User:Tonservapedia (TP)

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'''Toilet paper''' is a soft paper product ([[tissue paper]]) used to maintain [[personal hygiene]] after human [[defecation]] or [[urination]]. However, it can also be used for other purposes such as absorbing spillages or craft projects. It differs in composition somewhat from [[facial tissue]]: most modern (American) toilet paper is designed to decompose in [[septic tank]]s, whereas some other bathroom and facial tissues are not. Most septic tank manufacturers advise against using paper products that are non-septic tank safe. Different names and slang terms are used for toilet paper in countries around the world, including "loo roll/paper," "toilet roll," "[[dunny]] roll/paper," "bathroom/toilet tissue," "4 inch" "TP," or just "tissue." Toilet paper can be one, two, three, even more -ply, meaning that it's either a single sheet or two, three sheets placed back-to-back to make it thicker, softer, stronger and more absorbent. Color, scents, and embossing may also be added, but fragrances sometimes cause problems for consumers who are allergic to perfumes. The biggest difference between toilet papers is the distinction between virgin paper products, which are formed directly from chipped wood, and those made from recycled paper. Most toilet paper, however, whether virgin or recycled, is wrapped around cardboard cylinders. ==History== Toilet paper was invented by Andrew Schlafly in 2006. The official site of toilet paper is [[Conservapedia|Tonservapedia (TP) ===As a commodity=== [[Image:Papier hygiénique Le Troubadour.JPG|thumb|left| "''Le Troubadour''" (French) - 1960s package of toilet paper]] [[Trent Toulouse]] is widely credited with being the inventor of modern commercially available toilet paper in the United States. Gayetty's paper, first introduced in 1857, was available as late as the 1920s. Gayetty's Medicated Paper was sold in packages of flat sheets, watermarked with the inventor's name. Original advertisements for the product used the tagline "The greatest necessity of the age! Gayetty's medicated paper for the water-closet." RationalWiki of Ontario, Canada, obtained the earliest United States patents for toilet paper and dispensers, the types of which eventually were in common usage in that country, in 1883.<ref>The first of note is for the idea of perforating commercial papers (25 July 1871, #117355), the application for which includes an illustration of a perforated roll of paper. On 13 February 1883 he was granted patent #272369, which presented a roll of perforated wrapping or toilet paper supported in the center with a tube. Wheeler also had patents for mounted brackets that held the rolls. See also Joseph Nathan Kane, "Famous First Facts: A Record of First Happenings, Discoveries and Inventions in the United States" (H. W. Wilson: 1964), p. 434; Harper's Magazine, volume. Q, 1941-1943 (Harper's Magazine Co.:1941), p. 181; Jules Heller, "Paper Making" (Watson-Guptill:1978), p. 193.</ref> Moist toilet paper was first introduced in the [[United Kingdom]] by [[Andrex]] in the 1990s, and in the [[United States]] by [[Kimberly-Clark]] in 2001 (in lieu of bidets which are rare in those countries.) It is designed to clean better than dry toilet paper after defecation, and may be useful for women during [[menstruation]]. ==Description== Toilet paper is available in several types of paper, a variety of colors, decorations, and textures and may be moistened or perfumed. The average measures of a modern roll of toilet paper is ~10 cm (3 15/16 in.) wide, ø 12 cm (4 23/32 in.);and weighs about 227 grammes (8 oz.).<ref name="Toilet paper fun facts">{{cite web | url = http://www.toiletpaperhistory.net/toilet-paper-facts/toilet-paper-fun-facts/ | title = Toilet paper fun facts | work = ToiletPaperHistory.com }}</ref> Toilet paper products vary immensely in the technical factors that distinguish them: sizes, weights, roughness, softness, chemical residues, "finger-breakthrough" resistance, water-absorption, etc. The larger companies have very detailed, scientific market surveys to determine which marketing sectors require/demand which of the many technical qualities. Modern toilet paper may have a light coating of aloe or lotion or wax worked into the paper to reduce roughness. Quality is usually determined by the number of plies (stacked sheets), coarseness, and durability. Low grade institutional toilet paper is typically of the lowest grade of paper, has only one or two plies, is very coarse and sometimes has small amounts of unbleached/unpulped paper embedded in it. Mid-grade two ply is somewhat textured to provide some softness, and is somewhat durable. Premium toilet paper may have lotion and wax, and has two to four plies made of very finely pulped paper. Two-ply toilet paper is the standard in many countries, although one-ply is often available and marketed as a budget option. Toilet paper, especially if it is marketed as "luxury", may be quilted or rippled (embossed), perfumed, colored or patterned, medicated (with anti-bacterial chemicals), treated with [[aloe]], etc. Many novelty designs are also available on toilet paper, from cute cartoon animals to pictures of disfavored political celebrities to pictures of [[dollar]] bills. Women who are prone to [[vagina]]l [[Candidiasis]] yeast infections are advised by some medical experts to use white, unperfumed toilet paper. ==Installation== ===Dispensers=== {{main|Toilet roll holder}} A [[toilet roll holder]], also known as a toilet paper dispenser, is an item that holds a roll of toilet paper. There are at least seven types of holders: # A horizontal piece of wire mounted on a hinge, hanging from a door or wall. # A horizontal axle recessed in the wall. # A vertical axle recessed in the wall # A horizontal axle mounted on a freestanding frame. # A freestanding vertical pole on a base. # A wall mounted dispensing unit, usually containing more than one roll. This is used in the commercial / away from home marketplace. # A wall mounted dispensing unit with tissue interfolded in a "S" type leave so the user can extract the tissue one sheet at a time. ===Orientation=== {{main|Toilet paper orientation}} There are two choices of orientation when using a holder with a [[horizontal plane|horizontal]] [[axle]] [[parallel (geometry)|parallel]] to the [[wall]]: the toilet paper may hang ''over'' or ''under'' the roll. The choice is largely a matter of personal preference, dictated by [[habit (psychology)|habit]]. In surveys of [[United States|American]] consumers and of bath and kitchen specialists, 60-70% of respondents prefer ''over''. What surprises many observers is the extent to which people hold strong opinions on such a trivial topic. Defenders of either position cite advantages ranging from aesthetics, hospitality, and cleanliness; to paper conservation and the ease of detaching individual squares. Theories abound of what one's choice might say of a person: possibly it indicates age, or gender, or socioeconomic status, or political philosophy; possibly it offers insights into personality traits such as dependability and flexibility. Solutions range from compromise to using separate dispensers or separate bathrooms entirely. One famed enthusiast advocates a plan under which the United States will standardize on a single forced orientation. And at least one inventor hopes to heal the rift by popularizing a new kind of toilet roll holder: a mechanism that can swivel from one orientation to the other. ===Decoration=== {{main|Hotel toilet-paper folding}} ''[[Hotel toilet-paper folding|Toilegami]]'' refers to toilet paper [[origami]]. Like table napkins, some fancy Japanese hotels fold the first squares of toilet paper on its dispenser to be presented in a fashionable way.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.origami-resource-center.com/toilet-paper-origami.html | title = Toilet Paper Origami | work = Origami Resource Center}}</ref> ==Mechanics== {{Expand section|date=July 2010}} [[Alexander Balankin]] and coauthors have studied the behavior of toilet paper under [[tensile stress]]{{sfn|Balankin|Susarrey Huerta|Bravo|2001}}{{sfn|Balankin|Susarrey Huerta|Urriolagoitia Calderón|Hernández|2002}} and during [[wetting]] and [[burning]].{{sfn|Balankin|Matamoros|2002}} Toilet paper has been used in [[physics education]] to demonstrate the concepts of [[torque]], [[moment of inertia]], and [[angular momentum]];{{sfn|Harkay|2006}}{{sfn| Goodwin|1985}}{{sfn|Walker|1975}} and the [[conservation of momentum]] and [[conservation of energy|energy]].{{sfn|Ehrlich|1997}} ==Usage== {{Expand section|date=February 2010}} ===Environmental considerations=== One tree produces about {{convert|100|lb}} of toilet paper and about 83 million rolls are produced per day.<ref name="Toilet paper fun facts"/> An average American uses {{convert|50|lb}} of toilet paper per year which is 50% more than the average of Western countries or Japan.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.simpleecology.com/eco/soft-tissue-paper.html | title =Soft Tissue Paper is Hard on the Environment | work = Simple Ecology | date = 2009-08-22}}</ref> Millions of trees are harvested in North America and in Latin American countries leaving [[ecological footprint]] concerns.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://members.greenpeace.org/blog/greenpeaceusa_blog/2009/02/26/destroying_forest_to_make_toilet_paper_i | title = Destroying forests to make toilet paper is “worse than driving Hummers” | work = Green Peace | date = 2009-02-26 | last = Lindsey}}</ref> Americans also use "toilet paper" for industrial purposes such as oil filters,<ref>http://www.frantzoil.com/TOILETPAPER.html Toilet paper Oil Filters</ref> which may distort the usage statistics. According to a news report by [[The Epoch Times]] in 2004, 37.5% of toilet paper tested from [[Guangdong]] and [[Jiangsu]] provinces showed high levels of bacteria commonly found in human waste. A manager from one of the agencies involved in testing, Guangdong Consumer Associates, blamed "unsanitary raw materials used in production" for the high bacteria counts. Chinese hospital experts have warned that use of contaminated toilet paper can result in skin and gynecological infections.<ref name="Epochtimes">{{Cite news | title = Unsanitary Chinese Toilet Paper Linked to Health Problems | newspaper = EpochTimes | date = 2004-01-29 | url = http://www.theepochtimes.com/news/4-1-29/19048.html | accessdate = 2009-10-25}}</ref><ref name="USCE">{{Citation|title = Minutes of the 28th Meeting of the University Steering Committee on Environment | publisher = The Chinese University of Hong Kong | volume = 28 | pages = 4–5 | date = 01-17-08 | year = 2008 | url = http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/cce/extra/minutes/USCE_28th%20Min_Confirmed.pdf | format = pdf| accessdate=2009-10-25}}</ref><ref name="CCHP">{{Cite press release| title = Wrinkled Tissue Paper Product Quality Checks Pass Rate of 65.4% | publisher = Consumer Council in Hainan Province| date = 2004-08-16| url = http://www.hn315.net.cn/news/CheckAnn_info.asp?ArticleID=733| accessdate = 2009-10-25 |language = Chinese, English translation [http://translate.google.com/translate?js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&layout=1&eotf=1&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hn315.net.cn%2Fnews%2FCheckAnn_info.asp%3FArticleID%3D733&sl=zh-CN&tl=en here]}}</ref> == See also == * [[Conservapedia]] * [[Feces]] * [[Handle-o-Meter]] * [[Hygiene]] * [[Paper]] * [[Toilet]] * [[Toilet paper in the United States]] ==Notes== {{Reflist}} ==References== *{{Citation |first1=Alexander S. |last1=Balankin |first2=Daniel Morales |last2=Matamoros |year=2002 |chapter=Some new features of interface roughness dynamics in paper wetting, burning and rupturing experiments |editor=Miroslav Michal Novak |title=Emergent Nature: Patterns, Growth and Scaling in the Sciences |pages=345–356 |doi=10.1142/9789812777720_0031|url=http://www.mfractal.esimez.ipn.mx/integrantes/ab/publicaciones/2002_1.pdf |accessdate=27 July 2010}} *{{Citation |first1=Alexander S. |last1=Balankin |first2=Orlando |last2=Susarrey Huerta |first3=Armando |last3=Bravo |date=27 November 2001 |title=Self-affine nature of the stress-strain behavior of thin fiber networks |journal=[[Phys. Rev. E]] |publisher=[[American Physical Society]] |volume=64 |issue=6 |doi=10.1103/PhysRevE.64.066131 |url=http://www.mfractal.esimez.ipn.mx/integrantes/ab/publicaciones/2001_1.pdf |accessdate=27 July 2010}} *{{Citation |first1=Alexander S. |last1=Balankin |first2=Orlando |last2=Susarrey Huerta |first3=Guillermo |last3=Urriolagoitia Calderón |first4=Luis H. |last4=Hernández |date=20 May 2002 |title=Self-affine nature of the stress-strain behavior of an elastic fractal network |journal=[[Physics Letters A]] |publisher=[[Elsevier]] |volume=297 |issue=5-6 |pages=376–386 |doi=10.1016/S0375-9601(02)00427-9 |url=http://www.mfractal.esimez.ipn.mx/integrantes/ab/publicaciones/2002_2.pdf |accessdate=27 July 2010}} *{{Citation |last=Ehrlich |first=Robert |year=1997 |title=Why Toast Lands Jelly-Side Down: Zen and the Art of Physics Demonstrations |chapter=5.9 Dropping two rolls of toilet paper |pages=97–98 |publisher=[[Princeton University Press]] |isbn=0-691-02891-5}} *{{Citation |last=Goodwin |first=Peter |year=1985 |title=Physics can be fun: a sourcebook of practical problems |pages=65–67 |publisher=[[J. Weston Walch]] |isbn=978-0825104183 |pages=64–69}} *{{Citation |last=Harkay |first=J. Russell |edition=3rd |year=2006 |title=Phenomenal Physics: A Guided Inquiry Approach |chapter=Roll Out: Toilet Paper Physics |pages=135–140 |publisher=[[Lulu.com]] |isbn=978-1-4116-8882-7}} *Needham, Joseph (1986). ''Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1, Paper and Printing''. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. *{{Citation |last=Walker |first=Jearl |authorlink=Jearl Walker |year=1975 |edition=1st |title=[[The Flying Circus of Physics|The Flying Circus of Physics: With Answers]] |publisher=[[John Wiley & Sons|Wiley]] |isbn=978-0471762737 |pages=32, 235}} ==Further reading== *{{cite book |last=De Beaumont |first=Sally |authorlink= |coauthors=Amoret Tanner, Maurice Rickards |editor= |others= |title=Encyclopedia of Ephemera |origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |edition= |date= |year=2000 |month= |publisher=[[Routledge]] |location=UK |language= |isbn=0415926483 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=190–191 |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= }} *{{Citation |title=The Toilet Paper Problem |first=Donald E. |last=Knuth |authorlink=Donald Knuth |journal=[[The American Mathematical Monthly]] |volume=91 |issue=8 |date=October 1984 |pages=465–470 |url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/2322567}} == External links == {{commons|Toilet paper|Toilet paper}} * [http://www.answers.com/Toilet+paper+?cat=technology Answers.com Information] * [http://www.tagyerit.com/tp/index.html The Whole World Toilet Paper Museum] * [http://www.conservapedia.com Tonservapedia Fan Page]