User:Feredir28/Kent Hovind's Creation Seminar: The Garden of Eden

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Kent Hovind's Creation Seminar: The Garden of Eden is a seminar where Mr. Kent Hovind spews his Christian young earth pseudoscience propaganda. Hovind claims to have taught science for several years. While manly attacking the age of the earth, it also includes several other ad hocs and topics. The program is over 2 hours long, so only the main points will be addressed in this review.

Content[edit]

Hovind's Garden of Eden RationalWiki Responses

Opening[edit]

The program begins with Eric Hovind with another creationist walk into a laboratory with a report for Mr. Kent Hovind. They find him in a white lab coat working on a chemistry set. Mr. Hovind is busy, so Eric and the other creationist discuss the report. There are two stories, one for evolution and the other for creationism. Eric and his colleague review the evolution one: another failed missing link. Then they list several other fossil "hoaxes": Piltdown man (total fraud), Australopithecus afarensis (just a chimpanzee), and Neanderthal man (deformed human). They conclude evolution is ridiculous. But then Eric reads the other story: a creationist clams that humans once lived over 900 yeas old, as told in the book of Genesis. Eric and the creationist agree that is not possible. Then, Mr. Hovind holding a glass of blue-smokey liquid disagrees and proclaims, "yes it is."

Apparently, Halloween comes early in the Hovind family. Wearing a lab coat does not qualify you as a scientists or a smart person. Mixing water with blue dye and dry ice is not that much of a impressive accomplishment, just a stunt to appease the simpleminded. As for the 900 year claim, well, first lets see what case Hovind proposes.

As for the list of "hoaxes", which will likely to pop up again in the seminar, RationalWiki might as well clear things up right now. For the record, one or two hoaxes cannot indicate the inferiority of conventional archeology, because creationists have several of their own, including Paluxy footprints, the Calaveras skull, Moab and Malachite Man, and others. More telling is how people deal with these hoaxes. When Piltdown was exposed, it stopped being used as evidence. The creationist hoaxes, however, can still be found cited as if they were real. Even Mr. Kent Hovind repeats them, as we shall see. Piltdown has been over and done with for decades, but the dishonesty of creationist hoaxes continues. The British museum touted the “Piltdown man” as authentic, but the American Museum of Natural History displayed it only as a “mixture of ape and man fossils”, which is what it eventually turned out to be.

There was no way to adequately examine such things back in 1915. Chemical tests –common today- didn’t yet exist and we didn’t yet have a practical understanding of radiation. And before the first australopiths were discovered, we didn’t know exactly what to expect of the links that were then still missing between humans and the other apes known at that time. But as we began filling in the gaps in human evolution with thousands of legitimate fossils, a pattern emerged which left Piltdown an increasingly obvious anomaly. Consequently it was taken off display and stored away almost continuously for decades. It lost importance in most discussions because, in light of everything else we discovered over the next few decades, it just never fit, and was eventually dismissed from the list of potential human ancestors for that reason.

As the years wore on, criticism arose against everyone who ever promoted the Piltdown collection because there seemed to be so much wrong with it. Finally, in the 1950s, it was taken back out of the box and scrutinized via more modern means. First fluorine dating revealed that it was much too recent, and it was shown to have been chemically-treated to give a false impression of its age and mineral composition. Then it was finally determined that the jaw must have come from an orangutan, and that it had been deliberately reshaped with modern tools in a well-crafted and deliberate forgery.

Now even though Piltdown man was eventually exposed by evolution itself, creationists still portray events like this, and many others, as if they were all part of some ridiculous unified international conspiracy intended to fool the world into believing evolution over creation ex-nihilo. These paranoid propagandists also commonly contend -based only on these exceptions- that each of the thousands of fossil hominids we’ve found and confirmed before and since were all proven to be fakes too –even when the alleged authorities making these claims are already-exposed charlatans currently imprisoned for fraud.

As for Australopithecus afarensis, none of the experts believe “Lucy” was a chimpanzee. All the experts agree that australopiths lie between humans and modern apes, or that they were simply basal human forms. Nebraska man was never accepted by the scientific community. Finally, the Neanderthals weren’t “just an old man with arthritis” either. We’ve found hundreds of Neanderthal men, women, and children, and only one was ever found to be 'hunched' over. Were they human? Testing their DNA has confirmed and proven that they were not part of our species!

(However, it is quite correct to call the "original" Neanderthal fossil an "old man with arthritis" - an old Neanderthal man with arthritis to be exact.)

Introduction[edit]

The Bible says in 2 Peter chapter 3, "Knowing this first, there shall come in the last days scoffers." Did you know there are people that scoff at the Bible? I deal with them on a regular basis. I attract 'em like a lightning rod. The scoffers out there - they hate me! I'm trying to be nice to 'em, OK, but they just don't like me. They don't appreciate what a nice, wonderful guy I am.

The scoffers, the Bible says, are going to be walking after their own lust. You know the reason people scoff at the Bible? It's not because of their science. They think it is; OK, but no. They scoff at the Bible because of their lust. They don't want God telling them what to do. That's the bottom line, every single time. The scoffers are going to say, "Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, ... all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation." That's an important phrase; we'll cover that on video #4. But the scoffers are going to say:

The way things are happening now is the way things have always been happening. Uniformitarianism - we don't have time to cover that now - we'll get to that on part #4. The Bible says the scoffers are willingly ignorant. Willingly ignorant! In the Greek that means "dumb on purpose." The scoffers are dumb on purpose of two things, and here they are.

Number one, "That by the word of God the heavens were of old." Notice the word "heaven" is plural, "heavens." There's more than one heaven. We'll talk about that in a minute. The scoffers are ignorant of how God made the heavens by His Word. "And the earth standing out of the water and in the water." Now there's a strange phrase. How can the earth be out of the water and in the water? But look, it says, the heavens and the earth were made by His Word. Did you know that when God made the universe, he didn't lift one finger? He didn't turn one screw or pound one nail. He just spoke and every molecule lined up. That's incredible to think about. When He speaks, the waves lay down; the wind quits blowing. When He speaks, the dead come to life. When He speaks, the universe is created! Everything obeys the voice of God, except us. He's having some trouble out of us right now.

But He's going to fix that one of these days when "every knee shall bow and every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father," coming to a city near you. But the scoffers are willingly ignorant of how God made the heavens by His Word, And they're ignorant of how the earth was standing out of the water and in the water. In other words they're ignorant of the original creation. What was it like? We'll talk about that in a second.

The second thing they're ignorant of is the Flood. It says "the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished." This world was destroyed by a Flood, totally annihilated.

The third thing they're ignorant of is the coming judgment. The next verse says, "But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men." See, the scoffers are ignorant of the creation. They don't want to admit God created the world, because that would mean He owns it. They don't want to admit there was a Flood, because, you know, that proves God has the authority to judge His creation. They don't like that idea. And they sure don't want to admit there's a coming judgment!

2 Peter is considered by the vast majority of Biblical scholars to be a forgery - that is, it was never written by Peter, an apostle or anyone who ever knew Jesus. Mr. Hovind does not attract critics because he is a Bible-believer, he attracts critics for using the Bible to deliberately lie to his audiences. Even Christians critique Mr. Kent Hovind's works.

Mr. Hovind tries to dismiss his critics that their "lust" somehow makes them blind or willfully dishonest. Lust has nothing to do with seeking truth. Mr. Hovind is only trying to diverge the criticism away by blaming it on natural emotions and sense of rebellion.

The only one here is displays willful ignorance is the host of this seminar: Mr. Kent Hovind.

Mr. Hovind's critics are no ignorant of any of these, but that dose not matter since biblical scenarios conflict with observable reality. The Bible says the earth was created instantly and magically (Mr. Hovind admits that God jut spoke everything into being -an incantation, i.e. magic), we know that is not what happened. There is no evidence that humans are disobedient to any deity, let alone the only ones. The Bible speaks of demons, which are not human, who are also disobedient to God - so already, Mr. Hovind is ignorant of his own religion and is incorrect and wrong for labeling humans as disobedient.

"Every knee will bow"... sounds like tyranny and dictatorship.

Mr. Hovind's critics are not "ignorant" about the flood, since there is not a single shred of evidence hat it ever happened. If the world was totally annihilated, then where is the destructive evidence? Why is the world still here? Why were several civilizations untouched around the time he flood supposedly hit?

Mr. Hovind seems to be ignorant of the hundreds of years of calculated predictions for the end of the world and the coming judgment, and the fact that they all failed.[1]

Lifespan in the Bible[edit]

Mr. Hovind goes on to present a case that humans once lived for 900 years, based on the book of Genesis.

1. Hovind states the average age for biblical characters was 912. 1. The authors were part of ancient Sumer and engaged in a common practice:deifying their ancestors by giving them extreme ages. A few examples: Aluim of Eridu (28,800 years), Alalgar of Eridug (36,000) years, and Dumuzi of Bad-Tibira (36,000 years).

2. How do you live to be 900 years old? What did they eat before the flood? And where did all the water from the flood go anyway? 2. These are some intersting questions, but we do not expect much coming from Mr. Hovind.

3. Do you want to stand before God and defend the idea that we came from a rock? 3. As opposed to coming from dust?

The first hour of this seminar is basely Hovind attacking other Christian sects, the purpose of this review is to show the flaws in Hovind's arguments.|

Humans and Dinosaurs[edit]

1. Hovind claims that man coexisted with dinosaurs. Where did it come from? When did dinosaurs live anyway? Where did they live? Is it possible men have seen dinosaurs all along? Why do we see dinosaurs on on ancient pottery? Why are they carved on cave walls? Why on the walls of the Grand Canyon do we find dinosaurs? 1. There are no human fossils or artifacts found with dinosaurs, and there are no dinosaur fossils found with human fossils (except birds, which are descended from dinosaurs; out-of-place human traces such as the Paluxy footprints do not withstand examination). Furthermore, there is an approximately sixty-four-million-year gap in the fossil record when there are neither dinosaur nor human fossils. If humans and dinosaurs coexisted, traces of the two should be found in the same time places. At the very least, there should not be such a dramatic separation between them.

2. Hovind answers the last question: the Native Americans hunted dinosaurs. 2. Mr. Hovind has no proof that the Native Americans hunted dinosaurs.

3. Did you know that an 80 foot panosaurus has nostrils the same size as a horse? How did an 80 foot dinosaur get enough air with nostrils the same size as a horse? 3. Did you know that dinosaurs did not have bony nasal structures? Instead, their nasal structures were extremely "fleshy" allowing for great expansion.[2] How? The same method used by humans suffering from deviated septum's: breath using their mouths.

Pangaea[edit]

1. How many of you were taught that all the continents once fit into one super continent called Pangaea? I bet they never told you they shrunk Africa 40% just to make it fit. 1. Clearly Hovind has never heard of the Mapmakers Dilemma.

2. There is no question that the earth is composed of plates, and there is no question that the plates are moving. The question is when did this happen? I think it happened 4400 years ago at the Flood at the days of Noah. And the poor kids today are told that millions of years ago these plates slowly moved away from this continent called Pangaea. They do not tell the kids they shrank Africa 40% to make it fit. They also do not tell them Mexico and Central America are gone. They also do not tell them the obvious, the water out of the ocean, you would notice there is dirt underneath. These continents are not floating around like lillie pads in a bathtub folks, they are connected. 2. Due to the spherical shape of the earth, it is impossible to represent both size and shape accurately in two dimensions. Furthermore, area and angle cannot be accurately represented in rectangular maps. In most common maps, distortion increases as distance from the equator increases. Ultimately, the majority of Africa's land mass is not distorted; instead, Europe and the Americas are stretched to appear larger. Finally, plate tectonics states that the continental plates rest atop of magma. Magma is molten rock which allows for drift over time.

Water Canopy Hypothesis[edit]

1. Water above the atmosphere? Psalm 148 says "Praise him, ye, heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens." See the atmosphere we are breathing today comes in six layers. There used to be a seventh layer. It was a layer of water above the atmosphere. Now this is what is known as the "Canopy theory", I cannot prove this, I can just tell you what the Bible says -there was water above the atmosphere- and I am going to believe the bible until it is proven wrong. Okay, I cannot tell you what it was, how it was, or how it was held up there. Some people believe that it was ice and it was held up by the earth's magnetic field. Suspended, it was called the Mysner effect. You know, magnet will float on top of another magnet. I do not know, somehow there was water up there 1. The "Canopy Theory" Mr. Hovind is presenting is not a theory at all, it is not even a mere hypothesis. It is both completely unscientific as well as unscripted. Mr. Hovind outright admits he cannot "prove" any of this, rather his entire argument is inferred by Mr. Hovind's interpretation of a handful of metaphorical verses. The Meissner Effect relies on superconductivity of the materials. Unless very precise conditions are met, water cannot serve as a superconductor. These conditions would not occur in orbit.[3]

2. This theory is that this canopy of water or ice would probably be 10 to 20 miles up and it would double the air pressure here on earth. This would increase air pressure and filter out UV light. 2. According to physics, a vapor canopy capable of blocking out radiation would increase the atmosphere from ~15 psi to over ~970 psi.[4] That is just a little more than 64 times normal pressure and quite a bit more than "double" as Hovind states. All at the expense of killing all living organisms which rely on a circulatory system. the rapid change in pressure that would occur from removal of the "canopy" at the onset of the flood would cause gaseous oxygen and nitrogen to form in the blood of all organisms utilizing circulatory systems. In divers, this condition is known as the bends and results from a too rapid change in at most 5 atmospheres in pressure. A violent, catastrophic change of over 60 atmospheres is lethal no matter how thick the wood of your boat. Furthermore, it would increase surface temperature to ~145 degrees Fahrenheit.[5] Finally, an ice canopy would be physically impossible. Instead, the ice would be drawn into planar rings similar to those on surrounding Saturn.[6]

3. So the Canopy Theory probably made of air pressure because of this canopy over the top and the whole earth was like a big green house. Not only that, there was more water beneath the crust of the earth. If you read carefully in Psalm 136:6 God said he 'stretched out the earth above the waters.' That is an interesting verse, Psalm 24:1 says 'he found it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.' Did you know that when God created the earth there was water beneath the earth? I do not know, pick a number, they are about 10 miles down, there is subterranean water chamber. That is probably the water that came shooting to the surface when the 'fountains of the deep' broke open (Genesis 7:11-12). 3. As Hovind stated himself, he has no evidence to support this hypothesis. Apart from the Canopy argument, Mr. Hovind also hints about the Hydroplate theory, which is another ridiculous creationist argument that is not supported by any evidence. While each of Mr. Hovind's points (depth of subterranean chamber and such) are random and all Kent Hovind did was roll the dice, however even in the minimalist terms the Canopy argument still fails.

4. 2 Peter tells us, "The earth was standing out of the water and in the water." Apparently when God first made the earth, there was a canopy of water or ice above the atmosphere. It's not there now; it all fell down at the time of the Flood. But Isaiah tells us the Lord sits on the circle of the earth. Interesting! Three thousand years ago, the Bible said the earth is round. Christians have never taught the earth is flat. Some heathens have believed that and tried to blame it on the Christians. But we've always known the earth is round. 4. Mr. Hovind believes that the water above the atmosphere could be either be liquid or ice. But for the sake of argument, lets say it was all water vapor, enough to flood the entire earth. There would have to be enough vapor to form 9km of liquid, when condensed, and, therefore the vapor would weigh as much as 9km of water. The pressure at the earth's surface, where Noah and family lived, would be equal to one atmosphere PLUS the weight of a 9km column of water of unit area. This is equivalent to the pressure 9km deep in the ocean. What is this pressure? Well, each 10m of water is roughly equivalent to one atmosphere, so the pressure would be 900 atmospheres. The atmosphere would also have a composition of about 900 parts water vapor to one part of what we call air today.

How could an atmosphere almost 100% water vapor not condense? The temperature would have to be raised to the point where the partial pressure of water equals 900 atmospheres, i.e. the boiling point at that pressure. So we find Noah et al. living in a 13,000psi boiler. Is this credible?

Finally, Mr. Hovind fails again at history. The Bible does say "circle" but circles are 2 dimensional and flat, not spherical. The flat-earth position was widely held belief by early Christian fathers, who taught and preached that the earth was flat. Just to name a few:

  1. Theophilius of Antioch
  2. Ireneaus
  3. Cyril of Jerusalem
  4. Ephraim of Syrus
  5. Tertullian
  6. Methodius
  7. Athanasius of Alexanderia
  8. Diodorus of Tarsus
  9. Theodore of Mopsuestia
  10. Epiphanius of Salamis
  11. John Chrysostom
  12. Hilary of Poitiers
  13. Severianus of Gabala
The "heathens" Mr. Hovind mentioned did not believe in the flat earth. Rather, the vast majority of people did not accept a flat earth, particularly travelers, merchants, sailors, even actual scientists going back to the ancient Greeks. Eratosthenes, for example, actually measured the diameter of the earth (he was of by 15%, which is actually very good based on the information he had).

Air and Health[edit]

Here Mr. Hovind tries to defend that the secret to long life is due to oxygen and the amount we receive. Supported by the Canopy hypothesis, which Hovind believes doubled the air pressure, allowed for longer lasting life.

1. (showing a picture of a ancient mosquito trapped in amber, pointing to tiny bubbles in the material) Well, sometimes these air pockets in the amber are air bubbles. The air bubbles are 50% more oxygen than we do today. 1. The initial study came to the conclusion that 310 million years ago the oxygen was 35% greater.[7] However, other studies have called this into question.[8] These studies indicate that the additional oxygen content arises from chemical reactions within the amber.

2. Today we are breathing 21% oxygen. Amber bubbles have 32% oxygen. Do you know if you lived in a world with double the air pressure and 50% more oxygen, just breathing would be exciting? Adam would go, [breathe in] "Wow! That was fun." "Hey Eve, let's do that again. Ready, go." The earth had more oxygen in the past than it does now. Now you kids are going to be told in textbooks that the earth had no oxygen at the beginning, when life was evolving, called a "reducing atmosphere." That is baloney! We cover all that in Video #4 about how life began. It could not have evolved with oxygen, or without oxygen! But, if you double the air pressure and increase oxygen, not only does your hemoglobin take on oxygen, like it's supposed to, your plasma will get oxygen saturated, which means you could run hundreds of miles, without getting tired! 2. Except that breathing rate is regulated by not by oxygen concentration but by carbon dioxide concentration. If Mr. Hovind's hypothesis were true, animals would suffer from constant hyperventilation since carbon levels would be too low.[9]

  • Mr. Hovind begins to explain things about health. Please note: Mr. Hovind has poor science qualifications and has zero health qualifications.
3. With increased oxygen you would heal up much faster. How many of you remember Baby Jessica that fell into the well in Texas? Eighteen months old, her left leg slipped down into a pipe, her right leg came up behind her, and she did the splits as she slid down inside an 8-inch steel pipe. She went down 20 feet and was stuck there for 2 1/2 days! They tore up the whole neighborhood trying to get that kid out of that well. It was on the news about every 15 minutes, remember that? You know, Baby Jessica, still alive! When they finally got her out of that well, lots of her body had turned black from lack of circulation. Her right leg was totally black because it had been twisted around and stuck in her face from behind, doing the splits. One of the doctors said we have to cut her leg off immediately! Another doctor said, "Hey, before we cut the leg off, let's just try putting her in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber." In a what? Hyperbaric oxygen! They put Jessica in one of these chambers, filled it up full of pure oxygen, and pumped it up to double normal pressure. Within a few hours her leg turned pink. They restored circulation. They saved her leg. They did have to amputate half of her little toe. They couldn't save that. It beats losing a leg by a long shot! By the way, you know what you call a girl if one leg is shorter than the other? There is a hyperbaric chamber in Pensacola, Florida. This one in Pensacola holds 30 people in an emergency. A lot of hospitals are getting these hyperbaric chambers. Does UT [University of Tennessee] Medical Center have a hyperbaric chamber? They do? Do you know how big it is? Is it a one- or two- or three-person chamber? Oh, one person. West Germany's treating stroke patients with hyperbaric oxygen, getting incredible recovery from strokes. In England they are treating multiple sclerosis. They treat all kinds of diseases with these hyperbaric chambers. In India they are treating leprosy, and getting incredible results. Here is a kid being treated for cerebral palsy with hyperbaric oxygen. Doctors have discovered if they add more oxygen during surgery when the person's under anesthetic, only half as many patients get infections and only half as many people get nauseated; just by giving the sleeping patient more oxygen. Interesting! There is a chamber in New York that treats autism with hyperbaric oxygen. "Hyperbaric therapy's use as healing tool grows," article says. Here is a single-person chamber. 3. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is helpful in select situations namely those resulting from halt in the circulation system. Contortion to Jessica's limbs restricted blood flow to the surrounding tissue. Strokes and cerebral palsy are the direct result of interruption of blood flow in the brain. Hyperbaric treatments will not help infections or cure cancer as put forward by the sources of Mr. Hovind.

4. Did you know the Dallas Cowboys [football team] have a hyperbaric chamber? Why would professional sports teams want a hyperbaric chamber? Well, because they've discovered their injured players will heal twice as fast. See, if you are paying the guy $1,000.00 a minute to go play with a ball, you want him out there playing with the ball, OK, earning his $1,000.00 a minute, or whatever they get. Here is a Zach Somebody from the Dolphins. It says, "About three times a week, during the season, Zach chills out for an hour or so in a hyperbaric chamber, a 12' by 4' bag inflated with pure oxygen that helps the body heal and promotes a feeling of well-being. You can get your own hyperbaric sleeping bag, if you want! There is a clinic in Dallas, they give you hydrogen peroxide in your water to drink, and it helps most diseases get better. 4. WARNING: About the peroxide water - this is a highly dangerous practice. Both the FDA and health Canada have issued warnings to halt people from drinking hydrogen peroxide laced with water.[10]

5. A friend of mine in Oregon has a hyperbaric chamber. Here's my son (running the camera back there) and his wife and I at an "oxygen bar" in Alaska. Not a bar where you drink alcohol. I've never had alcohol in my life. But you sit down to lunch, and you breathe pure oxygen. You pay 'em five bucks and you breathe pure oxygen while you are eating lunch. And when you get done, man, you feel like going shopping again. It's a conspiracy, I can tell you right now! The whole thing's a conspiracy to get you to spend more money. But you feel great. My friend in Oregon has a hyperbaric chamber. I was out there. He asked, "Brother Hovind, would you like to try it?" I said, "Yeah!" He put me in there, gave me a book to read, and said, "I'm going to shut the door and pump it up to triple normal pressure." They use the diving terms: you're going to dive to 90 feet (30 meters). Well, you're sitting right there in the chamber; you don't go anywhere. But it's like scuba diving to 90 feet. He said, "Now, I'll let you out in about an hour." I was in there breathing pure oxygen for an hour, reading my book, under triple normal pressure. When he let me out, he said, "How do you feel?" I said, "I feel like running around the world!" This is incredible! Now how many of you old-timers, your "get-up-and-go done got up and went"? You know what I'm talking about? The most exciting thing you can think of is taking a nap, Sunday afternoon, right? Man, in the pre-Flood world, if they had double the air pressure and increased oxygen, you would just be full of energy all the time! 5.

6. Did you know, the Bible gives us the cure for cancer? As well as for heart attacks and strokes? it is all right there in the Bible. God said eat the fruit, vegetables, and seeds. When you eat the fruit, you should eat the seed. When you eat a peach, eat the seed. You say that thing's hard. Well, crack it open with a hammer. The seed is inside the hull, OK. And by the way, there's a good book. A lady saw my seminar, got all excited, went on a Garden of Eden diet, and totally revolutionized her health. She wrote a good book on it, following the Eden diet. If you want to get that, "Your Right to Be Beautiful." But, you should eat the seed. Now be sure to get organically grown seeds, not the ones grown on steroids and pesticides. But the seeds contain a bitter substance called cyanide. That'll give you a pucker that'll last about an hour and a half. Some of you old-timers are looking at me like, "Pucker, pucker, what is that for? Man, I used to know." My dad says, you know you're getting old when you get all the way across the room to give your wife a kiss, and then you forgot why you came. Yep, you are getting old, Dad. But these seeds contain a vitamin called vitamin B-17 which is half cyanide. You say, oh, that's poison. Oh, it's not either! Hydrogen's explosive; ask the folks on the Hindenburg. They found out. And oxygen supports combustion. Now who in their right mind would spray hydrogen and oxygen on a fire to try to put it out? Every fireman on the planet! What do you get if you mix hydrogen and oxygen? Water. Sodium is poisonous; chlorine is poisonous. You mix 'em together, you get salt, which is perfectly wonderful. So the cyanide found in the seeds is mixed with benzaldehyde. Both are poison, but together they're harmless. Until they bump into a cancer cell! There is B-17 in grass, have you ever seen a dog eat grass and then die? 6. "It's all right there in the Bible." Wrong, the ancient Hebrew knew nothing for cures for caner, heart attacks or strokes. note Hovind classifies B-17 as a "vitamin." To be classified as a vitamin a deficiency of a compound must be directly linked to a cause of a disease. Amygdalin (B-17) has no such deficiency disease. Instead, exposure to amygdalin has been shown to cause cyanide poisoning. (if you note the slide where Mr. Hovind shows the peach seed, in the subtext it reads: "Seeds contain cyanide, found in B-17" (emphasis added). Amygdalin has no shown effects to have any positive change towards countering cancer. The only sources endorsing the use of amygdalin to treat cancer are those making money selling the poison. Regarding Hovind's comment on dogs eating grass. If you watch, dogs do eat grass and then they throw up. By eating grass, the animal fills its stomach with indigestible cellulose which triggers vomiting.

7. The average age of doctors is 58 when they die. 7. Outright lie. This claim originates with Joel Wallach of Australia. He is a peddler of "longevity" vitamins and commonly appears on late night infomercials. Wallach claimed to have averaged the age of doctors using the obituaries printed in the Journal of the American Medical Association from January of 1993. The youngest doctor to have died was 75. Using real data, the American Medical Association's Center for Health Care Policy determined the average life expectancy of a doctor to be 75-88 years. Wallach, like Mr. Hovind, is a liar.

8. Did you know that wild animals never get cancer. Zoo animals get it all the time. 8. (Facepalm) The wild sea turtle population is currently being plagued by a type of cancer, and they are not the only wild life animals suffering from cancer.[11]

9. Remember the Bible talked about "our daily bread." But people who are making bread to sell, got tired of having half of it go bad on the shelf where they couldn't sell it. So they had to figure out a way to make their bread last longer to increase profits. It all goes back to money. Follow the yellow brick road. There are two philosophies of health. One is based upon evolution that says your body is nothing but chemicals that got together by chance, over billions of years. So to treat diseases, you add more chemicals. It's called drug therapy. If you have a headache, you say "Doctor, I have a headache." He says, "Here take an aspirin." Well now, hold on one minute. What caused your headache? Was it the lack of an aspirin that caused your headache? Are you suffering from an aspirin deficiency? Aren't you treating the symptom, instead of the cause? The other philosophy of medicine is based upon creation, which says your body's designed by God. And He gave us the food to meet our needs: vitamins, minerals, etc. It's called nutrition therapy. 9. Regarding the "creation philosophy of medicine," which are instances of "Biblical Medicine" - two are from Mr. Hovind's home state of Florida and were reported in the Tampa Tribune. Here is one: In Oct. 1996, 3-month-old Alexus Aitcheson choked to death on regurgitated milk. Her parents did not seek any medical attention.

10. And before you get excited about them putting fluoride in your water, you might want to read about the truth behind fluoride that they add to our water systems, and how dangerous that is. 10. Traces of fluorine have been shown to strengthen tooth enamel. To develop fluorine poisoning, an individual would have to consume 60 gallons of water in one sitting. consuming such a large quantity of water is lethal no matter what is in it.

11. Back in 1845, a doctor in Vienna, Austria was horrified, because 30% of the women giving birth in the hospital died. Thirty percent! So this doctor noted that the doctors would examine the bodies of the women who died and then, without washing their hands, go examine the next expectant mother. They didn't know about microscopic organisms back then. But Dr. Semmelweis insisted that the doctors in his hospital wash their hands after examining a dead body. The death rate dropped to two percent. Anybody know what happened to Dr. Semmelweis because of his great discovery? He was fired. Three hospitals in a row fired him. Finally he ended up in a mental institution where a patient murdered him. Just for insisting you wash your hands! Three thousand years earlier in the book of Leviticus, God had told Moses, tell the people when you touch a dead body, you are unclean. And wash your hands and your body, before you touch anybody else. God said that 3,000 years before science figured it out. 11.

12. See, the sun puts off a lot of stuff besides light. It puts off X-rays and Gamma rays and Beta rays and all them "Ray" boys come down here and they are pretty hard on your carcass... The Sun's x-rays are coming down right now through that roof, right through your body and blowing you full of holes inside the building - except on cloudy days, because water stops x-rays....But, here we are getting X-rayed everyday of our life and your poor skin feels the full force of the X-rays everyday of your life. Your body has to fix the damage. No big deal, you do it all the time. But after 50,60, or 70 years, everyone around you notices you are losing the battle for damage control. Your skin begins to wrinkly up. "Water stops x-rays" uh, no it doesn't. Clouds are as effective as stopping x-rays as a tissue paper stopping artillery shells. The ability for atoms to stop x-rays depends on the number of electrons, or atomic mass. Light elements such as hydrogen and oxygen do not effectively capture x-rays, nor are they dense enough to stop x-rays. This is why at hospitals, walls are covered with lead. The last statement is another mind-numbing display of Mr. Hovind's massive ignorance: aging is caused by x-ray damage. The giant tortoise is exposed to the same background sunlight radiation as we all are, yet they can live for over 200 years. Aren't certain trees under the same conditions as well, but some can live to 5,000 years. Under the waves, some shell-fish can live for 400 years. The source of aging has been known for at least three decades. The DNA of the cell tires during reproduction, otherwise known as the clock of aging. Aging has nothing to do with x-ray exposure.

Giants[edit]

Here Mr. Hovind tries to portray that not only did the biblical characters live for a long time, they were also very tall because the Bible sys there were "giants" in those days.

1. Here is me by Robert Wadlow, tallest man in this century - 8 foot, 11 1/4 [inches] (2.74M). He had a size 37 shoe; a pretty big boy! OK. Robert Wadlow would have been just a few inches shorter than Goliath, who was about 9 foot, 5 or 6. Robert Wadlow, at age 12, was the world's tallest Boy Scout. Here he is at age 12, with his Boy Scout troop. We would consider that gigantic, at almost 9 feet tall, wouldn't we! But I think before the Flood they got even bigger than that. 1. Robert Wadlow suffered from a medical condition known as acromegaly.[12] Acromegaly is caused by a tumor located at the pituitary gland which results in the secretion of growth hormone.[13] Robert Wadlow died an early death as a result of the complications to this disease.[14] (yes, giganticism is a disease[15]).

2. Here is the skeleton of a man 11 foot, 6 inches (3.5 m) tall. Well, long, not tall. He is laying down now. 11' 6" . How'd you like to have one of those guys on your basketball team? Boy, the University of Tennessee would be the champs from now on, wouldn't they? Eleven foot, six! 2. Mr. Hovind's black-and-white picture is an artists depiction.[16] Several of the men in the picture have disproportionate arms.[17]

3. Now sometimes the women get upset with me. And they say, "Now, Hovind, you said that was the skeleton of a man. Maybe it was a woman!" Well, I taught biology and anatomy. I happen to know how to tell the difference between a male and female skeleton. It is not the number of ribs. Only Adam was missing a rib. And only for a short time. Because there is only one bone in the human body that will grow back if you take it out. Your lower rib will grow back if you remove it. You know, a lizard's tail grows back if you cut it off. The lower rib will grow back if you take it out. Boy, you'd almost think that God knew what He was doing, if you didn't know better! But anyway, there are two ways to tell the difference between a male and a female skeleton. One way is to look at the feet. If they're pointed toward the mall, it's a woman! The other way is to look at the process on the temple mandibular joint. If that joint right there is worn out more, it's a woman! One lady said that's because we have to tell you men everything twice. You don't listen the first time! Okay, guilty, guilty! 3.

4. Mr. Kent Hovind proves a list of examples of disocvered giants.
  • In Indiana, eight giants were found, ranging from 8 to 9 feet long. They were wearing heavy copper armor. The museum was not interested in them. Why would a museum not be interested in 9-foot skeletons to put on display? Could it be that there's a theory called evolution which says we started off small and we're getting bigger? That theory makes us feel important, of course. We're evolving. "Ye shall be as gods." You're getting better! Could it be the truth is exactly the opposite? People were much bigger before the Flood, and now we're getting worse? And maybe they're trying to hide that!
  • The tallest man today was 8 feet, 4 inches (2.5 m) tall when this picture was taken. I've been told that he is now 8 feet, 7" living in Ukraine: a pretty good-sized boy. Eight foot seven; big hands! There he is trying to use a cell phone. That'd be tough, wouldn't it!
  • Roman Emperor Maximus was 8 feet, 6 inches; 2,000 years ago; where we get our word "maximum" from.
  • A 9 feet, 8 inches (2.95 m) skeleton was found in Indiana in 1879.
  • Two skeletons 9 feet tall were found in Virginia City [Nevada].
  • Every skeleton found in this burial mound in Louisiana. 20 skeletons were found; all of them 9 feet tall!
  • A skeleton 10 feet tall was found in Humbolt Lake, Nevada.
  • And in Guam they have a legend that the giants used to live on the island of Guam. And they built these big "latte" stones over there.
  • . A 12-foot skeleton, found in Lompoc Rancho, California. Another 12-footer found in Tucson, Arizona. The guy had six toes. Six fingers, six toes, and a bird-shaped headdress.
  • When Cortes went to Mexico and conquered part of it, the people who lived there said, "Oh, there used to be giants that lived on this continent." They brought a bone of one of these guys out. Just the thigh bone was as tall as Cortes! Just the thigh bone! And he said, "I am a man of good size. I'm a good-sized guy, but this bone was the same size as me."
  • This is a giant block of rock. Who on earth was moving these things? Consider, that's a camel in front of it, for scale. Who was cutting and moving these things? This is a 39-pound (18 kg) ax head. Swing a 10-pound sledge for a few minutes and see why I am wondering who's swinging a 39-pound ax head. This is a stone designed to be held between the thumb and finger for chipping.
4. Most "giant" skeletons are not popularized because scientists do not wish to parade around the remains of individuals who suffered from a debilitating disease. Ultimately, Mr. Hovind cites no more than 25 accounts of "giants" with all the accounts coming from dubious origins. Even if these accounts were valid, they are statistically irrelevant when you consider the world population ranging in the billions. Should a rare trait found to exist in 25 individuals compared to 6 billion as anecdotal evidence? No, it proves nothing. When you consider these 25 skeletons represent the entire population of giants throughout history, Mr. Hovind's hypothesis is laughable.

5. The Smithsonian is responsible for hiding most of the discoveries of giant humans. They don't want people to know about these giants, because it goes against the evolution theory. This skull used to be on display in Winnemucca, Nevada until a few years ago when they took it down. It's in the basement. You have to specially ask to see it. A giant human skull! 5. Mr. Hovind tells us not to believe the Far Out Adventures book, until one article comes along to support your hypothesis while ignoring the rest. Hovind's source for the skull is the Readers Digest. Because when you think of science literature to answer your scientific needs, you think Readers Digest.

6. Here is a normal human thumb bone; underneath is a giant human thumb bone. This is a part of a skeleton found in a grave in Turkey right near Mt. Ararat. The government of Turkey says they have found the grave of Noah. The skeleton was 12 feet tall. Now that would make his cubit a little bigger, wouldn't it? 6. The Turkish government makes claims such as this every time a new location for the "Ark" is proposed. Weeks previous to this particular claim, explorers claimed to have found the Ark in Iran.[18]

7. People say one man and three boys could never build a boat that size. Huh, but you didn't see those boys! "Hey Bubba, bring me that tree, would you." "Sure Dad, where do you want it?" 7.

8. We've got a replica of a thigh bone in our museum from a guy that would have been about 13 feet (3.95 m) tall. You meet a guy like that, call him "sir". There is an article on the table all about it down here, if you want to read more on this one. 8. This is an outright lie. This replica originates from Joe Taylor of the Mt. Blanco (Creationism) Museum. The source of this claim is a letter from an unknown follower.[19] The letter claimed that the skeleton had been discovered in Turkey. Taylor doubled the dimensions of a femur from a female from his collection.[20] This violates known anatomical constraints: In anatomy, every doubling of a bone length must be accompanied by an eight fold increase in cross section area.[21] Taylor doubled both length and cross section areas.[22] Had a 13 foot tall woman (called a man by Mr. Hovind) possessed such a femur, she would be unable to stand up straight without breaking her legs.

9. These jaw bones are on display at a hotel in Turkey; 6 and 1/2 inches (16.5 cm) across the TMJs. Anyone of you could put your head inside the jaw and bounce it around. 9.

10. In Wausaukee, Wisconsin they found a human skull three times the size of ordinary humans. Found in an Indian burial mound. Giants were on the earth in those days. 10.

11. That is what the Bible says. There were giants here. 11. Or the Hebrews were short compared to their neighbors, and thus considered them giants.

Caveman / Missing Link Hoaxes[edit]

Here, Hovind, tries to argue that the "caveman" (the supposed missing link between man and apes, is a fraud and never existed)

1. What's the truth about the cavemen? Is it possible for an ape-like creature to turn to a human? Well it depends what you mean by caveman. There are people today who live in caves. We don't call them half-ape, half-human. There's the world's most wanted caveman right there, Osama bin Laden. There's a former caveman. I think someone's trying to make a monkey out of us. Was your ancestor an ape-like creature? I don't think so. Let's talk about a few of the so-called cavemen. We could spend hours on this topic, but we have got more to cover here. 1. Humans are apes. Cavemen were never presupposed or predicted too be the "missing link" in human lineage. Hovind moves into to repeat the old creationist lies and propaganda that the following fossils were hoaxes and thus believe that the entire theory of evolution must be discarded.

2. Nebraska man was used for years as evidence for evolution. All they found for Nebraska man was one tooth. That is the entire Nebraska man...right there. One tooth! Then they built an entire man from that one tooth, and later made him a wife. Now you have to really be good to know what his wife looks like from his tooth. But these are professionals; don't question them, OK. They know what they're talking about. Later they found out the tooth actually came from a pig. There's the real Nebraska man right there! 2. An American paleontologist earned himself a life-time of embarrassment when he found a tooth from an extinct species of pig in Nebraska, and mislabeled it, Hesperopithecus. The cheek teeth of pigs and peccaries are fairly similar to ape molars, and this one was badly worn such that Henry Fairfield Osborne initially believed it to be human. But the real embarrassment came when he publicized his find in a popular magazine rather than submitting it for peer review first.

3. How about Piltdown man, named after the gravel pit it was found in, in Piltdown, England. Somebody took a human skull and an ape's jaw; they filed them down and fooled everybody. In 1912 they discovered the Piltdown man. It was in the "New York Times". "Darwin Theory Proved True from the Piltdown Man." It was going to be used in 1925 at the Scopes monkey trial as part of the evidence for evolution, but the judge said, "The question is not, is there evidence for evolution; the question is, did he violate the law of teaching?" So he was found guilty of breaking the law. The teacher was John T. Scopes down here in Dayton, Tennessee. But, Piltdown Man was a hoax. Somebody had taken a ape's jaw bone, and a human skull, broke the TMJs off, made them fit together, and fooled everybody! They filed the teeth down! For 40 years it was in the textbooks as proof for evolution. It was a fraud; exposed as a fraud in 1953. 3. The British museum touted the “Piltdown man” as authentic, but the American Museum of Natural History displayed it only as a “mixture of ape and man fossils”, which is what it eventually turned out to be.

There was no way to adequately examine such things back in 1915. Chemical tests –common today- didn’t yet exist and we didn’t yet have a practical understanding of radiation. And before the first australopiths were discovered, we didn’t know exactly what to expect of the links that were then still missing between humans and the other apes known at that time. But as we began filling in the gaps in human evolution with thousands of legitimate fossils, a pattern emerged which left Piltdown an increasingly obvious anomaly. Consequently it was taken off display and stored away almost continuously for decades. It lost importance in most discussions because, in light of everything else we discovered over the next few decades, it just never fit, and was eventually dismissed from the list of potential human ancestors for that reason.

As the years wore on, criticism arose against everyone who ever promoted the Piltdown collection because there seemed to be so much wrong with it. Finally, in the 1950s, it was taken back out of the box and scrutinized via more modern means. First fluorine dating revealed that it was much too recent, and it was shown to have been chemically-treated to give a false impression of its age and mineral composition. Then it was finally determined that the jaw must have come from an orangutan, and that it had been deliberately reshaped with modern tools in a well-crafted and deliberate forgery.

Now even though Piltdown man was eventually exposed by evolution itself, creationists still portray events like this, and many others, as if they were all part of some ridiculous unified international conspiracy intended to fool the world into believing evolution over creation ex-nihilo. These paranoid propagandists also commonly contend -based only on these exceptions- that each of the thousands of fossil hominids we’ve found and confirmed before and since were all proven to be fakes too –even when the alleged authorities making these claims are already-exposed charlatans currently imprisoned for fraud.

4. Neanderthal man is still in your textbooks used in your town here in Knoxville, Tennessee! But it's been proven years ago, it cannot possibly be a missing link. Long story about the Neander Valley, named after Joachim Neander that wrote the song in the songbook, "Praise to the Lord the Almighty the King of Creation." A great godly man. Back in 1856, they found a skeleton petrified. A man petrified in this valley (called the Neander Valley), and they named it Neanderthal man. The back was bent over. Well, apes walk on four legs, and man walks on two; so when the Darwin's theory became popular, they resurrected the Neanderthal man, and said, "Oh wow, maybe he's slowly evolved, and he's coming up." Well, they've known since the very beginning, it was an old man with arthritis, who's slowly going down. He's not coming up at all. He's headed down, but they still keep him in the textbooks. About 300 Neanderthals have been found. Their brains are bigger than ours. Their bone structure was incredibly strong. They said they had so many muscles, that the average Neanderthal could probably pick up the average NFL linebacker and fling him over the goal post. Phenomenal strength in the Neanderthals! They gave the same skull to 9 different artists and said, "What did he look like in life?" They got 9 different answers. They said, "What would you like him to look like; we're artists, you know. Would you like him ape-like or human-like? You tell us what you want. We'll do it." Jack Cuozzo, a friend of mine from New Jersey, has been a dentist for 32 years. He came and spoke at our conference a few weeks ago at the boot camp we had in Pensacola. He studied the actual Neanderthal skulls in Europe. He said, "These Neanderthals are just perfectly normal humans that are living to a really great age." See, before the Flood came, the people lived to be 900. But after the Flood, life spans dropped off to 400, and then 200, and then 100; but that's still a long time to live. And it's a simple fact the bones of your eyebrow ridge never stop growing. So if you could live to be three or four hundred years old, your eyebrow ridge would stick way out! People today that use their jaws a lot, like the Aborigines in Australia always using their jaws as a vice (they don't carry a toolbox with them), their eyebrow ridge sticks out really far, because of the chewing muscles. It pulls on the bone. The Neanderthals are perfectly normal humans that are living to be 2 or 3 hundred years old. That's all they are. Their brain's bigger than ours. They're not subhuman at all! They're just really old humans. There's an Aborigine on the far left over there. 4. Their evident descendants, the Neanderthals weren’t “just an old man with arthritis” either. We’ve found hundreds of Neanderthal men, women, and children, and even their DNA, which has provided proof that they were not part of our species! This is also another example of Mr. Hovind trying to rewrite history. Stratus and Cave (1957) overturned a stereotype that neanderthals were "ape-men." However, they concluded that Neanderthals were distinct between all groups of modern man. Virchow and Ivanhoe (1970) put forward a hypothesis that a single Neanderthal specimen suffered from rickets. Actually, they concluded that the specimen had rickets in childhood, suffered head trauma in early adulthood, and had arthritis at old age. Marvin Lubenow (1992), a creationist, popularized the claim that all Neanderthals suffered from rickets. This cannot be true for the following reasons;
  1. Rickets is fond in individuals who are calcium deprived; they have weakened bones. Neanderthals had bones which were 50% thicker than modern man; their bones were much stronger.
  2. Rickets causes a sideways curvature of the femur. Neanderthals had natural backward curvature.
  3. Rickets is easily detectable. There are over 500 Neanderthal specimens; rickets has only been found in one.

Mr. Hovind confuses arthritis with rickets.

As for Cuozzo, he rapidly tore apart the three creationist "disease" hypothesis: rickets, arthritis, and syphilis. The skull that Cuozzo examined was actually a cast, not the actual skull. The original as taken by the USSR after WWII, but returned in 1989 and it suffers from no such distortion. Cuozzo's arguments are riddled with conspiracy theories. At one point, he theorizzed that the Neanderthal was shot in the head with a gun.[23]

5. There's Cro-Magnon man, still used in the textbooks, yet it's a perfectly normal human. Why on earth is that considered a missing link? They've got one in there called Homo sapiens as modern man. He's listed as Cro-Magnon. He's not a missing link at all! 5. Cro-Magnon wasn’t a different species; they were just the first of our own species known in Europe The importance of Cro-magnon man is that it completes a piece in human lineage. Cro-Magnon are virtually identical to modern man, being tall and muscular and slightly more robust on average than most modern humans.

6. One they've got in there now is Australopithecus africanus. It was proven wrong in 1973. Thirty years ago proven wrong! Why are they keeping that in the textbooks as evidence for evolution? 6. Because it was never proven wrong to begin with. Mr. Hovind is simply lying to the audience without providing any proof whatsoever. A. Africanus is similar to A. afarensis; it is also bipedal, but body size is slightly greater. Brain size may also have been slightly larger, ranging between 420 and 500 cc. This is a little larger than chimp brains (despite a similar body size), but still not advanced in the areas necessary for speech. The back teeth were a little bigger than in afarensis. Although the teeth and jaws of africanus are much larger than those of humans, they are far more similar to human teeth than to those of apes (Johanson and Edey 1981). The shape of the jaw is now fully parabolic, like that of humans, and the size of the canine teeth is further reduced compared to afarensis.

7. They've got Australopithecus afarensis, better known as Lucy. How many of you have every heard of Lucy before? Donald Johanson found Lucy, 1974, Ethiopia. He had gone there with a grant to look for missing links. Somebody gave him some money, said here, go find a missing link; if you don't find one, no more money. Two weeks before his grant money expired, he discovered Lucy (40% of the skeleton). Highly motivated, I'd suspect; and that would be suspect, by the way, in a court of law, you know. Lucy was three feet tall; it was obviously a chimpanzee of some kind. Now the bones of the skull were crushed thoroughly. You could not tell anything about the skull, but when they put it together for your kid's textbook, they make it half human, half ape. The head was to thoroughly crushed they could not tell what they had for a head. Very few bones, all you need is a good imagination to make a missing link. They named it Lucy because they were listening to this song, "Lucy in the sky with diamonds". A very popular song at that time. Which by the way has initials LSD, which they must have been on when they found this thing. But, the knee joint that was labeled Lucy's knee in "National Pornographic...Geographic" was actually found a mile and a half away and 200 feet deeper. The "National Geographic" labeled it Lucy's knee. It's not Lucy's knee! It's a mile and a half away, for heaven's sake. There's quite a controversy about that knee joint still. But the knee joint is the best evidence they have that Lucy was becoming a human. Because an ape has the lower and upper leg that are in a straight line with each other. A human leg goes up to your knee and angles off to the side, because your hips are wider than your knees. Lucy's knee angled off to the side. The femur angled. And Donald said, "See, that proves she's becoming a human." No, any monkey that climbs trees has an angled femur. What he found was a tree-climbing monkey. It's not proof it's becoming a human. He said, "Well, the bones are slightly bigger than a regular ape." Well, that's true. That doesn't prove it's becoming a human. The bones of a Clydesdale are slightly bigger than a regular horse. That doesn't prove it's becoming a truck, for heaven's sake, OK. What he found was a heavy duty chimpanzee. And probably the pre-Flood chimpanzees and everything was probably more heavy duty, if they're living longer and much healthier. That's all he found. There are big horses and little horses today, by the way. Charles Oxnard studied Lucy and said, "The bones of Lucy represent an animal that is not in the line of humans." It's not a missing link. He did a computer multivariate analysis of the bones. There could be these creatures, these little ape-like creatures that walk upright still alive in Sumatra today. Lucy may represent an animal that is still alive. The St. Louis Zoo put human feet on their Lucy display. Not one foot bone or hand bone was found. Not one. Every other australopithecine that's been found has curled toes. Professor Menton at Washington University said, "The statue is a complete misrepresentation." That's a big fancy word for lie. I prefer smaller words. It's a lie. The zoo director said, "Zoo officials have no plans to knuckle under. We cannot be updating every exhibit based on every new piece of evidence. We look at the overall exhibit and the impression it creates, and we think [this] impression it creates is correct." Bruce, are you telling me you would lie to kids coming through your zoo just to get an impression across to them that evolution is true? You mean your theory is more important than the facts? That's exactly correct. They will lie to the kids going through these science centers and zoos, to make them believe this evolution theory! 7. Australopithecus afarensis proved to be a fully bi-pedal ape who’s hands, feet, teeth, pelvis, skull, and other physical details were exactly what creationists challenged us to find, yet they’re still pretending we never found it. If it was "obviously" a chimpanzee, then the discovery would not be significant unless it was something other than a chimpanzee. There have been multiple findings of Australopithecus afarensis fossils. A combination of these findings allows for better reconstruction of the skull. To begin about Lucy's knee, Mr. Hovind is simply lying. It is not an honest mistake on Hovind's part; he has been repeatably corrected about his claims, but he continues to make these fraudulent claims today. The knee of Lucy's skeleton was found along with the rest of the fossil. A different isolated fossil Australopithecus afarensis was found several kilometers from the Lucy site. Australopithecus afarensis was morphologically distinct from other primate species. Mr. Hovind's claim that Australopithecus afarensis was a "tree climbing monkey" is baseless. Oxnard's multivariant analysis was based on a small number of poorly preserved bone fragments. Interestingly, Oxnard concluded that Lucy was bipedal, a position contrary to Mr. Hovind's claims. Finally, Oxnard believes Australopithecus played a significant role in human evolution, another contrary position to Mr. Hovind's claims. Hovind is simply cherry-picking.

8. Peking man was used for years as evidence for evolution. Everything disappeared during World War II; but they found a cave, with a bunch of crushed monkey skulls in there. The skull had been smashed, and they found a bunch of human tools. And so some brilliant scientist said, "Wow, these monkeys are learning to make tools." Oh, and they are practicing on their head, yeah. That's a good one. Let's keep that one right over here. Well, duh, they didn't tell anybody that they found 10 normal humans in the same cave. Skeletons of humans. See, in some cultures they like to eat monkey brains. You ever see "Indiana Jones"? They just found a cave where they were eating monkeys. That's where they had their feasts, or something. 8. The statement that 10 humans were found alongside Peking man derives from Chou Kou Tien. The newspapers misreported this as ten skeletons. This conspiracy would require the assistance of hundreds of people; many of which spoke different languages. This conspiracy only exists in the paranoid minds of people like Mr. Hovind.

9. It's not a missing link. Homo erectus is still in the textbooks. Homo erectus used to be called "Java man", then they changed it to Pithecanthropus erectus, and now called Homo erectus. It was found by Dr. Dubois, a Dutch anatomist who went to Indonesia purposefully, to try to find missing links. He hired a bunch of prison convicts to go dig for him. He wasn't even there when they found it. What they found was an ape's skull cap, three human teeth, and a thigh bone found a year later 50 feet away. Dubois put them all together and said, "We have a missing link here." You don't even know those animal bones go together. Three teeth, a thigh bone, and a skull cap from an ape! This was also going to be used in 1925 as evidence for evolution at the Scope's monkey trial. The Java man! The famous anatomist Virchow said, "In my opinion this creature is an animal, a giant gibbon, in fact. The thigh bone has not the slightest connection with the skull." Dubois hid the fact that he found two human skulls in the same area. He put those under his bed, under the floor, like Edgar Allen Poe; you know, "The Tell-Tale Heart." Only this was "tell-tale head." There's no evidence of how man evolved at all. Fossil evidence for evolution of humans is fragmentary. Fossil evidence of chimpanzee evolution is absent all together. There is no evidence of how chimpanzees evolved. 9. The Wadjak skulls were found over 65 miles away. Their discovery was never hidden. The skullcap was far too large to have been from an ape. Furthermore, the Java Man fossil has been corobated by other Homo erectus fossils, including a nearly intact skull.

10. But yet you have articles in the magazines all the time about evolution. "Where are we going?" I can tell you that. You are going straight to Hell if you don't accept Christ. It's real simple. That's a no-brainer. In Spain they were going to have a big display of the Orce man. O-r-c-e, the Orce man. They were going to have a big party for the Orce man they discovered. Until they discovered it's actually a piece of a skull fragment from a donkey, four months old. That was going to be the missing link. 10. Mr. Hovind's personal beliefs do not alter or change reality or the vast amounts of evidence for evolution.

11. A dolphin's rib had been labeled a "human collarbone" in a museum for a long time, until somebody said, "Uh, that's a dolphin's rib, not a human collarbone." 11. A simple mistake as this does not over rule the theory as a whole.

12. The Hobbit was just found here in 2004. The Hobbit was an little bitty, tiny human. Probably a result of secondary microcephaly dwarfism. Just a normal human, about 3 1/2 feet tall! There are people like that today running around the planet. 12. Mr. hovind is referring to Homo floresiensis, which was discovered on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003. Fossils have been discovered from a number of individuals. The most complete fossil is of an adult female about 1 meter tall with a brain size of 417cc. Other fossils indicate that this was a normal size for floresiensis. It is thought that floresiensis is a dwarf form of Homo erectus - it is not uncommon for dwarf forms of large mammals to evolve on islands. H. floresiensis was fully bipedal, used stone tools and fire, and hunted dwarf elephants also found on the island.

13. There's a good book on the so-called cavemen. If you want to read this book. If you're being taught these things in school, get the book by Marvin L. Lubenow, "Bones of Contention." Excellent book, it will really put everything into perspective for you. The only missing link I can find is up between these guys' ears. You know, something is missing! Some of these professors spend all their free time digging in the dirt, looking for bones. My dog does the same thing, but we don't make the taxpayers pay his salary while he does it. 13.

Then "National Geographic" put human/apelike-mixture features on these creatures walking through this ash. Now keep in mind not one bone was found. No bones are found. If you find perfectly normal human footprints, what would justify you putting dark-skinned, apelike creatures walking there on your drawing? And if I was an African American, I would be upset that they always use dark skin on the missing links! Like it's some kind of, you know, darker skin is less evolved! That's what they're trying to imply here. And why did they add this toe separation? Notice the big toe is separated away from the rest of them in the picture. They did it on purpose because it's a real serious problem going from an apelike foot to a human foot. Apes have a toe that sticks off to the side like a thumb. That's so they can grab a tree branch and hang by their back feet. You can't do that! If you want to practice that, I suggest that you start on a low branch for practice.

Because you are going to hurt your head. But here they have "four million years of bipedalism." And they gave every one of these so-called missing links human feet. Because the foot is a serious problem for the evolutionists.

Hunter-Gatherers[edit]

1. And people that are driven out of society are going to travel around in small herds and packs, following migrating animals. And they don't want to carry 50 pounds worth of stone tools with them. It's quicker to make your stone tools on the job site. You follow the mammoths until you catch up with them (or the buffalo) and then you quickly make your tools. Kill the buffalo or the mammoth, and you butcher it, and leave your tools behind and go on someplace else. 1. This is pure poor creationist speculation. Look at this picture of buffaloes on the Great Plains. Okay, Mr. Hovind, where is your flint for making your tools? Where are the trees for making spears? Where is the bulrushes for making arrows? Evidently, even in hunter-gatherer communities, the creationists would not survive without the smarter element of the tribe. It takes skill and the right material to make rock tools, you can't just pick up a rock and make a tool from it. There is much time spent into finding the right materials and making the rock tools. You certainly do not throw them away. Here is a scenario: a defenseless wandering nomad tribe takes a quick break next to a river to drink. Suddenly, they are attacked by a pact of wild animals. When do you find the time to go around, find your materials, set them up without breaking them, and then fight the wild animals before they eat you?

Word Play[edit]

1. Here is a hornless rhinoceros 18 feet (5.5 m) tall. That's a big rhino! People say, that's a prehistoric animal. No, did you know that the word "prehistoric" was not even in the dictionary until about a 100 years ago? We collect old dictionaries in our science center. If you have some old dictionaries from the 1700 or 1800s, we'd love to get them. I've got a dictionary from 1766; the word "prehistoric" was not there. I've got a dictionary from 1860; the word "prehistoric" is not there. No such thing as "prehistoric" back in 1860. There's a dictionary from 1892; the word "prehistoric" is still not there. See, there are things that are pre-Flood, but there is no such thing as "prehistoric." We have history from the first day, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." You can't go before that. So there's no such thing as "prehistoric." 1. The English word originates in 1871 from the French word Préhistoriqu. Préhistoriqu came into use in the French language in the early 1500's.

Huge animals disprove evolution[edit]

Here Hovind tries to display modern or fossilized organisms that resemble living creatures, and try to convince the audience that they could not be the result of evolution. it begins with a jump back to the "Canopy" hypothesis, and that the various air pressure can alter a creatures size.

1. You see evolution says that everything is getting bigger, faster, stronger over time. I think we are getting smaller, weaker and dumber. It is true that human height has recently increased, but that is due to good nutrition and sanitation. But before the Flood came, this canopy of water would increase air pressure, which make things behave very differently. It makes insects grow much bigger. See, insects are limited on size, based upon the amount of oxygen they can get. Insects that live in oxygen-rich waters get a 1,000 times heavier than those that don't. It has to do with the surface area to volume ratio. Without boring everybody for a half hour, the larger an insect gets, it has more surface area. But not compared to its volume. The surface area compared to its volume ratio drops off. As you can see on the chart here. So as an insect gets larger, it doesn't have enough skin. Because insects breathe through their skin. But giant insect fossils have been found;
  • like this dragonfly with a 50-inch (1.3 M) wingspan. How'd you like to hit one of those at 70 miles an hour (110 kph)? He'd take the bug deflector and the hood right off and join you in the front seat. Big dragonflies have been found fossilized on this planet. Today they get four or five inches long, i.e. not very big. Pre-Flood, they were huge.
  • Cockroaches get pretty good sized today. We raise them in our museum in Pensacola; the Madagascar hissing cockroaches.7 But did you know, giant cockroaches have been found? Eighteen-inch (45 cm) long cockroach fossils. You didn't call Orkin in those days! You called the National Guard to come exterminate the house, OK?
  • A giant fossil centipede, 8 1/2 feet (2.6 m) long was found.
  • Grasshoppers 2 feet (60 cm) long have been found fossilized. You could make a meal out of those.
1.Evolution does not "say" anything about how tall or short the entire animal kingdom should get. The evidence speak for itself. Size varies amongst species throughout history of the earth. umans have been steadily growing, but this is not due to nutrition and sanitation.
  • Moving on to Mr. Hovind's insect "examples." Oxygen levels were indeed higher during the Carnivorous era, but this is way before humans ever appeared on earth and therefore could play no rolein the size of humans. All the large insects shown in this seminar have been discovered in the Carnivorous sedimentary rock layers. Why do insects row so large? Because insects do not have lungs. They take in oxygen through their skin. This is not very efficient and it limits their body size according to the level of oxygen in the atmosphere.

2. A tarantula, with a 3-foot leg span fossil; 60-foot (18 m) cattail fossils have been found. 2.

3. A donkey 9 feet (2.75 m) high, from Texas, of course. Everything is bigger in Texas. 3.

4. Giant sloths obviously lived on the planet. Now, you're going to be told that was millions of years ago. No, it wasn't; it was just before the Flood came. Buffalo are found with horn spans up to 12 feet (3.7 m). 4.

5. Elk with 12-foot (3.7 m) antlers. Some of you deer hunters are thinking, "Wow, that'd look good on a wall!" How many of you go out and try to shoot Bambi's daddy? Come on; be honest. 5.

6. You know, fossil kangaroos have been found 10 feet tall, and a fossil wombat the size of a Minivan. 6.

7. Here's the fossil of a guinea pig that was 1,500 pounds (680 kg). That's a big guinea pig. 7.

8. Birds have been found 13 feet (4 m) tall. 8.

9. Here is an elephant bird egg. The one behind it is an ostrich egg, which is also huge. 9.

10. They find fossils of a prehistoric goose that stood as tall as an elephant and weighed half a ton. How'd you like to have that for Thanksgiving dinner? Tell Tiny Tim about that goose! 10.

11. Fossil beavers have been found 8 feet (2.4 m) long. Here's a guy holding a beaver jaw from about a 7 or 8 foot tall beaver. Here's a 6-foot (2 m) beaver found in Ohio. See, if you have bigger trees before the Flood, you would need bigger beavers to chew them down. God kept everything balanced in those days. Salamanders today get from 5 to 8 inches long, typically. Did you know that fossil salamanders have been found that are 6 feet (2 m) long? 11.

12. Increasing air pressure means more gas gets into the water, and fish have to breathe in the water, through their gills. So if you had more gas dissolved in the water from greater air pressure. With that the fish can get bigger. And you can get a lot more fish per cubic mile. Today if a shark has a tooth about an inch (2.5 cm) long, it indicates the shark is probably about 15 feet (4.5 m) long. Did you know fossil shark's teeth are found, indicating sharks used to get 80 feet (25 m) long on this planet? Can you imagine an 80-foot (25 m) shark? The movie "Jaws" had a 25-foot (7.6 m) shark. You would have to use "Jaws" for bait to catch one of these megalodons. 12.

13. Dr. Baugh is raising piranha in an pressurized chamber aquarium with an increased ultra-magnetic field around it, trying to stimulate pre-Flood conditions. Just increasing the magnetic field is doing something, because his piranha are 4 times larger than normal. When he raised fruit flies in a hyperbaric chamber, they lived 10 times longer than normal. Just by increasing air pressure! 13. The tank with the piranha in it Mr. Hovind showed to the audience... is NOT a pressure tank.

14. If you combine the air pressure and the filtered sunlight and the stronger magnetic field, you'd probably get Garden of Eden conditions. We probably lost at least those three things. Maybe more things have been lost since then. Turtles got pretty good size. That's a big turtle on the left. 14.

15. Oysters were found 2 miles above sea level. Eleven-foot oysters, weighing 600 pounds (270 kg), two miles above sea level in the Andes Mountains! When they climbed Mt. Everest, they found petrified clams on top of Mt. Everest. The interesting thing about these clams, they're petrified and they're closed. 15.

16. Reptiles never stop growing. It's a simple fact. Most reptiles never stop growing: they grow all their life. People stop growing. When you are 16 or 18, you are going to quit growing, at least vertically. Some go horizontally thereafter. But, reptiles never stop growing. What would happen to a reptile if you put him in the Garden of Eden and let him live to be 900 years old? You'd have a big lizard - a really big lizard! Dinosaurs were big lizards that lived with Adam and Eve before the Flood came. 16.

17. You can get these Jackson chameleons right now at the pet store. What's he going to look like at about 900 hundred years? Probably some kind of triceratops. Dinosaur means terrible lizard, and dinosaurs lived with humans all through history. They just had a different name for them, and we'll cover more on dinosaurs on Video #3. 17. Hovind thinks you can buy a dinosaur at a pet shop. Hovind later contradict himself.

18. But dinosaur bones and human bones have been found together. Dinosaur bones were found in the same rock strata as these fossilized human hands. Dinosaur bones and mammal bones, found together! 18. This earned Mr. Hovind the P. T. Barnum "One Born Every Minute" Award from the New Mexicans for Science and Reason (NMSR). As a April Fool's prank, NMSR set up a fake website detailing the discovery and subsequent cover-up of dinosaur and human fossils co-existing. Mr. Hovind readily incorporated the information from the website without verifying its authenticity. The resulting dialogue between NMSR and Mr. Hovind can be found at www.nmsr.org/hovind.html.

19. I don't think today's lizards will grow to be dinosaurs if you let them live long enough. I do not think that there has been, you know you can take chihuahuas today and cross bred them and end up with a great Dane. I just think the genes for largeness are gone for whatever reason. 19. First off, if Hovind does not think that lizards can become dinosaurs, then he contradicted himself in point 20 above. Also if the genes for largeness are gone, then Hovind further contradict himself by trying to show piranha's in point 16 can grow larger due to air pressure. In another seminar, Hovind claimed that several dinosaurs have been spotted by modern humans. Already, the old computer is crying, "DOES NOT COMPUTE!"

Creationist 'Proofs"[edit]

1. Here's one of the Ica stones showing a human riding a dinosaur. Dr. Baugh has a couple of the stones in his museum. We have eight in our museum now, of these Ica stones. I think we have the largest collection in America of these Ica stones from Peru. Many of them show dinosaurs on there. We cover more of that on Seminar Part 3, about dinosaurs and the Bible. Dinosaur footprints and human footprints have been found together in Glen Rose, Texas. I know there is controversy about this. I've been there five times. I have heard all the critics on it, and I have been there myself to check it out. But go to Dallas, Texas, and go south 45 miles to Glen Rose. 1. The reality behind the Ica Stones: they are all fakes.[24] Several of the local villagers have confessed to carving the stones from comic books, textbooks, and magazines; they sell the stones to gullible tourists and creation "scientists."

2. And you'll find that the Paluxy River flows through this little town. And it's all full of limestone. The whole area is limestone, kind of like around here in Knoxville. Well, that river cuts through the limestone layers. In 1908 there was a flood. The river dropped 17 feet (5 m) per mile, but this flood was incredible. It was, I think, 30 feet (9 m) above flood stage or something. It was just an incredible flood in 1908. It ripped off the bottom of the river, tore off the layer of limestone. Two foot of limestone was ripped up. Underneath was a new layer of limestone, and when the river dried up that next summer, they discovered there are hundreds of dinosaur footprints. Dinosaur footprints. It's called Dinosaur Valley State Park. There's a book on the table right there, if you want to read more about it. They chiseled out lots of the footprints and9 took them to museums to save them so they wouldn't get eroded by the river. They took out huge blocks in the 1930s and set them up under dinosaur skeletons. The footprints are big. Here's a little kid taking a bath in one. But sometimes in this area they find human footprints with the dinosaur footprints. Human tracks and dinosaur tracks together! We could spend all day talking about this. There have been thousands of reports on this. Some believe it; some don't believe it. 2. The dinosaur tracks along the Paluxy river are legitimate. The "human" footprints are also legitimate, except for they are... dinosaur footprints. Many of the footprints alongside the Paluxy river have been severely degraded by creationists due to their uses of sheelac and oil in an attempt to highlight features of the tracks. In many cases, creationists inadvertently cover up the evidence of infilling present in the tracks. Once this infilling was discovered, it became overly apparent that the tracks were from dinosaurs - unless you believe in the three-toed human.

3. Here's a trail of human tracks crossing a trail of dinosaur tracks. And the human footprints, some of them, are pretty good size. And occasionally they are found inside the dinosaur footprints. Well, if you're running through the mud to escape the Flood, that's a logical place to step, right where somebody else already stepped. It's like walking through deep snow. And I think a lot of people get the wrong idea. They think Noah got in the ark, the rain started, and everybody died in the first 10 minutes. It probably took six months to kill everybody on this planet. They'd be running, looking for high ground. The water kept coming up. See, the rain was 40 days, but the Bible says the water kept coming up for 150 days. Because most of the water was coming from inside the crust of the earth. Up through the fountains of the deep. The rain did almost nothing for the Flood. It was the water from inside that caused the Flood. It probably took six months to kill everybody. So they'd be running, you know; when the tide goes down, they'd run to higher ground. And pretty soon they would be fighting for this higher ground, which is becoming more and more scarce. But the footprints are pretty good size. We sell castings of this one if you want to get one. It's on our Web site, www.drdino.com. You can see the size-24 human footprint. We had a big kid try to fill it up one time; couldn't quite do it. He had a size 18. They chiseled out rock ledges and found more footprints underneath the undisturbed limestone. One of the footprints was then sawn across the toes. They looked at the end grain, and you can see where it squeezed down and distorted the lamination lines. I know there are arguments about it. I've read, I think, everything on the topic. 3.

4. In Africa they found perfectly normal human footprints in a layer of ash that had turned to stone. Perfectly normal human footprints! But the footprints in ash supposed to be 3 and 3/4 million years old. They studied the footprints and said, "Wow, these footprints are exactly the same as ours today." Russell Tuttle, at the University of Chicago, studied the footprints carefully. He went and found a place where people never wear shoes. They never wear shoes ever! And he studied their footprints. He had them run through the mud, walk through the mud, you know, jog through the mud, trot, and skip. He said the footprints of these people that never wear shoes are exactly like the footprints found in Laetoli, Africa. Identical. And then he said, "If the Laetoli footprints were not known to be so old, we would conclude they were made by a member of our own genus." In other words, if we didn't know better, we would think a human made these! Well how do you know better? "Oh, because the rock is too old." This is an example of where the evolution theory is a hindrance to common sense and to scientific research. It's one of the greatest hindrances to science. It's not part of science. It's counterproductive to science. 4. Tuttle concluded that the Laetoli people prints were made by an early member of the genus Homo, not modern man. Stern and Susman (1983) as well as Clarke (1999) concluded the prints were made by early australopithecines and late australopithecines, respectively. While the true originator of the footprints are unknown, no one, save Mr. Hovind, has claimed that the footprints are of modern man.

Rapdily Fossilized Objects[edit]

Here, Mr. Hovind tries to convince the audience that fossilization does not require millions of years and that objects can fossilized quickly.

1. Also they found a hammer, a fossilized human hammer...a ma nmade hammer. People said, "They didn't have any iron before the Flood." Oh, sure they did. The Bible says Tubalcain was an artificer in brass and iron. You can get a replica of the hammer if you want to keep that on your desk. 1. Cole (1985), a creationist researcher, noted that the hammer was of "recent American style." Furthermore, the hammer was found encrusted with minerals vastly different from the surrounding rock. It is just a 19th century hammer that was left exposed under the right conditions.

2. They found a gold chain inside a lump of coal back in 1881 in Illinois. This iron pot was also found inside a lump of coal. This thing was found inside solid rock is supposed to be 600 million years old. 2. The human "artifacts" in coal have never been found at the mining site but are always found after the coal has been processed and delivered. These objects are encased with loose coal when it is compressed around them. The iron pot is crucible made of cast iron. This process did not exist until the 18th century. Finally, the actual pot does not exist. This entire evidence is based on a letter from 1948 which is 36 years after the supposed discovery.

3. Workers found human bones and a copper arrowhead in a vein of silver. Advanced stone tools were found in a gold mine in California. 3. All of these have been shown to be the result of Native American burial rituals.

See also[edit]

External Links[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. Randi, J. Forty-Four End-of-the-World Prophecies——That Failed http://www.randi.org/encyclopedia/appendix3.html
  2. Whitmer, L. M. 2001. Nostril position in Dinosaurs and Other Vertabrates and Its Significance in Nasal Function. Science. 293: 850-853.
  3. Rohlf, James William, Modern Physics from a to Z0, Wiley: 1994.
  4. Hayward, Alan. 1985. Creation and Evolution Tringle SPCK, Holy Trinity Church, Marylebone Road, London NW14DU
  5. Hayward, Alan. 1985. Creation and Evolution Tringle SPCK, Holy Trinity Church, Marylebone Road, London NW14DU
  6. H. Karttunen, P. Kroger, et al., Fundamental Astronomy, Springer, 3th Ed., Helsinki:2000
  7. Witmer, L M. 2001. Nostril Position in Dinosaurs and Other Vertabrates and Its Significance in Nasal Function. Science. 293: 850-853
  8. Cerling, T. E. 1989. Does the gas content of amber reveal the composition of paleoatmospheres? Nature. 339: 695-696
  9. Germann, W J and C L Stanfield. Principle in Human Physiology. Pearson Press: 2005. 568-573
  10. FDA Warns Consumers Against Drinking High-Strength Hydrogen Peroxide for Medical Use, http://www.fda.gov/obs/topics/NEWS/2006/NEW01420.html. See also Health Canada: Health Canada Warns Consumers Against Drinking High-Strength Hydrogen Peroxide for Medical Use. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2006/2006_73_e.html.
  11. http://www.livescience.com/9680-cancer-kills-wild-animals.html
  12. Fadner F, assisted by Harol F. Wadlow. The gentlemen giant: the biography of Robert Perishing Wadlow. Boston, B. Humphries, Inc.: 1944
  13. Ezzat S. Forster MJ, Berchtold P, Redelmeier DA, Boerlin V, Harris AG. 1994. Acromegaly. Clinical and Biochemical Features in 500 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 73(5):233-240
  14. Fadner F, assisted by Harol F. Wadlow. The gentlemen giant: the biography of Robert Perishing Wadlow. Boston, B. Humphries, Inc.: 1944
  15. Ezzat S. Forster MJ, Berchtold P, Redelmeier DA, Boerlin V, Harris AG. 1994. Acromegaly. Clinical and Biochemical Features in 500 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 73(5):233-240
  16. Babinski, E T. Cretinism or Evolution? Men Over Ten Feet Tall http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/ce/3/part2.html
  17. Babinski, E T. Cretinism or Evolution? Men Over Ten Feet Tall http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/ce/3/part2.html
  18. Ravilous, K. 2006. Noah's Ark Discovered in Iran? National Geographic News http:/news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/07/060705-noahs-ark.html
  19. Mt. Blanco Museum. Giant ale. http://mtblanco.com/TourGiantArticle.html
  20. Mt. Blanco Museum. Giant ale. http://mtblanco.com/TourGiantArticle.html
  21. Comparative Anatomy. Topic 4: Form and Function http://www.aubrn.edu/academic/classes/zy/0301/Topic4/Topic4.html#square
  22. Mt. Blanco Museum. Giant ale. http://mtblanco.com/TourGiantArticle.html
  23. Cuozzo J W. Broken Hill Rhodesian man Bullet Shot. www.jackcuozzo.com/brokenhill.html
  24. http://www.talkorigins.org/indexcc/CH/CH710_1.html