Second-god (Christ)

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Second-god is the only-begotten son of First-god (YHWH), was incarnated in a virgin (Mary) and crucified for us. The Nicene Creed, the most widely accepted confession of the Christian faith (but not the only one), explains that this god will appear on Earth at the end of days to judge the living and the dead. The pseudo-birth of this god (an immortal, and extant since creation) is celebrated by Christians on Christmas and the resurrection of this god (three days after its pseudo-death) is celebrated on Easter.

Philo, a hellenized Jew,Wikipedia wrote that this god had many names, but the only specific name that Philo ever mentioned is Anatole (Rising One).[1] However, Philo did attribute to Second-god elements that Paul (a later devotee) also attributed to this god:

And from other of the earliest Christian documents:[2]

Furthermore Philo interpreted the priest named Jesus featured in Zechariah 6 as second-god. Therefore Philo must also have believed that this god was not just named Anatole but also named Jesus.[1][3]


Jesus was regarded as a pre-existent incarnate divine being from the earliest recorded history of Christianity, even in fact before the writings of Paul, and that this was not even remarkable within Judaism. The specifically trinitarian concept of Jesus being identical to the supreme God he [sc. Bart Ehrman] shows did indeed only arise much later. But that even Jews accepted a spectrum of divinity, and not a binary, Ehrman also well proves.[4]
Richard Carrier[5]
There remains only one explanation: Paul believed … in a divine Christ, before he believed in Jesus.
William WredeWikipedia[6]

Paul[7] wrote at least six letters (Pauline epistles) in the 50sWikipedia of the 1st century CE[8] proclaiming and commenting on Second-god. As an Apostle, Paul had a personal relationship with this god, writing, "[It pleased First-god] to reveal his son in me, that I might preach him among the gentiles"[note 1][9] and "I want you to know, brothers and sisters, that the gospel I preached is not of human origin. I did not receive it from any man, nor was I taught it; rather, I received it by revelation from Jesus Christ."[note 2] Paul most frequently refers to this god by the title Lord but does use other epithets:

Paul's appellations for Second-god[10]
Title Name Cognomen
Κυρίος (Lord) Ἰησοῦς (Jesus) Χριστός (Christ)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. [Galatians 1:15] ὅτε δὲ εὐδόκησεν ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἀφορίσας με ἐκ κοιλίας μητρός μου καὶ καλέσας διὰ τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ [16] ἀποκαλύψαι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ ἵνα εὐαγγελίζωμαι αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν εὐθέως οὐ προσανεθέμην σαρκὶ καὶ αἵματι

    [15] óte dé evdókisen o theós o aforísas me ek koilías mitrós mou kaí kalésas diá tís cháritos aftoú [16] apokalýpsai tón yión aftoú en emoí ína evangelízomai aftón en toís éthnesin efthéos ou prosanethémin sarkí kaí aímati

  2. [Galatians 1:11] γνωρίζω γὰρ ὑμῖν ἀδελφοί τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τὸ εὐαγγελισθὲν ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον [12] οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐγὼ παρὰ ἀνθρώπου παρέλαβον αὐτό οὔτε ἐδιδάχθην ἀλλὰ δι᾽ ἀποκαλύψεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

    [11] gnorízo gár ymín adelfoí tó evangélion tó evangelisthén yp᾽ emoú óti ouk éstin katá ánthropon [12] oudé gár egó pará anthrópou parélavon aftó oúte edidáchthin allá di᾽ apokalýpseos Iisoú Christoú


  • Carrier, Richard (2014a). On the Historicity of Jesus: Why We Might Have Reason for Doubt. Sheffield Phoenix Press. ISBN 9781909697355. 
  • Carrier, Richard (2014b). "Why We Might Have Reason for Doubt: Should We Still Be Looking for a Historical Jesus?".  The Bible and Interpretation.
  • Carrier, Richard (2020a). Jesus from Outer Space: What the Earliest Christians Really Believed about Christ. Pitchstone Publishing. ISBN 9781634312080. 
  • Carrier, Richard (2020b). "Jesus from Outer Space?".  The Bible and Interpretation.
  • Doherty, Earl (2009) [1999]. Jesus: Neither God Nor Man - The Case for a Mythical Jesus (2 ed.). Ottawa: Age of Reason Publications. ISBN 9780968925928.  New edition, Revised and Expanded, Originally published under the title: The Jesus Puzzle: Did Christianity Begin with a Mythical Christ? - Challenging the Existence of an Historical Jesus
  • Ehrman, Bart D. (2014). How Jesus became God : The exaltation of a Jewish preacher from Galilee. HarperCollins–HarperOne. ISBN 9780061778186. 
  • Lataster, Raphael (2019a). Questioning the Historicity of Jesus: Why a Philosophical Analysis Elucidates the Historical Discourse. Brill–Rodopi. ISBN 9789004397934. 
  • Lataster, Raphael (2019b). "Questioning Jesus’ Historicity".  The Bible and Interpretation.
  • Novenson, Matthew V. (2012). Christ among the messiahs : Christ language in Paul and messiah language in ancient Judaism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199844579. 
  • Wrede, William (1907) [1904 in German]. Paul [Paulus]. London: Philip Green. 


  1. 1.0 1.1 Carrier (16 December 2017). "On the Historicity of Jesus: The Daniel Gullotta Review".  Richard Carrier Blogs.
  2. Carrier 2020a, pp. 17–18. "The earliest documents we have from Christians are the authentic letters of Paul (only seven; the rest are now known to be later forgeries), and perhaps a few other letters in the New Testament, like 1 Peter, James, Jude, and Hebrews, and possibly the first letter from Clement of Rome."
  3. Carrier (9 December 2017). "The Difference Between a Historian and an Apologist".  Richard Carrier Blogs. "[Zechariah 6] was written about Jesus ben Jehozadak (literally, “Jesus, Son of God the Righteous”), the first High Priest of the second temple. It’s his coronation. Philo says the Logos is the Son of God and the High Priest. Who is the Son of God and the High Priest in this passage? There is only one: Jesus. It’s therefore clear, Philo is reading this as a coronation declaration to Jesus, not of someone else (and note, there isn’t anyone else present to “behold” but him)."
  4. Ehrman 2014.
  5. Carrier (22 March 2015). "Bart Ehrman on How Jesus Became God".  Richard Carrier Blogs.
  6. Wrede 1907, p. 151, Ch. III – His Theology §. A Pre-Christian Christology.
  7. Carrier (6 June 2015). "The Historicity of Paul the Apostle".  Richard Carrier Blogs.
  8. Carrier (18 July 2021). "How Do We Know the Apostle Paul Wrote His Epistles in the 50s A.D.?".  Richard Carrier Blogs.
  9. Godfrey, Neil (7 October 2018). "Making sense of God revealing his son "IN" Paul".  Vridar.
  10. Godfrey, Neil (27 June 2012). "Christ among the Messiahs — Part 3b".  Vridar.