Earth science

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Earth science is a catch-all term for the natural sciences that study the planet Earth. The main branches include:

  • Geology, the study of the Earth's surface and composition and how they change over time, and is considered the main Earth science.
  • Meteorology, the study of Earth's atmosphere and includes related fields such as climatology.
  • Oceanography, the study of the oceans.
  • Astronomy, the study of the universe. While it is often grouped with physics, astronomy is important to Earth science as the sun and moon as well as meteor impacts have all had a significant effect on the Earth. Similarly, the methods of Earth science are often used to study exoplanets as well as other celestial bodies.