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Amphetamines

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Amphetamines are a drug class that include amphetamine and its derivatives. Many amphetamines are central stimulant drugs which increase alertness and focus, improve mood, decrease fatigue, and reduce appetite. Some amphetamines produce psychedelic effects and are considered hallucinogens or entactogens. Common amphetamines can produce euphoria, and have potential for abuse and psychological addiction. Amphetamines are used to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and off-label for depression.[1][2]; some are used for weight-loss. Besides being used medically and as euphoriants, amphetamines are misused to enhance academic and physical activities.[3]

Amphetamine v. amphetamines[edit]

The term amphetamines should not be confused with the term amphetamine; the latter referring to the chemical alpha-methyl-phenethylamine or phenylisopropylamine (C9H13N), and the former referring to an entire class of drugs that contain the amphetamine backbone (technically known as substituted amphetamines).[4] Amphetamines can refer to amphetamine itself, but also the decongestant ephedrine, the antidepressant bupropion, or the psychedelics MDMA and Bromo-DragonFLY, among many others.[5][6][7]

Effects of amphetamine[edit]

Persons under the influence of amphetamine may show notable interest and intent concentration towards a specific task they are undertaking. Other common behaviors associated with amphetamine use may include (but are not limited to): increased sociability and talkativeness, increased alertness, changes in sex drive, euphoria, dysphoria, compulsive behavior, obsessive thoughts, increased confidence, persistent thirst, irritability, emotional lability, paranoia, tachycardia, hypertension, dry skin, insomnia and in severe cases psychosis.[10]

Types of amphetamines[edit]

Medical[edit]

It's what the cool kids do
  • Amphetamine (Evekeo)
  • Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, Zenzedi)
  • Levoamphetamine
  • Mixed Amphetamine salts (Adderall - a mixture of dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine)
  • Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse - a prodrug of dextroamphetamine)
  • Methamphetamine (Desoxyn)
  • MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy, molly)
  • Ephedrine (BronkAid)
  • Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)

References[edit]

  1. "Adderall". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. http://www.drugs.com/monograph/adderall.html. Retrieved 3 April 2011. 
  2. "Drugs Used to Treat ADHD/ADD". WebMD, LLC. http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/guide/adhd-medical-treatment. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  3. Gritz ER, Crane LA.. "Use of diet pills and amphetamines to lose weight among smoking and nonsmoking high school seniors". PubMed - NCBI. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1935868. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  4. Editorial. Abuse of the term "amphetamines". - Alexander Shulgin; Clinical Toxicology 1976
  5. Goldfrank, pp. 1125–1127
  6. Glennon, pp. 184–187
  7. Schatzberg, p.843
  8. It has a methylenedioxy on the 3,4 positions of the ring and a methyl on the N
  9. It has two dihydrofuran groups substituted on the benzene ring along with a bromo at the 4 position.
  10. Erowid Amphetamine Vault: Effects