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Rugged individualism was the phrase used often by Herbert Hoover during his time as president. It refers to the idea that each individual should be able to help themselves out, and that the government does not need to involve itself in people's economic lives nor in national economics in general. It is often associated with "social Darwinism" or an "up-by-the-bootstraps" philosophy. Hoover emphasized that rugged individualism was not laissez-faire, though many modern rugged individualists have ignored that. His idea of "rugged individualism" reflected his idea of how the federal government should not interfere with the American people during the Great Depression. Providing large-scale humanitarian efforts, Hoover feared, would injure "the initiative and enterprise of the American people." Post-World War I, rugged individualism appealed to economic liberals who were dismayed by the regulatory bureaucracy built up by the Wilson administration. As Calvin Coolidge said, "After all, the chief business of the American people is business."
When the Great Depression started, Hoover insisted that the market would right itself. However, further into his term, Hoover felt that he was forced into action by the dire circumstances of the depression, but still believed that the government should play a limited role in the American economy. (In other words, "Do something, but not too much!") Unfortunately, when he did intervene, it either made things worse or was so ineffective as to be the equivalent of doing nothing.
 See also
- ↑ Arthur W. McMahon. Third Session of the Seventy-First Congress, December 1, 1930 to March 4, 1931. The American Political Science Review Vol. 25, No. 4 (Nov., 1931), pp. 932-955
- ↑ Calvin Coolidge: Address to the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Washington, D.C., Jan. 17 1925
- ↑ Herbert Hoover, Still Not a Liberal, Jonathan Chait, The New Republic