Antifascist Action

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Antifaschistische Aktion memorial in Adelsdorf, Germany
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Antifascist Action (Antifa, AFA) refers to a global collective of left-wing activist groups whose primary aim is to 'smash fascism in all its forms'. The 'fascism' the collective primarily opposes include various forms of oppression, such as sexism, racism and homophobia, government corruption, war and in more recent times, Islamophobia.


The name 'Antifascist Action' (Antifaschistische Aktion in German) first appeared in Germany in 1932, and was a moniker used by the German Communist Party. The purpose of AFA was to present a militant alternative to the brutality of the Nazi Party SA goon-squads against communists and leftists. The German AFA was short-lived, being disbanded by the Nazis in 1933.

In 1985, an AFA collective began in Britain which comprised numerous anarchist, Trotskyist and other left wing groups. The group was active in brawls with Neo-Nazi organisations such as National Front and had numerous violent confrontations, such as an attack on a Neo-Nazi in 1990 which resulted in lengthy prison sentences for several anti-fascist activists.[1]

Present day[edit]

Antifa in Köln, Germany (2008)

AFA has continued to maintain a presence in Germany and since the 1990s, collectives have developed in other countries, including Sweden,[2][3] Denmark,[4] and Australia.[5] The Antifa movement also exists in Greece where they sometimes clash with police and nationalists.[6][7][8]

Australia's AFA collective gained strong media exposure in 2015 following several rallies conducted in cities across the country by AFA activists, in response to the growth of the far-right white nationalist Reclaim Australia and United Patriots Front movements. On occasions, these rallies, such as some in Bendigo, Antifa arrived to confront nationalists causing violent confrontations and numerous arrests. Antifa or Antifa supporters celebrated their confrontations with nationalists, posting some online.[9] Antifa got into additional violent clashes with nationalists at Cronulla.[10]

AFA protesters have a tendency to form a "black block", a tactic which involves masked participants dressing in black, largely for protection of identity.[11][12] Protesters usually chant and carry banners advocating for the overcoming of the racist far-right.

AFA is confirmed as a domestic terrorist organization by the New Jersey Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness.[13]


Criticism of the AFA movement has largely come from the right. Nationalist conspiracy theorists, such as Nick Folkes and Blair Cottrell, have regarded AFA protesters as "useful idiots" and traitors to their nation, serving the desires of global elites seeking to undermine nationalism so a one world government can be created.[14] Some other criticism of modern European Antifascist movements is due to the violent action they take to advance their position including carrying illegal weapons to combat opponents and breaking into houses of suspected Neo-Nazis[15], shootings of Golden Dawn members[16], as well as chasing protestors[17][18], violent disturbances with nationalists and police,[19][20][21][22][23][24], plus "patrols" against,[25] causing serious injury to,[26] and generally aggressively opposing nationalists.[27][28]Some Antifa Facebook pages advocate and depict violence, destruction and theft of property against perceived fascists[29][30][31], while others publicly identify "fascists" from demonstrations, many who attempt to conceal their identity.[32] The Swedish Antifascist organization Revolutionary Front accepts violence in its declaration of principles, stating it recognizes all struggle methods and see peaceful resistance and revolutionary violence as equal.[33] Antifa, notably, doesn't always initiate the violence that breaks out between them and their opponents.

Internal divisions[edit]

The pro-Israel wing of Antifa standing with the anti-nuclear wing

As per the usual for leftist groups, antifascist groups usually agree on very few things and there is no such thing as "national headquarters", and even local groups are often best understood as a coalition of disparate groups allied for a common goal or even a single demonstration that don't see eye to eye on other issues. Groups that are subsumed under the "Antifa" label can be as diverse as unreformed Stalinist tankies, green-leftist ecological activists in the vein of Greenpeace or hedonistic leftists who consider the former two buzzkills. While conflicts are usually ignored during common demonstrations against fascism or "fascism", they sometimes break out into the open even then. Problems include tactical considerations like which form(s) of violence - if any - should be considered, as well as ideological differences and the uneasiness of some libertarian leftists to march next to someone holding a hammer and sickle banner. As per the usual, the stance on Israel is also a hot button issue, especially if someone brings an Israeli flag or wears a keffiyeh,Wikipedia's W.svg.

Conspiracy theories[edit]

A common conspiracy theory in parts of the right is that "the" Antifa is financed or works in the employ of "them", the government, globalists, elites, Soros, or - even more tellingly - "da Jooz". Despite the patent ridiculousness of those claims, various non-right wing people frequently allude to this and "leak" ridiculously fake "evidence" for the government financing "the" Antifa and "ordering" violence or property damage.

See Also[edit]

Horseshoe theory


  1. Birchall, Sean, Beating The Fascists: The Untold Story of Anti-Fascist Action (London: Freedom Press, 2010) p. 195
  2. Clearly labeled Antifascists in Sweden
  3. Antifacistisk Aktion (website in Swedish)
  4. Antifacistisk Aktion (website in Danish)
  5. Antifa Australia WordPress blog as well as that of the Sydney branch
  12. Which is illegal in several countries with Anti-mask lawsWikipedia's W.svg such as in Germany
  13. Anarchist extremists: Antifa
  18. Many condemn violence by Antifascists
  19. Projectiles fly in Britain
  20. Scuffles in Dover, England
  22. Antifascists vs Water Cannons
  23. Riot Police vs Antifa in Frankfurt, Germany
  24. Antifa goes wild in Berlin