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Metacognition is thinking about thinking. Understanding one's beliefs and thoughts, their mechanisms and processes.
Some examples of metacognition include meta-memory (including recognition of the fallibility of memory), monitoring one's learning/understanding.
Metacognition can act as a therapeutic tool, gifting one with the capacity for criticising and evaluating one's thoughts and beliefs. It holds them accountable to standards: normative and truth-evaluative. The errors people often make in pattern detection and attribution of causality (magical thinking, and pareidolia). Thoughts and beliefs — mental citizens, are the object of scrutiny.