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The Upanishads are the holy book of the Vedanta tradition within Hinduism. The Upanishad texts span much of Hindu history; the first and most important were written between 800BCE and 600BCE, but the tradition produced many highly-regarded texts as late as 700CE. There are a few texts that have been written as late as the 1500s, and some Hindus claim their own fully modern works as Upanishad texts. The Upanishads support the Vedas.

Like much of Hindu literature, the Upanishad texts tend to focus on spirituality and contemplation rather than on moralistic stances or orthodoxy more common in the Abrahamic religions.

The Vedanta tradition recognizes 11 texts that form the core of the Vedanta.

  • Katha Upanishad
  • Isa Upanishad
  • Kena Upanishad
  • Mundaka Upanishad
  • Svetasvatara Upanishad
  • Prasna Upanishad
  • Mandukya Upanishad
  • Aitareya Upanishad
  • Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
  • Taittiriya Upanishad
  • Chhandogya Upanishad