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Opioids are substances, both natural and synthetic, that bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are the same as those targeted by natural endorphins;[note 1] as such, opioids cause similar analgesic, sedative and euphoric effects. Because of these effects, opioids are commonly used in medicine as painkillers and even anaesthetics.
- A term that literally means endogenous morphine
- Hemmings, Hugh C.; Egan, Talmage D. (2013). Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia: Foundations and Clinical Application: Expert Consult - Online and Print. Elsevier Health Scienc,es. p. 253. ISBN 1437716792.
- Boecker H, Sprenger T, Spilker ME, Henriksen G, Koppenhoefer M, Wagner KJ, Valet M, Berthele A, Tolle TR (November 2008). "The runner's high: opioidergic mechanisms in the human brain". Cerebral Cortex. 18 (11): 2523–31. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn013. PMID 18296435.
- Stromgaard K, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Madsen U (2009). Textbook of Drug Design and Discovery, Fourth Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439882405.