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Islam is the third major world religion to rise from the patriarch Abraham; like the other Abrahamic religions, has at its center a monotheistic god, Allah. Founded in the 7th century CE, Islam is presented as the final revelation of Allah to the last prophet, Muhammad. Islam was long referred to in English as Mohammadanism or Mahometanism, but this is frowned upon by Muslims, and is now considered an insult. Mussulman is also an old word for a Muslim; again this is no longer used in English, but is still common in other European languages, such as Portuguese and French.
The holy text of Islam is the Qur'an (Koran), which is held to be the revealed word of God. Muslims believe its verses were transmitted through the angel Gabriel to Muhammad, God's final prophet. The sunnah, or recorded practises of the Prophet as passed down in books of hadith (lit. "news"), clarify how Islam is supposed to be practised, and are nearly as important to the practise of the religion as the Qur'an. The Sunni hadith collections are called the Kutub al-Sittah (the six books), the Shia hadith collections are called the Kutub al-Arba'a (the four books). Ibadis have their own hadiths, in particular the Jami Sahih. Although Muslims do not believe Jesus Christ to be the Son of God, he is an important prophet; he is considered a precursor to Muhammad, helping prepare the world for the "final revelation". Additionally, Muslims believe that Jesus will return at the end of times.
In Arabic, "Islam" means "peace" and "submission" (root word s-l-m; cf. as-salamu alaykum, Arabic greeting) and "peace through submission" (to God, specifically) and descends etymologically from the root word Aslama, meaning "submission"; thus, a Muslim is "one who has submitted to (or made peace with) God." Whether or not violent holy warriors like Osama bin Laden are "true Muslims" is, therefore, a question for Muslim scholars. This is a common problem in many other religions which preach peace and harmony, yet frequently have violent histories. One issue Islam struggles with that other religions do not is that Islam has a policy of abrogation, wherein later revelations can supercede earlier ones. Most of Muhammad's more peaceful pronouncements came from earlier revelations, and the more warlike revelations came after, so unfortunately Salafism and other militant interpretations of the Qur'an are consistent with this policy.
An increasing number of nations use Islamic law ("Sharia") as the entire or partial basis of their legal systems; states governed by religion in this way are known as theocracies. Many Islamic theocracies, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, have been sharply criticized by human-rights advocates for their illiberal treatment of women, homosexuals, and apostates.
There are many different denominations within Islam, but the two most notable groups within modern Islam are the Sunni and the Shia. The schism between the Sunni and Shia is akin to the schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches - it is interesting that both splits occurred as a result of power struggles, personality clashes and theological differences. Following the death of Muhammad, the prophet and founder of Islam, his nephew Ali was expected to be his successor in the fledgling Rashidun Caliphate. However, a rival named Muawiyah had Ali assassinated and consolidated his rule which lead to the Umayyad dynasty. Sunni Muslims hold that any member of the ummah (or community of believers) can hold the position of caliph (or ruler) and accepted Muawiyah's claim to rule; whereas Shia Muslims hold that only descendants of the prophet Muhammad can become caliph as only they have the divine right to do so, and thus rejected Muawiyah as caliph.
Within and around these groups there are other subsets of Islam. Among these is Sufism, an ascetic spiritual movement similar in philosophy to Buddhism , and fundamentalist groups such as Salafism and Wahhabism. Druze, Yazidism, and Ba'hai are offshoots of Islam, though not traditionally considered to be included within the Islamic faith but independent belief systems.
- Nondenominational Muslims are those who do not follow a particular branch and simply call themselves "Muslim".
- Shia is also transliterated as Shi'ites. They believe that the prophet Muhammad appointed Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Shi'ites prefer hadiths attributed to the Ahlul Bayt (the prophet's family) and close associates. There are four accepted hadiths among Shias and Shias consider the city of Karbala holy. They make up roughly 10 to 20% of all Muslims.
- Sunnis consider Abu Bakr to be Muhammad's successor. There are four sub-groups among Sunnis; Hanafi, Maliki, Hanbali, and Shafi'i. They make up roughly 75% of the world's Muslims. Sunni beliefs are typically based on the Qur'an and the Kutub al-Sittah (the six books). The Kutub al-Sittah consists of Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan al-Sughra, Sunan Abu Dawood, Jami al-Tirmidhi, and Sunan ibn Majah. Sunnis are sometimes called Bukharists.
- Sufism is a mystical denomination, much frowned upon by other Muslims. They are often subject to persecution. Often-misguided variants of Sufism are sold to western New Agers.
- Ahmadiyya is a reformist denomination founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, who is considered to be the Mahdi. Their motto is "love for all; hatred for none."
- Ahle Quran, also known as Quraniyoon, is an Islamic denomination that generally rejects the authoritative nature of hadith collections, and considers the Qur'an to be the only dependable religious text.
- Ibadi is a branch of Islam that came out of the Kharijites. Its adherents are particularly found in Oman and Algeria.
- 5-percenters self-identify as Muslims and follow the Five-Percent Nation.
- Alawites are an off-shoot of the Shia movement. Notable Alawites include the ruling Assad dynasty of Syria.
 The Five Pillars of Islam
Islam has five core pillars, which are considered to be the most important part of Islam. All Muslims are expected to follow them.
- The Shahadah, an oath of faith which states "There is no God except Allah and Muhammad is his messenger". One who voluntarily takes the oath is considered to be a Muslim. However the phrase is often spoken into the ear of newborn babies as both a proxy oath for the child, and a blessing. Once a convert has taken the oath, they cannot change their mind without being considered an apostate by the Muslim community. Many Muslim scholars consider that the punishment for apostasy should be death, and such death penalties are imposed in a number of Islamic countries including Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.
- Salah, or prayer. Prayer must be made five times per day, though this can be suspended depending on illness or travel. Prayer is made facing the Kaaba in Mecca and involves a series of prostrations. Despite strong prohibitions on idolatry (to the point that in some of the more extreme forms of Islam, any artistic representations of people and animals are banned), the object in the direction of which Muslims pray is a large meteorite which was prayed to as an idol in pre-Islamic Arabia. Prior to praying, a Muslim is required to perform a ritual cleansing, or ablution called Wudu. Each prayer is divided into a number of sections called Raka'ah. Each Raka'ah includes a recitation of the Sura Fatihah, the first chapter in the Quran. Following this another excerpt from the Quran is recited. Afterwards, the Muslim bows, rises again, prostrates, comes up to a kneeling posture, prostrates again, and returns to a standing position. After even numbered Raka'ah the supplicant recites the either the whole or partial Tashahhud, which is a non-Quranic prayer that marks the halfway mark of each prayer, and the conclusion of the prayer. Prayers are made during the dawn, early afternoon, late afternoon, evening, and night-time and are of prescribed lengths. The dawn prayer is 2 Raka'ah, the early afternoon and late afternoon prayers are 4 Raka'ah, the evening prayer is 3 Raka'ah, and the night-time prayer is 4 Raka'ah.
- Zakat, which is a ritual giving of alms by all who can afford it. Typically, a Muslim gives 2.5% of their accumulated wealth (or savings) to charities, often organized through local mosques.
- Fasting during the month of Ramadan. During this month, which rotates throughout the year due to the fact that the Islamic calendar is lunar, Muslims must abstain from food, drink (including water), smoking, and sexual intercourse from sunrise (specifically when a thread of light can be discerned from the darkness) to sunset. The goal of the fast, as with most ascetic pursuits, is to rid oneself of material concerns and to bring oneself closer to God. Women who are pregnant or menstruating, those that are ill or elderly, and pre-pubescent children are exempt from the need to fast.
- The Hajj, which is a pilgrimage to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina during the month of Dhul-Hijah. Muslims are required to circumambulate the Kaaba, walk seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah, travel to Mt. Arafat, and symbolically stone the devil.
 Other codes of conduct
Muslims also adhere to a number of dietary and behavioral rules, including prohibitions on eating pork and consuming alcohol, and maintaining certain standards of cleanliness.
Sharia is Islamic law, based on the teachings of the Qu'ran and other texts regarded as sacred, such as the hadith. Interpretations of Sharia vary widely, and some of the stricter variants, enforced in the fundamentalist Islamic states of the Middle East can involve brutal punishments for crimes such as sodomy (homosexuality), adultery and fornication (premarital sex). In some countries, including Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, victims of rape have been punished as adulterers or fornicators when they have been unable to prove rape charges.
Muslims also follow rulings from various schools of Islamic jurisprudence called fatwas. Though the term fatwa has come to be synonymous with declarations of war by some extremists within Islam (leading to a certain amount of envy from fundamentalist Christians who wish they could pronounce death sentences on anyone they dislike), a fatwa can be issued by Islamic scholars on issues as simple as questions regarding conduct in daily life.
Another commonly misunderstood term is "Jihad" which has come to be synonymous with the concept of war waged by Muslims against the West. Historically, Jihad has had two meanings. The greater Jihad is the struggle to improve one's self and one's society and to be a better Muslim. The lesser Jihad is the struggle to defend Islam and one's home against aggression. Militant Muslims have been known to deny others their rights in the name of this lesser Jihad.
A related concept is Taqiyya, an allowance for Muslims to conceal their religious beliefs during times of persecution.
The free practice of religion in Muslim countries is a source of controversy. The Qur'an guarantees the free practice of religion for Jews and Christians (although adherents to these religions are expected to pay tribute and to acknowledge Muslim rule). Regardless the reality is sometimes quite the opposite. In some countries, such as Saudi Arabia, other religions are banned outright and apostasy can be a capital offence. Other states, such as Iran, nominally allow other religions to exist, though those religions (including the Ba'hai and Zoroastrian faiths) are typically persecuted. Some states including Egypt, Turkey, Indonesia, and Pakistan have significant non-Muslim minorities which are treated with varying degrees of persecution, though the rise of fundamentalism in these countries has led to an increase in outbreaks of violence.
Making images depicting God's creations is strictly forbidden by the Qu'ran, as well as the Ten Commandments. Hence traditional Islamic art very rarely depicts people, and seldom animals, but focuses instead on geometric patterns, calligraphy and non-pictorial decoration. Exceptions to this exist since, as with the other tenets of Islam, or of any other religion, interpretation has varied widely throughout the history of different cultures. Devout Muslims hold images of the prophet Muhammad to be particularly blasphemous.
 Islam, politics and Arab identity
The fact that Islam arose in the Arabian peninsula and that translations of the Qu'ran are considered to be less faithful than the original Arabic text means that Islam has become largely associated with Arabic culture. This association can lead to nationalistic tendencies within the Arab world being blended with, and indeed disguised as, expressions of Islamic faith; believers are duped, with the promise of a glorious martyrdom, into serving nationalist causes, often violently. This is consistently demonstrated by Al Qaeda and other militant groups; a fundamental reason for their existence is to protest perceived imperialism and aggression by Western governments in the Middle East. Seen as particularly offensive is Western support for the nation of Israel, and to a lesser degree, other non-democratic, secular, corrupt, and oppressive regimes in oil-rich nations, especially pre-revolutionary Iran. Al Qaeda made no objection to the non-democratic and oppressive, but Sharia-based regime of the Taliban in Afghanistan.
This philosophy has translated even to non-Arab Muslim extremists, such as those active in Kashmir, southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Almost invariably, statements from "Islamic militants" are in Arabic, regardless of their background. Perhaps because of this, being "Muslim" is often viewed as no different from being "Arab" in the mindsets of many people throughout the world despite the fact that the largest Muslim populations in the world are not ethnically Arabs. Interestingly, Heinrich Himmler of the Nazi SS was a supporter of Islam, particularly extreme Islam as he thought it engendered a warrior spirit and he recruited Bosnian Muslims, Arabs, and Indians into the supposedly 'racially pure' SS.
 Critics and criticism
 Violence and human rights violations issues
- Ayaan Hirsi Ali is a former Muslim and prominent feminist and critic of Islam. Until her mid-teens, she obeyed the stricter codes of Islam before gradually adopting more liberal positions. She supported the fatwa against Salman Rushdie during her fundamentalist years, but as she studied the Western philosophers of the Enlightenment upon her escape to Holland, her stance became more open-minded, to the point where she is now a staunch supporter of everyone's right to freedom of expression. In 2004, she wrote the screenplay for the short film Submission, a film examining the treatment of women in Islam. On November 2, Theo Van Gogh, the director of the film, was murdered by Muslim extremist Mohammed Bouyer. A dagger stabbed into Van Gogh pinned a note to the body attributing the assassination to the film. Ali was forced into hiding, and to this day is not able to appear in public without armed guards.
- Salman Rushdie's 1988 novel The Satanic Verses provoked outrage among many Muslims. The book was banned in India and protests in which the book was burned were held in London, England. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, then-Supreme Leader of Iran, issued a fatwa against Rushdie, calling on all good Muslims everywhere to do their best to kill him. Guess what? He had to go into hiding too. Even worse, governments that should know better, like the UK and the US shunned him instead of coming to his aid and defending his right to free speech.
- This event inspired noted journalist Christopher Hitchens to examine closely the Western Left's lackadaisical attitude towards Islamic extremism. The sympathy which he perceived among his colleagues for Islamic extremism caused him to adopt a firmer stance against what he calls "Islamofascism", or "Fascism with an Islamic face".
- Homosexuals are severely punished in Islamic states such as Iran or Saudi Arabia (except that Iran doesn't have any). Punishments can include flogging, beatings, mutilation of the genitals, and in some cases, execution.
- The most famous recent case of free expression vs. religious values is that of the Danish cartoons depicting Muhammed as a terrorist. The cartoons caused an uproar among Muslims who, obviously, lack a sense of humor, and provoked a seemingly endless and quite unnecessary series of debates across the Western world. Should we allow this? Well, we allow jokes about Christians and Jews? Why not? Should we exercise restraint when using our right to freedom of speech? Are we refusing to show the cartoons on national news because we don't want to offend Muslims, or because we're scared of offending Muslims? The answer to those questions, in order, is: Yes, Yes, and the news networks were scared of being blown up or something equally horrid. In our eyes, the cartoons' only real crime were being unfunny. And no violence is needed to make that point. Yet the extremist Muslim position survives and thrives in the latest South Park episode which parent companies Comedy Central and Viacom heavily censored in order not to offend the already infantilized sensibilities of many Muslims.
Islamophobia is defined as "an irrational fear of Islam or Muslims." It is a form of bigotry, although often it is incorrectly deemed "racism." Islam is a religion and not a race, although some have conflated the issue (notably the Birther movement in the US, where people assume President Barack Obama is secretly a Muslim because his estranged father was one). The term is controversial, with some arguing that it is a label used to silence criticism of the religion, and others saying it describes the pattern of fear-mongering that leads to hate crimes on minorities.
 Sharia law
Sharia means "path to the watering hole".
The Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, provoked controversy in Britain in 2008 by calling for the formalization of sharia law in the British judicial system. Defenders of the Archbishop, such as Ibrahim Mogra, of the Muslim Council of Britain, said: "We're looking at a very small aspect of sharia for Muslim families when they choose to be governed with regards to their marriage, divorce, inheritance, custody of children and so forth." Critics meanwhile, such as MP David Blunkett, argued that, "We don't have affiliations when it comes to the question of the law. And when it comes to equality under the law, we have to be rigorous in terms of making sure people do not find themselves excluded from it because of cultural or faith reasons."
Although the existence of Sharia courts has provoked outrage, Jewish courts have long operated in the United Kingdom. These courts can only address civil matters, much like arbitration services that exist for employment disputes. Although it's claimed that such courts are voluntary, it's difficult to ignore the societal pressures that force people in to using a court system granting them fewer rights than they'd enjoy in a real court. Previously these court ruling rulings could carried no legal weight, but some Sharia courts in the UK have used the 1996 Arbitration Act to make their rulings legally binding, so long as all parties agree to this at the beginning of the proceedings.
Here's why the idea of Sharia law being formalized in democratic countries worries people. Bear in mind that this is only viewing the treatment of women:
In Nigeria in 2002, Amina Lawal, 30, was sentenced to death by stoning. This method of execution involves being buried up to the neck in the ground and the community throwing rocks at the head of the condemned until the condemned is dead. The Islamic court ruled that the sentence would not be passed until Amina had finished breastfeeding her child. Muslim and Christian communities clashed over the verdict, since it had been overturned by the federal court previously.
The previous year, a teenage single mother was sentenced to 100 lashes for committing adultery with three men. The unnamed prisoner maintained that she had been raped, but the sharia court claimed that no proof could be found that she had not had sex consensually. This is a particularly sticky subject, for a number of reasons:
- It is widely known that sharia trials fall short of the expected standards of proof required, particularly in the trials of women.
- A man's testimony under sharia counts for twice that of a woman's. Effectively, the teenage girl in the case above was giving one testimony against six.
- The status of women in the eyes of sharia courts is a source of great concern for humanitarians. One such example is that of a sentence of execution handed down to virgins. A virgin may not be executed under sharia law. Therefore, in countries such as Saudi Arabia, it is alleged that the virgins will be raped in the weeks or days leading up to execution.
- Cultural relativism mandates that people of one culture may not judge the practices of another based on the standards of their own. This raises a very serious problem: Where do we draw the line? At what point do we actually say, in no uncertain terms, that certain practices can be seen universally as immoral, archaic, or barbaric? How do we explain to a woman, under sentence of death and in the process of being forcibly deflowered, that enlightened and tolerant persons consider her to be on the wrong side of this line? Is creationism a time-honored and unassailable tradition of evangelical Christian culture rather than warmed-over Bronze Age hokum? How much bullshit are people capable of swallowing?
 Possible Media Bias
Charges of media bias in favor of Islam have been raised by rival faiths in the past few years. In Britain in 2008, Sikhs and Hindus both accused the BBC of favoring Islam over their religions and, again the same year, the UK's Channel 4 was accused by Catholic clergymen of deploying similar impartiality. Here is what the Beeb have to say about Islam's view of war:
"Islam is in favour of peace and against violence. Murdering the innocent leads to punishment in Hell:
If anyone killed a person - unless it was for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he killed the whole people." (Qur'an 5:32) 
Note the "spreading mischief in the land." Let's cover this with information from the BBC's same site, this time from its section on Islam's forms of capital punishment:
"In Islamic law, the death penalty is appropriate for two groups of crime:
- Intentional murder: In these cases the victim's family is given the option as to whether or not to insist on a punishment of this severity
- Fasad fil-ardh ("spreading mischief in the land"): Islam differs from Christianity in that it permits the death penalty for anyone who threatens to undermine authority or destabilise the state."
See how the second crime isn't really a crime at all if it's justified? The second crime, in fact, is what the people in Iran are currently been shot dead for, as of July 2009 - disagreeing with the ruling bodies. The ruling Islamic bodies.
But what else constitutes the crime of spreading mischief? Well, generally speaking, these do:
Don't worry, though; the Beeb is quick to explain why Islamic countries crack down hard on undesirables...er, we mean, "mischief makers":
"Many Muslims, who often don't have access to the texts, are swayed by Western opposition into retentionist views. They are also affected by the dramatic and very public nature of the punishments. These promote knee jerk irrational reactions."
These are three of the most staggeringly frightening sentences you'll read this year. Let's go through them one by one:
"Many Muslims, who often don't have access to the texts, are swayed by Western opposition into retentionist views."
What the BBC is arguing doesn't make sense. First, it claims that "many Muslims" in Islamic states do not have access to the source texts which are the very cornerstones of their entire belief system. We'd wager that the Qur'an would be fairly widely available in an Islamic country. We're then told that, because certain elements in the West are applying rationality to ancient practices best left in ancient times, it's only natural that any Muslim - not just radicals, fundamentalists, or extremists - would kick against these Western purveyors of rationality and decide that, obviously, retentionist views are the way to go. Now, it's entirely probable that our ideas of how a Muslim living in Iran or Saudi Arabia should behave do piss a fair few of them off. We have no trouble understanding that. I wouldn't like it if someone told me how to decorate my living room without first being asked for their opinion. But to say that this is the sole reason theocratic dictatorships are outrageously abusing the human rights of their own people is something else entirely. It pays no heed to the idea that these rules must be coming from somewhere. These sharia law enforcement agencies aren't just pulling death sentences and castrations out of the clear blue sky. It's cultural relativism, and it's dangerous.
However, most Muslims do have access to the texts, but can not understand them (even if they've memorised them by rote), because the language the Qur'an is written in - Classical Arabic - has hardly any relation to the spoken Arabic of today. The basis of modern academic, high-brow Arabic is the Qur'an, and is called Modern Standard Arabic - however, the likelihood of a non-educated person in the Middle East (e.g. sadly, a majority), who has not obtained at least some college or isn't a rabid autodidact, of being able to understand even modern MSA, let alone Classical Arabic, is zero to nil. The relation between even the different dialects/topolects of spoken Arabic are as widely separated as Spanish and French: some words may be halfway mutually intelligible, but someone from Egypt is not going to be able to understand someone from Jordan, unless both have received higher education, for which they will code-switch to Modern Standard Arabic. For two non-educated Arabs, trying to speak to someone from a different region is impossible. In this way, reading the Qur'an for a modern Arab is like reading Old English (it's as much German as English), and the education rate in most Muslim countries is sadly abysmal - and most people couldn't even read Chaucer (Middle English) in America, let alone some true Mærriue Yolde Eiynglushe. Modern Standard Arabic, and even the more complex Classical Arabic, are somewhat analogous to the language of Latin in Europe in the Middle Ages: the educated can speak a warped form of it and use it to understand scripture, but it sounds like Greek (or Chinese) to the average citizen. Of anywhere but the Vatican, that is, and Islam doesn't have a Vatican (the Kaba doesn't count).
"They are also affected by the dramatic and very public nature of the punishments."
That's putting it mildly. Now let's put it realistically. You're a moderate Muslim in a town square in Saudi Arabia. A woman who has just got back from a trip to the West (that'll be the day!) has done a little reading and come to the conclusion that, y'know, religion is bullshit. She's renounced her faith in Allah. She's had enough of all the infighting, the violence, the bombs dropped and the bullets fired in the names of fictional deities. She's now being dragged across a dusty courtyard, kicking and screaming, while hundreds of people look on. Some are spitting on her or throwing rocks. Others are watching with horror. The woman is thrown across a chopping block, held in place by two guards, while a third guard stands poised over her. He reads out the reasons for her sentence: "You don't believe in our god anymore. Therefore, foul wench, you will die." The executioner raises an axe dulled from the blood crusted on the blade. He brings it down, severing her head from her neck. Blood gushes everywhere. Now, even the rock throwers are struck silent. You, as a rational, evolved, logical primate, cry out with every fibre of your being at in protest at this awful and undignified way to die. You yearn for sanity to prevail. You wish there was someplace you could live free of this sort of thing. Well, guess what...
"These [punishments] promote knee jerk irrational reactions."
...you're reacting irrationally! Of course! Now it's so obvious! You're not opposed to executions on any ethical, moral or even, gulp, religious grounds, you just oppose them because the executions are held in public. Oh, thank you, Beeb, for helping me see the light of day!
But wait, maybe those having the "knee jerk, irrational reactions" aren't Muslims living under dictatorships. Maybe the BBC is actually aiming this little gem at us. What they're saying, then, is that it's not for us to pass judgment on the cultural practices of other countries, and it's certainly not for us to react "irrationally" [i.e., with empathy for the condemned, and disgust at the condemners] when we do hear of such practices taking place.
It's the same old story. True Muslims (TM), the moderate liberals, are chastised by stupid white people because the TMs rightly see a lot to dislike about their faith. The BBC, once an oasis of rationality, known globally for its commitment to critical thinking and logical analysis, seems to have taken a serious wrong turn somewhere.
We can appreciate that 9/11 painted Muslims in an unflattering light. Muslims appreciate this more than the likes of Bill O'Reilly would have you believe. But something strange has happened in the Western media. Imagine, if you will, that it's 1943. A German liberal escapes the Nazis and offers to tell anyone who'll listen about the horrors being inflicted on innocents in his homeland. Now imagine that, rather than the newspapers leaping to his aide, microphones and notebooks at the ready, offering sanctuary and safe harbor, they instead tell him, in no uncertain terms, to shut the fuck up and sit the fuck down. Or, rather, "You are having a knee-jerk irrational reaction to Jewish people being butchered, Fritz. Go back to Germany and learn to tolerate the culture of intolerance."
We are defending the rights of the unrighteous, and damning with faint praise the true seekers. Shame on all of us. To rectify this, all good Christians should drag out any Muslims from their homes and
beat them to death show them the one and only righteous way of the Lord Jesus Christ! For peace can only be known, not within the terrible confines of Islam, but in the openness of Scientology Christianity, where love and peace flourish under the eye of our Heavenly Father, God, and not that false Baal known as Allah. Show them the wrongs of Khawla bint Al-Azwar, and the glory of Deborah and Ruth. But agree with them that a woman's place is in the kitchen with duct tape on her mouth. Good Christians will show the primitive Muslims how to properly treat women, giving them their options of housework or housework.
 Islam and science
In modern times, anti-science attitudes are a serious problem in some Islamic states; although creationism is more usually associated with fundamentalist Christianity, there are also Muslim creationists such as Harun Yahya. By contrast, medieval Islam was actively pro-science, with early scientists such as Ibn al-Haytham and Avicenna[wp] significantly advancing their fields and paving the way for similar movements in Europe in the centuries to follow.
 See also
- Gospel of Barnabas
- Al Jazeera
- East London Mosque
- Religion of Peace
- Muslim Patrol
- Qu'ranic scientific foreknowledge
- Academic resources
- Patheos Library – Islam
- University of Southern California Compendium of Muslim Texts
- Encyclopedia of Islam (Overview of World Religions)
- Ethical Democracy Journal views on Islam, other ethical systems and democracy
- Online resources
- Islam, article at Enyclopaedia Britannica Online
- Islam, article at Friesian.com
- Asabiyya: Re-Interpreting Value Change in Globalized Societies, article at Repec/Ideas, University of Connecticut and IZA, Bonn, on Islam and global value change
- WikiIslam (a wiki very critical of Islam)
- The Myths of Islam
- ↑ It is considered blasphemy for Allah to be placed in a human or animal sexual gender category. Qur'an 112:3–4
- ↑ http://www.hadith-studies.com/Burton-Theories-Abrogation.pdf
- ↑ http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23436203-sharia-law-row-archbishop-is-in-shock-as-he-faces-demands-to-quit-and-criticism-from-lord-carey.do;jsessionid=D056B7CA7A4D7468D59A34DF1042318A
- ↑ religions retrieved 7 June 2013
- ↑ world factbook; religions
- ↑ Death to the apostate!
- ↑ Pakistan death penalty law
- ↑ Apostasy killing in Saudi Arabia
- ↑ A. Ben Shemesh, Taxation in Islam Volume II, Qudama b. Ja'far's Kitab Al-Kharaj. Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1965, p. 14
- ↑ K.S. Lal, Theory and Practice of Muslim State in India, Delhi, 1999, pp. 139-140.
- ↑ Sharia courts decisions can be legally binding
- ↑ Problems with Muslim Sharia Law
- ↑ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/tv-radio/sikhs-and-hindus-accuse-bbc-of-promuslim-bias-922482.html
- ↑ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/religion/2800169/Channel-4-accused-of-pro-Muslim-bias-by-Catholic-priests.html
- ↑ http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/islamethics/war.shtml
- ↑ http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/islamethics/capitalpunishment.shtml
- ↑ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/21/tehran-iran-protest-crackdown
- ↑ http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/islamethics/capitalpunishment.shtml
- ↑ Science and Islam, three-part BBC documentary