Xenicibis was an ancient bird found only in Jamaica, which possessed the ability to to use its wings like flails in combat. It was the only member of its genus and is one of only two flightless ibises to evolve, the other being Apteribis of Hawaii. Some time between 1910 and 1920, the zoologist Harold Elmer Anthony collected some bones from Long Mile Cave in Trelawny Parish, Jamaica. However, it was not until 1977 that it was described as a previously unknown fossil ibis, and it was assigned the name Xenicibis xympithecus. Researchers believe that the bird used its wings as a weapon, swinging them at opponents like a club. There was also no differentiation between the wings of males and females, suggesting that both sexes engaged in, presumably territorial fighting.