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Now I guess I'll have to tell 'em
That I got no cerebellum
—The Ramones, "Teenage Lobotomy"
A lobotomy operation (Saturday Evening Post 24 May 1941)
Tell me about
your mother

Icon psychology.svg
For our next session...
Popping into your mind

Lobotomy is a neurosurgical procedure and form of psychosurgery. A lobotomy involves scraping away most connections to the prefrontal cortex.[1] Ever since the inception of the procedure, it has been controversial, but for decades it was commonly used to "treat" manic depression, schizophrenia, and social deviance including mildly unruly child behaviour.[2][3] Scraping the prefrontal cortex with an ice pick came under fire for having ill effects, and occasionally for failing to treat mental illnesses.[4] The demand for lobotomies has fallen sharply since the 1950's due to the availability of orally available chemical straightjackets. However, while rare, the surgery is not unheard of today. Lobotomies are still used as a "last resort."

The most prolific lobotomizer, Walter J. Freeman II, performed lobotomies on 3,500 patients (70% of all American lobotomies). 14% of his patients died due to the lobotomies.[5]

If a victim of forced medical experimentation, just say no or move.


In 1890, German scientist Freiderich GolzWikipedia removed chunks of his dogs' temporal lobes to "calm them down."[6] (You can tell already this is a humane, consensual, and rational way to inspire medicine, right?) This procedure made his dogs calmer and less aggressive. This spurred the idea that involuntarily removing chunks of human brain instead of dog brain could treat human mental health issues. Gottlieb BurkhardtWikipedia, the head of a Swiss mental hospital, attempted a similar procedure on six schizophrenic patients. While a few of his patients became calmer, two of them died.

The lobotomy was hardly seen as a wise method in treating mental illnesses until Portuguese neurologist António Egas Moniz and American psychiatrist Walter FreemanWikipedia popularized them. In 1936, Freeman and another neurosurgeon performed the first lobotomy in the US on a housewife from Kansas.[7] Freeman then went on to create the 10-minute long transorbital lobotomy, which became known as the ice-pick lobotomy. The first ice-pick lobotomy was performed by Freeman in 1946. Over the next two decades, Freeman performed over 2500 lobotomies, most notably for schizophrenia, but even for depression and OCD.[8] Part of the popularity of the transorbital lobotomy was its simplicity; the patient needed just light anesthesia, and the operation itself was intentionally simple enough that, in at least one case, Freeman's partner discovered Freeman doing it in his consultation office. Electroconvulsive therapy was sometimes used as the anesthesia, as it was readily available.

In 1967, Freeman was banned from practicing medicine after one of his patients died of a brain hemorrhage. Since then, the popularity and demand for lobotomies has sharply declined, and the procedure is seldom used today.


A typical prefrontal/transorbital lobotomy used an orbitoclast, which resembles an ice pick. However, Freeman's first lobotomies were performed using actual ice picks. To reach the prefrontal cortex, the doctor would tap through the patient's eye socket. After this, the doctor would typically be able to enter the brain just by tapping lightly on the orbitoclast with a hammer. This would allow the doctor to break through a thin layer of bone without damaging the rest of the skull.[9]


While the lobotomy was regarded as a successful procedure in the 1940's and 1950s, many medical professionals deem the lobotomy to have been a mistake. Ironically, the lobotomy failed to cure schizophrenia, as it's not a disorder of mood, but a disorder of thought.[10] Many patients, notably Rosemary KennedyWikipedia, reported a loss of memory, a vacuous state, and even more mood problems. There were very few who reported successful experiences with the lobotomy.[4] Today, it is largely considered a complete failure, but that doesn't stop random quacks from supporting it.

See also[edit]


  1. Lobotomy: Definition, Procedure & History Live Science 29 August 2014
  2. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2008/jan/13/neuroscience.medicalscience
  3. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/an-ice-pick-to-the-brain-the-horror-of-the-frontal-lobotomy/C2X63F5EDPOOGYJKKSRYMKGZEE/
  4. 4.0 4.1 Soul Surgery: Successes and Failures in Lobotomy Patients HowStuffWorks 27 October 2008
  5. https://www.britannica.com/story/how-many-people-actually-got-lobotomized
  6. A Brief History of the Lobotomy Dr. C. George Boeree
  7. The Surprising History of the Lobotomy PsychCentral 21 March 2011
  8. The Lobotomist The Washington Post 4 February 2001
  9. The Way of the Ice Pick HowStuffWorks 27 October 2008
  10. Augustus S. Rose & Harry C. Solomon. Prefrontal lobotomy: A consideration of unsuccessful cases. Failures in psychiatric treatment: The proceedings of the thirty-seventh annual meeting of the American Psychopathological Association, held in New York City, June 1947, Grune & Stratton. 1948