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Draft:Pharmaceutical opioids

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Opioids are substances, both natural and synthetic, that bind to opioid receptors.[1] These receptors are the same as those targeted by natural endorphins;[note 1] as such, opioids cause similar analgesic, sedative and euphoric effects.[2] Because of these effects, opioids are commonly used in medicine as painkillers and even anaesthetics.[3]


  1. A term that literally means endogenous morphine


  1. Hemmings, Hugh C.; Egan, Talmage D. (2013). Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia: Foundations and Clinical Application: Expert Consult - Online and Print. Elsevier Health Scienc,es. p. 253. ISBN 1437716792.
  2. Boecker H, Sprenger T, Spilker ME, Henriksen G, Koppenhoefer M, Wagner KJ, Valet M, Berthele A, Tolle TR (November 2008). "The runner's high: opioidergic mechanisms in the human brain". Cerebral Cortex. 18 (11): 2523–31. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn013. PMID 18296435.
  3. Stromgaard K, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Madsen U (2009). Textbook of Drug Design and Discovery, Fourth Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439882405.