The Great Replacement
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The Great Replacement (French: Le Grand Remplacement), called "replacement theory" by Tucker Carlson in an attempt to reframe the conspiracy for his more moderate audience, is a racist, Islamophobic, anti-semitic, white nationalist, far-right genocide conspiracy theory originating in France, which asserts that the white Christian population of either Europe, North America (United States and Canada), or Australia and New Zealand "is being systematically replaced with non-European people", specifically Muslims (including Muslim European Turks, Bosniaks and Kosovars) through mass immigration and low birth rates. All this courtesy of a global élite gang of conspirators, probably based in Brussels or for the more crackpot elements out there the Jews. The theory is used interchangeably with the white genocide conspiracy theory.
A study done in May of 2022 showed almost a third of all adult Americans believe in some aspects of the Great Replacement. 
The phrase originates with a 2012 book called The Great Replacement (Le Grand Remplacement) by French writer Renaud Camus. However, the same idea dates back earlier in the United States to a 1947 book by Theodore G. Bilbo titled Take Your Choice: Separation or Mongrelization Bilbo was a racist Dixiecrat from Mississippi who was Governor and then Senator of the state.
Being fucked by Arabs, Camus felt, was passé: what mattered above all was same-race, same-sex intercourse and the extinction of difference: white men who identified as gay should fuck white men, and do so in conspicuously gay spaces.
Camus based his racist theory on ideas put forward in the 1972 book The Camp of the Saints, a novel by Jean Raspail, which describes "mass immigration destroying Western civilization" (and which enjoyed a renewed burst of popularity around 2011), and the Eurabia conspiracy theory. He formed the curiously-named political party "Party of No-harm" (French: Le Parti de l’In-nocence), which pushes a mix of left- and right-wing policies to no electoral success. Today, Camus is the acceptable face of anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim politics, appearing "plausibly high-minded, principally aesthetic, even well-mannered"; historian Mark Lilla called him "a kind of connective tissue between the far right and the respectable right".
Why it's BS
One of the common talking points is that the number of non-White babies born has been increasing. This entirely ignores the definition of "White", and relies upon an extremely racist form of special pleading known as "the one-drop rule". Why should the child of a White man and Black woman be "non-White" instead of "non-Black"? If you have a town that's made up of 50% Irish and 50% Italians, and everyone marries randomly, only a quarter of couples will be Irish-Irish and another quarter Italian-Italian and half will be Irish-Italian, and if we repeat the process only 1/16th will be pure-Italian, and then 1/256th in the next generation. Were all the Italians "replaced" by spud-munchers, or is the town still half-Italian? So too with "non-White" people; of course the number of babies without any "non-White" ancestors will decrease over time in a free society.
The slogans "You Will Not Replace Us" and the more blatantly antisemitic and racist "Jews Will Not Replace Us" used by alt-right protestors during the violent Charlottesville riots in Charlottesville, Virginia, USA has been associated with, and is ostensibly derived from, The Great Replacement conspiracy theory.
Christchurch terrorist manifesto
The Australia-born Christchurch terrorist attacks shooter Brenton Harrison Tarrant named his manifesto after this theory. Although the manifesto contained numerous references to the Great Replacement theory, the majority of the manifesto consists of a mix of unrelated white nationalist talking points and alt-right propaganda taken from the internet. The reaction to the manifesto attracted attention to other groups using comparable rhetoric, and led to Facebook banning white nationalist propaganda from their platform.
El Paso terrorist manifesto
Patrick Crusius of Allen, the perpetrator of the shooting at a Walmart store in El Paso, Texas was also influenced by the theory, and mentioned in his manifesto The Inconvient[sic] Truth a supposed "Hispanic invasion of Texas" and claimed he was "simply trying to defend my country from ethnic and cultural replacement brought on by an invasion" as well as praising the aforementioned Brenton Harrison Tarrant and his manifesto. Additionally, Crusius also read Tarrant's The Great Replacement manifesto.
2021 U.S. coup attempt
Fear of the Great Replacement was a significant driver of the January 6, 2021 coup attempt by Trump supporters. Arrestees were 6-times more likely to come from counties with declines in the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites in the population. Fear that Blacks and Hispanics are overtaking Whites increased the likelihood of being an insurrectionist by 3-fold in the second study. Fear that Blacks and Hispanics will have more rights than Whites increased the likelihood of being an insurrectionist by 2-fold in the third study.
- Alt-right glossary
- Tucker Carlson
- Peter Frost
- Identity Evropa/American Identity Movement (IE/AIM) — one of the main components of the Identitarian movement in the United States/North America.
- The Kalergi Plan and Eurabia — different white genocide conspiracy theories
- Le Grand Remplacement by Renaud Camus (2011) D. Reinharc. ISBN 2358690317.
- Take Your Choice: Separation or Mongrelization by Theodore G. Bilbo (1947) Dream House Pub.
- The roots of the ‘great replacement theory’ believed to fuel Buffalo suspect by Martha M. Hamilton & Aaron Wiener (May 15, 2022) The Washington Post.
- "Bitch Nation" by Musab Younis, London Review of Books, Vol. 41 No. 3 · 7 February 2019, pages 39-40
- "Autant j'aime Renaud Camus, autant je suis mal à l'aise avec le parti de l'In-nocence", Emmanuel Carrère, L'Express, 31 Jan 2012
- The French Origins of "You Will Not Replace Us", Thomas Chatterton Williams, New Yorker, 4 Dec 2017
- “You will not replace us”: a French philosopher explains the Charlottesville chant: American white nationalists may not realize it, but the fear of replacement is essential to the work of a controversial French writer named Renaud Camus. by Sarah Wildman (Aug 15, 2017, 9:20am EDT) Vox.
- Renaud Camus's ideas may have inspired the Christchurch mosque slayings in New Zealand McAuley, James. Washington Post - March 15, 2019.
- Facebook to ban white nationalism after mosque attacks by Sharon Marris (28 March 2019 08:01, UK) Sky News.
- Arango, Tim; Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas; Benner, Katie (August 3, 2019). "Minutes Before El Paso Killing, Hate-Filled Manifesto Appears Online". The New York Times.
- Austria mulls dissolving far-right movement over Christchurch links by Philip Oltermann (27 Mar 2019 12.37 EDT) The Guardian.
- Understanding American Domestic Terrorism: Mobilization Potential and Risk Factors of a New Threat Trajectory by Robert A. Pape et al. (April 6, 2021) The Chicago Project on Security and Threats.
- The Buffalo supermarket shooting suspect allegedly posted an apparent manifesto repeatedly citing 'great replacement' theory by Ben Collins, May 14, 2022, NBC News