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Biodiversity is seen as important to the sustainability of life in general and as an all-round Good Thing. Having various options of "life support systems" often means that, when conditions change, they are unlikely to all fail at once.
Environmentalists regard human-caused ("anthropogenic") loss of biodiversity as a serious problem. Some branches of environmental philosophy give intrinsic value to biodiversity, and consider its conservation important beyond ecological services for humans.
It is difficult to measure biodiversity. Simply counting the number of species, for example, causes one to see more biodiversity in a pond with 6 species of grass than in a pond with 2 species of grass, a fungus, a species of frog, and a species of cricket. More complex information-based methods must decide when to describe genetic diversity versus diversity based on phenotypes and memes, which require more definitions of measurements themselves. Meaningful diversity-indices also take into take into account the total number of individuals of each species, and apply statistical measures.
- See the Wikipedia article on 1066 and All That.
- Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement by Anne E. Magurran (1988). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691084912.
- Measuring Biological Diversity by Anne E. Magurran (2003). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0632056339.
- See the Wikipedia article on Measurement of biodiversity.