lady in Polynesia The Gender Centre Inc. (Australia) Retrieved on 26 September 2015.
  16. 16.0 16.1 USC-MSA compendium of Muslim Text: Partial Translation of Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 41:General Behavior (Kitab Al-Adab), Number 4910. usc.edu. Retrieved on 26 September 2015.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Rowson, Everett K. (October 1991). "The Effeminates of Early Medina". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 111 (4): 671–693. http://www.williamapercy.com/wiki/images/The_effeminates_of_early_medina.pdf. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Terms for Gender Diversity in Classical Jewish Texts". Transtorah.org. http://transtorah.org/PDFs/Classical_Jewish_Terms_for_Gender_Diversity.pdf. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  19. "Gender Diversity in Halacha (The Way We Walk)". Transtorah.org. http://transtorah.org/PDFs/Gender_Diversity_In_Halacha.pdf. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  20. "ANDROGYNOS (Hermaphrodite) - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 26 September 2015.
  21. "Eurasians". Im Nin'alu. http://www.imninalu.net/Eurasians.htm. Retrieved 2013-09-03. 
  22. Hartmann 1960:138; Krecher 1966; Cohen 1974:11, 32
  23. Bottéro and Petschow 1975:465
  24. Gordon 1959, no. 2.100
  25. Rubio 2001:270; Michalowski 2006
  26. al-Rawi 1992
  27. Maarten J. Vermaseren, Cybele and Attis: the myth and the cult, translated by A. M. H. Lemmers, London: Thames and Hudson, 1977, p.115: "The Day of Blood (dies sanguinis) is the name given to the ceremonies on 24 March. On this day the priests flagellated themselves until the blood came 662 and with it they sprinkled the effigy and the altars in the temple."
  28. Maarten J. Vermaseren, Cybele and Attis: the myth and the cult, translated by A. M. H. Lemmers, London: Thames and Hudson, 1977, p.97.
  29. Usher, Raven, ed (2006). North American Lexicon of Transgender Terms. San Francisco. ISBN 9781879194625. 
  30. Clements, K. San Francisco Department of Public Health, 1999
  31. Leslie Feinberg, Trans Liberation: Beyond Pink Or Blue, page 53-4, Beacon Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8070-7951-0, ISBN 978-0-8070-7951-5.
  32. Maurianne Adams, Lee Anne Bell, Pat Griffin, Teaching for diversity and social justice, page 224,CRC Press, 2007, ISBN 0-415-95200-X, 9780415952002.
  33. Timothy F. Murphy, Reader's guide to lesbian and gay studies, Taylor & Francis, 2000, page 588, ISBN 1-57958-142-0, ISBN 978-1-57958-142-8.
  34. "LGBTQ Needs Assessment" (PDF). April 2013. pp. 52–53. http://encompassnetwork.org.uk/uploads/LGBTQ-Needs-Assesmentabsolutelyfinal.pdf. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  35. "Gender alphabet" (PDF). p. 1. http://www.safehomesma.org/gender_alphabet.pdf. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  36. A. Stiffler (23 April 2014). "Five Things You Should Know About Your Agender Acquaintance". Autostaddle.com. http://www.autostraddle.com/five-things-you-should-know-about-your-agender-acquaintance-230899/. 
  37. Johanna Schorn. "Taking the "Sex" out of Transsexual: Representations of Trans Identities in Popular Media" (PDF). Universität zu Köln. p. 1. http://www.inter-disciplinary.net/critical-issues/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/schornglpaper.pdf. Retrieved 23 October 2014. "The term transgender is an umbrella term “and generally refers to any and all kinds of variation from gender norms and expectations” (Stryker 19). Most often, the term transgender is used for someone who feels that the sex assigned to them at birth does not reflect their own gender identity. They may identify as the gender ‘opposite’ to their assigned gender, or they may feel that their gender identity is fluid, or they may reject all gender categorizations and identify as agender or genderqueer" 
  38. Marc E. Vargo (30 Nov 2011). "A Review of " Please select your gender: From the invention of hysteria to the democratizing of transgenderism "" (PDF). Journal of GLBT Family Studies (New York/London: Routledge) 7 (5): 2 (493). ISSN 1550-4298. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1550428X.2011.623982. Retrieved 23 October 2014. "up to three million U. S. citizens regard themselves as transgender, a term referring to those whose gender identities are at odds with their biological sex. The term is an expansive one, however, and may apply to other individuals as well, from the person whose behavior purposely and dramatically diverges from society’s traditional male/female roles to the “agender”, “bigender” or “third gender” person whose self-definition lies outside of the male/female binary altogether. In short, those counted under this term constitute a wide array of people who do not conform to, and may actively challenge, conventional gender norms." 
  39. Kirstin Cronn-Mills (2014). "IV. Trans*spectrum. Identities". Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex Voices. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4677-4796-7. http://books.google.nl/books?id=dOUSBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA24&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 23 October 2014. "Many different individuals fall under what experts call the trans* spectrum, or the trans* umbrella.“I'm trans*” and “I'm transgender” are ways these individuals might refer to themselves. But there are distinctions among different trans* identities. [...] Androgynous individuals may not identify with either side of the gender binary. Other individuals consider themselves agender, and they may feel they have no gender at all." 
  40. 40.0 40.1 "What is Neutrois?". http://neutrois.com/what-is-neutrois/. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  41. http://nonbinary.org/wiki/Xenogender [a w]
  42. Xenogenders
  43. The Statistics At a Glance: The Mental Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex People in Australia - National LGBTI Health Alliance
  44. The First Australian National Trans Mental Health Study
  45. A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey
  46. Gender Inequality: Nonbinary Transgender People in the Workplace