Carl Sagan (1934–1996) was an American astronomer who did much to popularize science, especially astronomy, during his illustrious career. He co-wrote and presented Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, a television series that kicked ass. His legacy lies mostly in his advancement of humanism. He found a profound spirituality in experiencing the wonder and majesty of the universe.
He is known for remarking how people were made of "star stuff." And, by the by, he was right: H → He → Li → Be → B → C → N → O → F, and on through various nuclear processes that synthesize the elements up to iron (Fe) -- and it takes a supernova (or a particle accelerator!) to make a heavier nucleus.
In 1974 he was enlisted by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to lead the attack at their conference debunking the theories of Immanuel Velikovsky. His rather cavalier performance at this event was perhaps a salutary lesson in the fight against woo: far from stamping out the growing cult of Velikovsky, he arguably further stoked it, by allowing a few schoolboy errors to creep into his maths and peppering his talk with cheeky jokes. This use of levity and lack of rigour was seized upon by the Velikovsky faithful as evidence that The Mainstream were not playing fair and were trying to suppress the truth.
A prominent non-believer, Carl Sagan is said by many fundamentalists to have converted to Christianity on his deathbed, the testimony of his widow notwithstanding. This is a cowardly attack because they know Dr. Sagan can't come back to make a refutation.
A recent development is the celebration of "Carl Sagan Day," which is celebrated on his birthday, November 9. The first celebration of the event, in 2009, was attended by James Randi and Phil Plait as guest speakers.
Carl Sagan was a leader in the American space program from its earliest stages. He briefed the Apollo astronauts before the Moon missions and played an instrumental role in the planning and operation of the Viking, Voyager, Mariner, and Galileo space probes. He was also a prolific author and popularizer of science, creating the 13-part TV series Cosmos (the most widely watched PBS program in the world), appearing on late-night television numerous times, and writing Contact, Pale Blue Dot, Billions and Billions, and many other books. He married three times, the third time to Ann Druyan, his occasional co-author. He died in 1996 at the age of 62 after a prolonged battle with cancer, survived by Druyan and five children.
 Personal beliefs
Sagan called himself agnostic, although he is best defined today as a freethinker or a pantheist. He himself didn't like the term "atheist," as he defined it as someone who knows there is no God. His definition is considered inaccurate, but we're getting into Judean People's Front territory here.
 Nuclear winter
“”Imagine, a room, awash in gasoline. And there are two implacable enemies in that room. One of them has 9,000 matches. The other has 7,000 matches. Each of them is concerned about who’s ahead, who’s stronger. Well, that's the kind of situation we are actually in. The amount of weapons that are available to the United States and the Soviet Union are so bloated, so grossly in excess of what's needed to dissuade the other that if it weren't so tragic, it would be laughable.
Sagan helped develop the TTAPS (short for the co-authors of the original paper, Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagan) climate model that predicted a resulting "nuclear winter" in the event of nuclear warfare. Though later research revised the total cooling effect downward (and even later research bumped it back up a bit), the concept of nuclear winter has been considered a valid prediction by the scientific community. The TTAPS model was used to argue against Ronald Reagan's Star Wars plan (i.e., the defense system would have to be perfect to prevent a nuclear strike and ensuing nuclear winter). Partially in response to this theory, Frederick Seitz established the George C. Marshall Institute to deny nuclear winter.
Thankfully, St. Ronnie never got his wish.
 Cannabis use
 Apple Computer
In the 1990s, Apple was developing a line of three computers based on the new PowerPC processor. As was a common practice at the time, they used internal codenames to refer to these projects in-house, all following a common theme. The Power Macintosh 6100 was codenamed "Piltdown Man," the 7100 was named "Carl Sagan," and the 8100 was named "Cold fusion." These code names appeared from time to time in the trade press.
In 1994, when Carl Sagan discovered his name was used by Apple on the model that would become the 7100 -- and that his name was associated with two of the most infamous blunders/hoaxes in the history of modern science -- he sued, claiming defamation and wrongful use of his name for commercial purposes. The judge dismissed the suit, stating that Apple had honored him in selecting his name, and since these were not the actual product names, nor released to the general public.
In the meantime, Apple renamed the project BHA. Sagan sued Apple again (and lost), this time because BHA was claimed to stand for 'butt-head astronomer.' Sagan appealed the decision and the matter was finally confidentially settled out of court.
- "For small creatures such as we the vastness is bearable only through love."
- "It is far better to grasp the universe as it really is than to persist in delusion, however satisfying and reassuring. "
- "Personally, I would be delighted if there were a life after death, especially if it permitted me to continue to learn about this world and others, if it gave me a chance to discover how history turns out."
- "But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown."
- "Our species needs, and deserves, a citizenry with minds wide awake and a basic understanding of how the world works."
- "Imagination will often carry us to worlds that never were. But without it we go nowhere."
Perhaps his most famous and enduring quote is
- "The sky calls to us. If we do not destroy ourselves we will one day venture to the stars."
- Planets (LIFE Science Library), Sagan, Carl, Jonathon Norton Leonard and editors of Life, Time, Inc., 1966
- Intelligent Life in the Universe, I.S. Shklovskii co-author, Random House, 1966, 509 pgs
- UFO's: A Scientific Debate, Thornton Page co-author, Cornell University Press, 1972, 310 pgs
- Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence. MIT Press, 1973, 428 pgs
- Mars and the Mind of Man, Sagan, Carl, et al., Harper & Row, 1973, 143 pgs
- Cosmic Connection: An Extraterrestrial Perspective, Jerome Agel coauthor, Anchor Press, 1973, ISBN 0-521-78303-8, 301 pgs
- Other Worlds. Bantam Books, 1975
- Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record, Sagan, Carl, et al., Random House, ISBN 0-394-41047-5, 1978
- The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence. Ballantine Books, 1978, ISBN 0-345-34629-7, 288 pgs
- Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science. Ballantine Books, 1979, ISBN 0-345-33689-5, 416 pgs
- Cosmos. Random house, 1980. Random House New Edition, May 7, 2002 ISBN 0-375-50832-5, 384 pgs
- The Nuclear Winter: The World After Nuclear War, Sagan, Carl et al., Sidgwick & Jackson, 1985
- Comet, Ann Druyan co-author, Ballantine Books, 1985, ISBN 0-345-41222-2, 496 pgs
- Contact. Simon and Schuster, 1985; Reissued August 1997 by Doubleday Books, ISBN 1-56865-424-3, 352 pgs
- The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God, Ann Druyan editor, 1985 Gifford lectures, Penguin Press, 2006, ISBN 1-59420-107-2, 304 pgs
- A Path Where No Man Thought: Nuclear Winter and the End of the Arms Race, Richard Turco coauthor, Random House, 1990, ISBN 0-394-58307-8, 499 pgs
- Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors: A Search for Who We Are, Ann Druyan Coauthor, Ballantine Books, October 1993, ISBN 0-345-38472-5, 528 pgs
- Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space. Random House, November 1994, ISBN 0-679-43841-6, 429 pgs
- The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Ballantine Books, March 1996, ISBN 0-345-40946-9, 480 pgs (note: the book was first published and copyrighted in 1995 with an errata slip inserted)
- Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium, Ann Druyan coauthor, Ballantine Books, June 1997, ISBN 0-345-37918-7, 320 pgs
- The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God, Carl Sagan (writer) & Ann Druyan (editor), Penguin Press HC, November 2006, ISBN 1594201072, 304 pgs
 See also
- Neil deGrasse Tyson (Cosmos II!)
- The Fine Art of Baloney Detection
- The Dragon in My Garage
- Patrick Moore
- ↑ Carl Sagan Day
- ↑ 
- ↑ Thank God for that.
- ↑ R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, J. B. Pollack and Carl Sagan. Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multiple Nuclear Explosions. Science 23 December 1983: Vol. 222 no. 4630 pp. 1283-1292. Full text of a later article called Climate and Smoke.
- ↑ See Wikipedia's nuclear winter article for a fuller treatment.
- ↑ 
- ↑ Sagan sues Apple over name