Bronze-level articleCargo cult

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Reporter Paul Raffaele: "John [Frum] promised you much cargo more than 60 years ago, and none has come. … Why do you still believe in him?"
Chief Isaac Wan: "You Christians have been waiting 2,000 years for Jesus to return to earth and you haven’t given up hope."[1]

A cargo cult is a religious movement usually emerging in tribal or isolated societies after they have had an encounter with an external and technologically advanced society. Usually cargo cults focus on magical thinking and a variety of intricate rituals designed to obtain the material wealth of the advanced culture they encountered.

The term "cargo cult" has caught the imagination of the public and is now used to describe a wide variety of phenomena that involve imitating external properties without the substance. In commerce, for example, successful products often result in "copycat" products that imitate the form but are usually of inferior quality.

Cargo cults exemplify the third law of Arthur C. Clarke: that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.


[edit] History

The earliest known cargo cult was the Tuka Movement in Fiji from 1885.[2]

During World War II, the Allies set up many temporary military bases in the Pacific, introducing isolated peoples to Western manufactured goods, or "cargo". While military personnel were stationed there, many islanders noticed these newcomers engaging in ritualized behaviors, like marching around with rifles on their shoulders in formations.

After the Allies left, the source of cargo was removed and the people were nearly as isolated as before. In their desire to keep getting more goods, various peoples throughout the Pacific introduced new religious rituals mimicking what they had seen the strangers do.

[edit] Melanesia

In one instance well-studied by anthropologists, the Tanna Islanders of what is now Vanuatu interpreted the US military drill as religious rituals, leading them to conclude that these behaviors brought cargo to the islands. Hoping that the cargo would return by duplicating these behaviors, they continued to maintain airstrips and replaced their facilities using native materials. These included remarkably detailed full-size replicas of airplanes made of wood, bark, and vines, a hut-like radio shack complete with headphones made of coconut halves, and attempts at recreating military uniforms and flags.[1]

Many Melanesians believed that Western manufactured goods were created by ancestral spirits, but the occupiers had unfairly gained control of them. The islanders expected that a messianic Western figure, John Frum, would return to deliver the cargo. No one knows who Frum is, nor is there physical evidence he existed,[3] but the islanders continue to ceremoniously honor him. After the war the US Navy attempted to talk the people out of it, but by that point it was too late and the religious movement had taken hold.

Subsequently the people of Tanna have been waiting over sixty years for the cargo to return. Then again, Christians have been waiting nearly two thousand years for their guy to come back.

Modern cargo cult believers do exist, although most see John Frum and the like merely as manifestations of the same divinity worshiped in other parts of the world, and treat the trappings of the belief as a worship service rather than a magical collection of talismans.

[edit] John Frum

Thanks to the wealth of material available one can use the particular example of the John Frum cargo cult on how the Jesus myth theory has validity.

According to the cult today, John Frum was a literate white US serviceman that appeared to the village elders in a vision in the late 1930s.[1] However as early as 1949 there were people saying the "origin of the movement or the cause started more than thirty years ago" ie putting "John Frum" in the 1910s.[4] Interestingly, until the 1950s John Frum's identity varied from Melanesian native, to black serviceman, to white navy serviceman before more or less settling into the literate white US serviceman view seen currently though these older variants can still be found.

However, the closest thing actual recorded history shows is not one but three illiterate natives taking up the name John Frum and being exiled or thrown into jail for the trouble they stirred up in the 1940-1947 period:: Manehivi (1940-41), Neloaig (1943, inspired people to build an airstrip), and Iokaeye (1947, preached a new color symbolism).[4]

The John Frum cult caused so many problems that in 1957 there was effort made to prove John Frum didn't exist--it totally failed.[5]

By the 1960s, the natives were carrying around pictures of men they believed to be John Frum. In 2006, when asked why they still believed in his coming after some 60 years of waiting, the Chief said “You Christians have been waiting 2,000 years for Jesus to return to earth, and you haven’t given up hope.”[1]

"Unlike the cult of Jesus, the origins of which are not reliably attested, we can see the whole course of events laid out before our eyes (and even here, as we shall see, some details are now lost). It is fascinating to guess that the cult of Christianity almost certainly began in very much the same way, and spread initially at the same high speed. [...] John Frum, if he existed at all, did so within living memory. Yet, even for so recent a possibility, it is not certain whether he lived at all."[6]

Everything the Christian apologists claim couldn't have happened regarding Christianity appears to have happened with the John Frum cargo cult – it evolved from the preexisting beliefs without a clear definitive founder. Moreover in a seven year period we see various believers taking up the mantle of "John Frum" despite being totally different in terms of literacy, nationality, and race not even a decade later. There is a hint in Paul's own writings (2 Corinthians 11:3-4) that this had happened with Jesus as he warns against the Gospels of other Jesuses than the ones he and his followers were preaching.

Finally, as seen with the Prince Philip Movement, there are variants of the cult that connect the mythical John Frum to real living people (Prince Philip is the brother of John Frum in this variant even though Prince Philip has no brothers), something the Christian apologists claim couldn't have happened with Jesus.

It should be mentioned not all Melanesian cargo cults have philosophical myths as founders; some, such as the Rusefel (Roosevelt) and Johnson Cargo Cults, latched on to the name of a real person as their founder...even if that person could not have been their cult's founder.

[edit] Jesus myth theory

Examples like John Frum lend credence to the idea that Jesus may have originated in a historical event or person but then grown into something entirely different, simply through human storytelling, lies, and the leader's motivation to keep the religion alive.

In the space of mere decades, a mythical figure like Frum was placed into a historical framework. This has occurred at numerous times in history;[7] Richard Carrier goes into detail on why such things happen in On the Historicity of Jesus as Element 29 of his examples.[8]

[edit] Ancient cargonauts

Cargo cults are also often used by ancient astronauts proponents.[9]

[edit] Cargo cult science

The late Richard Feynman described what he called "cargo cult science" by analogy with this phenomenon. It contains many of the superficial trappings of science with little of the substance.[10] These could include the use of footnotes that look like academic references,[11] fancy quantum physics terms or graphs and charts. All combined would happily make a scientific looking document (and might even have an authoritative looking font, rather than something like papyrus) but on examination wouldn't contain anything of scientific merit. Cargo cult science would more commonly be called pseudoscience today.

[edit] See also

[edit] Footnotes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Raffaele, Paul "In John They Trust" Smithsonian magazine, February 2006. 18 Sept 2013
  2. [Worsley, Peter (1957). The Trumpet Shall Sound: A Study of "Cargo Cults" in Melanesia. pp. 17–31. ISBN 0805201564.]
  3. Though it is rationally impossible that someone who is not intimately familiar with English names would invent such a name. If he did not exist, the natives may have heard stories of such a man or or at least of "John From (somewhere)."
  4. 4.0 4.1 Guiart, Jean (1952) "John Frum Movement in Tanna" Oceania Vol 22 No 3 pg 165-177
  5. Lal, Brij V.; Kate Fortune (2000) The Pacific Islands: an encyclopedia; University of Hawaii Press; ISBN: 978-0824822651; Pg 303
  6. Dawkins Richard (2006) The God Delusion pgs 202-203
  7. Carrier, Richard (2014) On the Historicity of Jesus Sheffield Phoenix Press ISBN 978-1-909697-49-2 pg 9-11
  8. Carrier, Richard (2014) On the Historicity of Jesus Sheffield Phoenix Press ISBN 978-1-909697-49-2 pg 159-163
  9. As in this blather from a book by Erich von Däniken.
  10. Cargo Cult Science
  11. But really don't say anything useful.
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