George Wallace

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I tried to talk about good roads and good schools and all these things that have been part of my career, and nobody listened. And then I began talking about niggers, and they stomped the floor.
—Attributed in George Wallace: Settin' the Woods on Fire

George Wallace (1919—1998) was governor of Alabama for (sigh) four terms, two of them non-consecutive: 1963-1967, 1971-1975, 1975-1979, and 1983-1987. In addition, he was the "#1 assistant" of his wife, who was the governor from 1967-1968.

According to the Drive-By Truckers, George Wallace is now in Hell partyin' it up Alabama-style with Satan.


[edit] Governor of Alabama

Wallace's first run for governor was actually in 1958, when he ran as the anti-Ku Klux Klan candidate and with the endorsement of the NAACP. His opponent in the Democratic Party primary was the pro-KKK candidate John Patterson, who won (and won the general election as there was no Republican Party to speak of in Alabama nor most other deep South states at the time; the Democratic primary was for all intents and purposes one and the same as the general election).

Oops. Lesson learned. Wallace knew what he had to do to win election in Alabama: do a 180 on the segregation issue, which he did. He then proceeded to get elected as a pro-segregationist candidate in 1963, and shortly thereafter gave his infamous first inaugural address ("I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny and I say segregation today, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever!") and his equally infamous "stand in the schoolhouse door" proclamation.

Barring his segregation, Wallace's record as governor was mixed. He did provide funds to help rebuild Alabama's crumbling infrastructure, rebuilt schools and raised teachers' salaries, and made welfare benefits more accessible, at least to whites.[1] However, he also abused his position to accept government kickbacks, and used Al Lingo's State police to harass and intimidate political opponents.

In 1966, Alabama's state constitution prohibited governors from serving two consecutive terms. Wallace had tried to repeal this law as governor, but failed. Therefore, he had his wife, Lurleen Wallace, run for governorship; she easily won the Democratic primary, and therefore the election. In 1961, Lurleen was diagnosed with uterine cancer; she was kept in the dark about this for four years. In 1968, during the middle of her governorship, the cancer killed her.

[edit] Presidential candidate

In 1964, Wallace ran an abortive challenge against President Lyndon Johnson in several Democratic primaries. Wallace proved competitive even in northern states like Wisconsin[2], channeling working class resentment towards minorities, civil rights and liberalism generally. Most of Wallace's supporters backed Republican candidate Barry Goldwater, who lost to Johnson in a landslide.

In 1968, Wallace ran for President of the United States on the American Independent Party ticket, which was a cobbled together party of Birchers, southern segregationists, and elderly mental cases (two of those are redundant). Wallace channeled resentment against racial and antiwar unrest. "We don't have any riots in Alabama," he proclaimed: "They start a riot down there, first one of 'em to pick up a brick gets a bullet in the brain."[3] Thus Wallace endeared himself to segregationist Democrats not yet ready to make the plunge towards the Republican Party.

Wallace's equally colorful running mate was Curtis LeMay, former Air Force general and model for Dr. Strangelove's General Ripper. LeMay bested his fictional counterpart by criticizing the American "phobia" towards nuclear weapons at a press conference in Pittsburgh. He described Bikini Atoll's recovery from nuclear tests; while land crabs were "a little hot... the rats...are bigger, fatter and healthier than they ever were before."[4] LeMay was Robert McNamaraWikipedia's W.svg's old boss. LeMay taught McNamara, who was Kennedy and Johnson's Vietnam War-era Defense Secretary, the delicate art of "carpet-bombing" over Tokyo in the 1940s.[5] Where Kennedy, Johnson, & McNamara fucked up, LeMay the expert was finally gonna set straight over North Vietnam. Ironically, LeMay evinced pro-choice and pro-environment positions that troubled Wallace's base more than his endorsement of nuclear holocaust.

Despite these missteps, Wallace did surprisingly well. He won 13.5% of the popular vote and five Southern states, making him the last third party candidate to win any electoral votes.

[edit] Later career

Wallace returned to the Democratic Party and the governor's seat by 1971. He defeated sitting governor Albert Brewer in a runoff election that was remarkably dirty, even by Alabama standards. Besides sabotaging his opponent's campaign rallies, Wallace distributed literature showing a white girl menaced by black men, captioned This Could Be Alabama Four Years From Now! Do You Want It? He was equally unsubtle in person, telling supporters "If I don't win, the niggers are going to control this state."[6]

Wallace subsequently ran for President again in 1972 and 1976, modulating his more overt racism as defense of states rights. In 1972 an assassination attempt on his life cut his campaign short, though he did win two major northern primaries in a sympathy vote right after he was shot. In 1976 he was still popular enough to win several primaries, though Jimmy Carter, another Southern Governor, undercut his popularity in that region.

Wallace eventually flip-flopped a second time on the segregation issue, recanting his former racist ways and winning the 1982 gubernatorial election with unprecedented record levels of black support after granting pardons in the infamous decades old Scottsboro BoysWikipedia's W.svg case. While apologetic for his segregationist stance in later years, Wallace's sincerity remains the source of heated debate.[7]

[edit] References

  1. Dan T. Carter, The Politics of Rage (1995), p. 265
  2. The Adamany study of Cross-Over Voting and the Democratic Party's Reform Rules found that in 1964, 62% of the 26% of crossover voters in the Wisconsin Democratic primary voted for Wallace; in 1972, 29% of the 34% of crossovers voted for Wallace and concluded that "the participation of crossover voters will . . . alter the composition of national convention delegations." U.S. Supreme Court, Democratic Party v. Wisconsin ex rel. La Follette, 450 U.S. 107 (1981).
  3. Carter, 367
  4. Carter, 359
  6. Carter, 391-395
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