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Philosophical naturalism is the doctrine that the natural world is all there is.
Most philosophers of science adhere strictly to this view and positively deny that any supernatural or miraculous effects or forces are possible, though a small minority believe that there are other ways of knowing.
 Origins in methodological naturalism
Philosophical naturalism is essentially the logical result of methodological naturalism, the doctrine which assumes that there is no way to contact, detect, or otherwise empirically observe the supernatural. Methodological naturalists believe the scientific method to be the best way to determine the truth. Because supernatural, intelligent forces, if they exist, are claimed to be unpredictable and hence unrepeatable, these naturalists must ignore the possibility of supernatural or magical intervention in the physical world.
Philosophical naturalists take these beliefs one step further and reject the existence of the supernatural altogether, citing the utter lack of empirical evidence. Because of the absence of scientific evidence backing up religion, most philosophical naturalists are also atheists.
 Opposition by religion
Arrayed against philosophical naturalism are religious schools of thought which argue for the existence of the supernatural alongside the natural. In order to compete with science they have created pseudoscientific theories such as intelligent design which supposedly prove supernatural intervention in natural phenomena. However, they also assert that the supernatural is somehow immune to science. These theories, therefore, work about as well as cargo cults.
 Do not equate with
Although these are related to naturalism, there are differences:
All things are composed of matter and that all emergent phenomena (such as thoughts) are the result of material interactions.
The only things are those subject to the laws of physics.
All that can be known is what science tells us.
Abstract objects exist as predicates, not universals (as opposed to Platonism).
 See also
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry of naturalism
- Barbara Forrest. Methodological Naturalism and Philosophical Naturalism: Clarifying the Connection. Philo, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Fall-Winter 2000), pp. 7-29.