A micronation is an attempt to start a new nation from scratch. This often takes novel forms, such as plans to create new artificial islands in international waters, occupying an existing abandoned structure in international waters, establishing a colony on Antarctica, declaring that one's personal ranch or property has seceded from its parent nation and is now an independent country, and "virtual" micronations which exist over the Internet.
Micronations are not to be confused with genuine small countries which have real residents and international recognition as nations, such as Andorra, Monaco, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Vanuatu, Singapore, Vatican City, Mauritius, etc. — these countries are properly referred to as "microstates." They are also not to be confused with publicity stunts such as the "Conch Republic," a tongue-in-cheek "secession" of Key West, Florida from the United States in 1982 declared by the Key West city council to drum up tourism and protest U.S. Border Patrol activity in the Florida Keys ("If you're going to treat us like a banana republic, by golly we'll become one!").
 Typical formation and politics
Micronations are commonly the work of cranks and/or geeks, often with a libertarian motivation such as establishing a utopian country free of taxation or drug laws. More often they are the work of con artists who mainly use the new "nation" to sell passports, stamps, and coins, often as a tax evasion scheme. Just as often they are the work of megalomaniacs who want to declare themselves absolute monarch over something and dress in kingly or princely attire. A number of Micronations have also been founded as part of protest movements (sometimes jokingly), though these usually do not last long. Many micronations are principalities or other monarchies (often as an attempt to exploit feudal-era legal loopholes within a greater constitutional monarchy).
Most micronations have no more actual residents than you can count on one hand. None of them has ever gained legitimate international recognition as a sovereign nation, although a British court ruled in 1968 that the Principality of Sealand was outside of British jurisdiction.
 Examples of micronations
- The Principality of Sealand: An abandoned British anti-aircraft platform located in international waters near the U.K., and occupied and claimed as an independent nation since 1967.
- The Hutt River Principality: a farm in Australia whose owner declared it an independent nation in 1970 after a dispute over wheat quotas with the Australian Government. Hutt River is unique among micronations in that it actually does function as a de facto independent state instead of merely claiming to be one; although it lacks a standing army and depends on Australia for military protection, it is otherwise self-sufficient. It lacks international recognition and has few residents, but the fact that none of the residents pay taxes to Australia and the almost insanely low 0.5% income tax rate in the principality itself have caused it to gain popularity as a tax haven.
- The Dominion of Melchizedek: a long-running virtual micronation considered by law enforcement to be a mail-order passport and banking fraud scheme.
- The Embassy of the Kingdom of Heaven: An exceptionally odd example in Oregon, which claims to be independent of the United States, but does not claim sovereignty, instead claiming to be an enclave of God's Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. Because they do not recognize any "worldly governments" and proclaim themselves to be literal citizens of the Kingdom of Heaven, they issue their own identity documents and license plates. They used to have a compound outside of Stayton, Oregon, but it was seized for non-payment of property taxes, despite their claims that it was exempt because it was a "foreign embassy".
- Freetown Christiania: Located in Copenhagen, this is a rare example of an urban micronation. This hippie commune was founded by squatters and anarchists in a disused army barracks in 1971, and declared itself an independent free town. This legal status is not formally recognised by the Danish government, but the commune's existence has largely been tolerated, and the government has turned a blind eye to the open cultivation and trade of marijuana within its boundaries, until a crackdown in recent years. The closest it has had to any recognition was from the local bus service that added a stop near the old barracks gates.
- The Other World Kingdom: Located in the Czech Republic, this was a resort for submissive male and dominant female BDSM practioners. It was styled as an absolute matriarchal monarchy, with a currency, national anthem and a queen in the form of the resort's owner, Patricia, but of course neither the Czech Republic nor any other entity recognized its sovereignty. As of recent years, the resort has closed and the land sold. There seems to be a rumor circulating around that the owner was somehow entangled with the Russian mafia.
- The Republic of Molossia: A small patch of land in the Nevada desert owned by one Kevin Baugh, self-styled President. Baugh seems to be fully in on the joke, and has set up his "country" as a tourist attraction. It was once taken over by internet reviewers and renamed Kickassia, until taken back.