Political parties of Hong Kong

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This document deals with political parties and party systems in Hong Kong. Hong Kong is a multi-party system and a formal democratic system, but more than half of the seats are directly elected by business people and the Communist Party of China, not by popular vote. This is an undemocratic aspect of Hong Kong politics, which is disadvantageous in many respects to the "pro-democracy camp" (PDC).[1]

Political Position[edit]

Hong Kong's politics are quite complicated, so it doesn't really matter whether it's politically left or right within Hong Kong. Instead, they are divided into two main categories: 'Pro-Beijing camp' (PBC) and 'pro-democracy camp'.

Pro-Beijing camp[edit]

This is call the political forces friendly to the Communist Party of China within Hong Kong. Since Hong Kong is an autonomous country, in fact, the PBC can be seen as pro-Centralist.

Not surprisingly, there are many right-wing parties in the Pro-Beijing camp, as the Communist Party of China, unlike its name, is a capitalist party that supports traditionalists and big businesses in Hong Kong. Of course there are far-left parties as well.

They consist of various inclinations, including social conservatives, pro-business liberals, Chinese socialism and Chinese nationalism.

It should be noted that Hong Kong has the highest economic freedom in the world as the Communist Party of China unexpectedly adheres to "one country, two systems" in the economic sector. In other words, what the Chinese Communist Party wants is not to pay attention to Hong Kong's economy but to actively intervene in Hong Kong's politics. That's why entrepreneurs in Hong Kong have no reason to dislike the Chinese Communist Party![2] (To add to the exaggeration… Hong Kong is a very strange area where capitalists supports the Communist Party of China.)

Pro-democracy camp[edit]

These are not very favorable to the Communist Party of China, and are advocates of Hong Kong's traditional liberal democracy and "one country, two systems" that have been running down since British times.

Unexpectedly, the Communist Party of China has no interest in Hong Kong's workers and sponsors Hong Kong companies and traditionalists in Hong Kong. Therefore, there are many center-left liberal and left-wing (British-style democratic socialist) parties within the PDC.

They have a variety of ideologies, including Western-style liberalism, social liberalism, social democracy, democratic socialism, and Hong Kong nationalism or independence. But Hong Kong nationalists are non-mainstream within them. This is because most Hong Kongers want complete autonomy rather than independence.

Localist camp[edit]

Localist camp is an expression that refers to parties seeking radical Hong Kong nationalism and independence in Hong Kong.

Depending on the perspective, it is also considered to be part of the gadical 'Pro-democracy camp'.

The major parties[edit]

Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB)[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 民主建港協進聯盟
  • Political classification: Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Centre-right to right-wing
  • Ideology : Chinese nationalism, Social conservatism(=Anti-LGBT), Status quo
  • Party leader: Starry Lee

It is the largest ruling party in Hong Kong. DAB is officially a conservative party, but it is the strangest conservative party in the world. Because they are the most financially supported party in Hong Kong by the Community Party of China!

They have a very strange tendency to play politics and economics separately. The DAB supports "laissez-faire" economics in support of one country, two systems, but politically it is in favor of interference from the Communist Party of China.

In social issues, DAB puts forward traditionalism and family values.

Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 香港經濟民生聯盟
  • Political classification: Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Centre-right to right-wing
  • Ideology : Chinese nationalism, Pro-business
  • Party leader: Lo Wai-kwok

The BPA is a party that has sharply increased its power by putting its link with Xi Jinping in the Pro-Beijing camp area, where DAB and Liberal Party were the main players. It has the support of big businesses and the upper class in Hong Kong. They should be loyal to the Chinese Communist Party because they also do business in mainland China.

Democratic Party[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 民主黨
  • Political classification: Moderate Pro-Democracy camp
  • Political position: Centre to centre-left
  • Ideology : Social liberalism
  • Party leader: Wu Chi-wai

It is a liberal party with a similar inclination to the U.S. Democratic party. Although it is the party that has the most support among Hong Kong's people, Hong Kong's politics has never been a ruling party since it is not a full democracy. The party supports increased welfare for the working class and middle class economically.

Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 香港工會聯合會
  • Political classification: Radical Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Far-left
  • Ideology : Chinese ultra-nationalism, Socialist patriotism, Communism
  • Party leader: Ng Chau-pei

This party is a party that is in full accord with the Chinese Communist Party's inclination. Labor unions in Hong Kong usually belong to Pro-democracy camps, but some belong to Pro-Beijing camps, with unions belonging to Pro-Beijing camps supporting the party.

Economically, it is a party that supports a planned economy and is opposed to laissez-faire economics. But their position is not reflected much because the majority of the parties in Hong Kong's PBC are pro-business and actively support laissez-faire.

Civic Party[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 公民黨
  • Political classification: Moderate Pro-Democracy camp
  • Political position: Centre-left
  • Ideology : Constitutionalism, Liberalism
  • Party leader: Alvin Yeung

It is a party created by conscientious intellectuals and lawyers in Hong Kong. The party demands that the Chinese Communist Party abide by the 'one country, two systems' principle.

Before 2013, nationalists and pro-independence people had a certain stake in the party, but since 2013, they have left the party and gone to a party called "HK First". In other words, the party is now a very moderate party.

Liberal Party[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 自由黨
  • Political classification: Moderate Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Centre to centre-right
  • Ideology : Conservative liberalism
  • Party leader: Felix Chung

The party belongs to those who are pro-China but at the same time conservative liberal.

Felix Chung, though a Pro-Beijing camp, is a centrist who values dialogue with PDC, so he is wary of the dominance of hard-line Pro-Beijing camps such as DAB and BPA.

New Territories Association of Societies[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 新界社團聯會
  • Political classification: Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Centre-right
  • Ideology : Chinese nationalism, Conservatism, Economic liberalism
  • Party leader: Leung Che-cheung

It is a political party created by Chinese real estate agents living in New Territories,Wikipedia which refers to parts of Hong Kong's satellite city area.

New People's Party[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 新民黨
  • Political classification: Radical Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Right-wing to far-right
  • Ideology : Chinese ultra-nationalism, Anti-liberal democracy(and political authoritarianism), Economic liberalism
  • Party leader: Regina Ip

Extreme Pro-Beijing Camp Party. It looks similar to the "Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions" in that it shows extreme hostility toward the PDC, but the difference between the two parties is that the economic view is completely the opposite.

This is a very strange party by Western political standards. The party despises Hong Kong workers and supports conglomerates, while at the same time is absolutely loyal to the Communist Party of China.

Professional Commons[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 公共專業聯盟
  • Political classification: Moderate Pro-Democracy camp
  • Political position: Centre-right
  • Ideology : Liberalism, Consumer movement
  • Party leader: Paul Zimmerman

It is Hong Kong's liberal party. Zimmerman criticized Hong Kong's economic system as being overly conglomerate-oriented, and supports the fostering of small and medium enterprises. But Zimmerman has taken a very negative view of the welfare state. Because the size of the government must increase in order to do welfare, because I think that the Chinese Central Government (Communist Party of China) will further suppress the freedom of Hong Kong citizens in the name of doing so.

HK First[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 香港本土
  • Political classification: Radical Pro-Democracy camp + Localist camp
  • Political position: Right-wing
  • Ideology : Anti-Communism, Hong Kong nationalism, Right-wing populism, Western-style liberalism
  • Party leader: Claudia Mo, Gary Fan

It is Hong Kong's nationalist party. But the party that is most pro-LGBT in Hong Kong! This party abhors China and the Chinese people.

For your information, Claudia Mo is famous for appearing as a regular in "Hong Kong"-related videos on the liberal YouTube channel 'Vox' in the U.S.[3]

Neo Democrats[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 新民主同盟
  • Political classification: Pro-Democracy camp
  • Political position: Left-wing
  • Ideology : Liberal democracy, Populism, Hong Kong localism
  • Party leader: Yam Kai-bong, Chow Yuen-wai, Lui Man-kwong

Civil Force[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 公民力量
  • Political classification: Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Centre-right
  • Ideology : Conservatism
  • Party leader: Pun Kwok-shan

Roundtable[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 實政圓桌
  • Political classification: Moderate Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Centre to centre-right
  • Ideology : Liberal conservatism
  • Party leader: Michael Tien

The party, though classified as PBC, is liberal in some issues and has a close proximity to PDC. The party has expressed a negative stance on the 2019 Hong Kong extension bill,Wikipedia and is also calling for an independent investigation into police abuses. It is also cautiously critical of the Chinese Communist Party's excessive intervention in politics.

Labour Party[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 工黨
  • Political classification: Pro-Democracy camp
  • Political position: Centre-left
  • Ideology : Environmentalism, Social democracy
  • Party leader: Kwok Wing-kin

It is Hong Kong's center-left party, a party based on Hong Kong's trade union. The political orientation is roughly similar to that of the British Labour Party.

Neighbourhood and Worker's Service Centre[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 街坊工友服務處
  • Political classification: Pro-Democracy camp
  • Political position: Centre-left to left-wing
  • Ideology : Political liberalism, Pro-labor, Anti-neoliberalism, Social democracy
  • Party leader: Lo Ngai-yin

Federation of Hong Kong and Kowloon Labour Unions[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 香港教育專業人員協會
  • Political classification: Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Centre-left
  • Ideology : Chinese nationalism, Social democracy, Social conservatism
  • Party leader: Lam Chun-sing

Civic Passion[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 熱血公民
  • Political classification: Localist camp
  • Political position: Right-wing
  • Ideology : Hong Kong nationalism, Nativism
  • Party leader: Cheng Chung-tai

People Power[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 人民力量
  • Political classification: Radical Pro-Democracy camp
  • Political position: Left-wing
  • Ideology : Direct democracy, Populism
  • Party leader: Ray Chan

Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 香港教育專業人員協會
  • Political classification: Pro-Democracy camp
  • Political position: Centre-left
  • Ideology : Pro-labor
  • Party leader: 熱血公民

New Century Forum[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 新世紀論壇
  • Political classification: Moderate Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Centre-right
  • Ideology : Centrism
  • Party leader: Ma Fung-kwok

New Territories Heung Yee Kuk[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 新界鄉議局
  • Political classification: Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Right-wing
  • Ideology : Traditional conservatism, Agrarianism
  • Party leader: Kenneth Lau

Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 香港民主民生協進會
  • Political classification: Moderate Pro-Democracy camp
  • Political position: Centre-left to left-wing
  • Ideology : Social liberalism, Social democracy
  • Party leader: Sze Tak-loy

Federation of Public Housing Estates[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 公屋聯會
  • Political classification: Pro-Beijing camp
  • Political position: Centre-left
  • Party leader: Hau Shui-pui

Concern Group for Tseung Kwan O People's Livelihood[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 將軍澳民生關注組
  • Political classification: Radical Pro-democracy camp
  • Political position: Left-wing
  • Ideology : Liberalism.
  • Party leader: Ricky Or

Democratic Alliance[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 民主陣線
  • Political classification: Radical Pro-democracy camp
  • Political position: Centre-right to right-wing
  • Ideology : Anti-Communism, Pro-Taiwan(Pro-Kuomintang)
  • Party leader: Jonhny Mak

Kowloon East Community[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 東九龍社區關注組
  • Political classification: Localist camp
  • Political position: Right-wing
  • Ideology : Hong Kong nationalism, Anti-Chinese nationalism, Conservatism
  • Party leader: Chan Chak-to

Shatin Community Network[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 沙田社區網絡
  • Political classification: Localist camp
  • Political position: Centre-right to right-wing
  • Ideology : Hong Kong nationalism, Anti-Chinese nationalism, Liberal conservatism
  • Party leader: Ventus Lau

Minor parties[edit]

Demosistō[edit]

  • Name in Hong Kong : 香港眾志
  • Political classification: Radical Pro-democracy camp
  • Political position: Left-wing[4]
  • Ideology : Radical democracy, Social liberalism, Left-wing populism
  • Party leader: Ivan Lam

This is Hong Kong's pro-democracy campaign group and political party. A party of young student activists, led by Agnes Chow and Joshua Wong. It is a party that has played a leading role in Hong Kong's several pro-democracy movements and demonstrations since the 2010s.

References[edit]