|Someone is wrong on|
Moving swiftly along, social networking sites help people keep in touch, now that people move around a lot because the tabloids tell them to (gotta keep those house prices up!). Some, such as MySpace, provide a useful platform for people who want to show off their
atrocious HTML skills to the wider world.
 Major sites
MySpace (now streamlined to just Myspace, with only one capitalization) was one of the first major social networking websites to hit critical mass and go mainstream. At its peak, it was the most popular, with over 250 million members and described practically as some sort of nation state in its own right. In 2009, however, it was overtaken by Facebook in terms of membership and page views and popularity has steadily declined since, with its ranking on Alexa dropping from its peak in the top 5 to nearly 35 over the course of eighteen months; currently, it hovers just outside the top 1,500. MySpace once required new users to fill in tons of personal info in order to join, info that would then be publicly shared with a million people they didn't know; of course, it was easy to fill in false information, as indeed many did (tons of profiles had their age listed at 69 years old). Nowadays, all they ask for is your gender, date of birth, and ZIP code. Also, your inbox will be filled with spam and "friend requests" promising you free porn if you add I_LIKE_KID_SEX_4 as your friend.
MySpace was famous for its association with the emo subculture, with a stereotypical profile often featuring emo pop-rock that played as soon as you entered. This auto-play feature could also act as an open invitation for viruses and other malware to just walk straight into your computer. Furthermore, as users had the freedom to heavily customize the layout of their page, most profiles appeared to have lime green text on purple scrolling backgrounds, or something similarly gaudy. Prolonged exposure to this dangerous combination of psychedelic text, whiny music, and potentially fatal HTML errors (even the homepage had enough errors in it to make the W3C lose sleep at night) led to defection to rival social network Facebook.
The Washington Post Magazine of March 16, 2008 listed MySpace as obsolescent, alongside such things as cassette tape mixes, rotary dial phones, answering machines, making cigarette ashtrays in kindergarten craft projects, and computer paper with holes in the side. Funny thing, print newspapers were somehow not on their list. Clearly then, MySpace is a thing of the past; after all, the Post is America's Newspaper of Record and would never jump the gun on a thing like this.
In 2013, MySpace relaunched with a shiny new image and working system. Predictably, despite the several years' work and untold truckloads of dollars poured into the relaunch, it was still shite. Just in a different way. And they pissed off their remaining userbase by deleting most of the old versions' user-generated content. This may be for the better in the long run, though, as it's likely that many former users are secretly glad that all record of their obnoxious teen years has been wiped off the internet.[citation NOT needed]
- You can find a RationalWiki page and a RationalWiki group on Facebook; see Fun:RationalWiki Facebook for a description of the latter
|“||But one thing is certain, and it’s that I’m a jerk for making this site...||”|
Facebook is a
social networking site stalking tool for approximately everyone in the bloody world who has regular access to the internet. Facebook often receives a shitstorm of attention regarding its "privacy" settings, which people are generally too stupid to use - they're actually quite powerful and useful, from being able to easily restrict what you share with certain friends to sending you a one-time password via text message if you're using an unsecured connection that you don't trust. The privacy controversy really developed in November 2007 Facebook's staff launched Facebook Beacon, in which Facebook's partner e-commerce websites, including eBay and Travelocity, provided Facebook with news of all your purchases (the partner websites knowing you are on Facebook because you have cookies from Facebook stored on your browser disclosing your Facebook identity to these other websites). Incredibly, Facebook then broadcast news of every purchase you made off-site to all of your Facebook "friends", and initially did this without even requiring the user to first opt-in to Beacon. Needless to say, there was a rapid public outcry over this practice and Beacon's "opt-out" status was quickly reversed. Facebook's integration with other websites has continued to be relentless, but is now far less creepy, and mostly used by social media nerds.
As with other social networking sites such as MySpace and LiveJournal, Facebook is very popular among college students who post all sorts of personal information about themselves, without realizing the potential for it later coming back to haunt them. So when they add their boss as a friend while they still have a profile picture of them being a drunken lunatic at a stag party, they're a little surprised to be passed over for promotion later. But in short with Facebook privacy, if you don't want it public, don't fucking put it on the site, this includes the people who post their phone numbers to "public" groups. Facebook makes it difficult to delete your account and data permanently and even when gone there is no guarantee that it isn't still in the database somewhere. Although it is possible to delete everything by request, it's easier and quicker just to post some random anti-religious screed, be openly racist or start posting porn in order to get banned by the administrators. To make it easier for people to come back, they prefer "deactivation", which basically is the same as deletion, but it keeps your data on the server in case you want to come back (how nice). The site also engages in a little harmless emotional blackmail by telling you how many of your friends will "miss you" when you're gone.
Since Facebook replaced MySpace as the social networking site of choice for most people, some long term users have noted a trend towards puerile harping and frivolity. Basically, all the people from MySpace came over because they were sick of how crap MySpace was, turned Facebook into MySpace and are now getting sick of how crap Facebook is now that they've turned it into MySpace. To get an idea of the average IQ of a Facebook user, just check out the complaints every time they make a change; with the "news feed" for example. Following a change from a feed that featured selected highlights of what your friends have done (which could be controlled via an options panel) they switched to a "live feed" which just threw everything at you as it happened. There were many complaints and groups demanding for it to be switched back. A later change altered this "live feed" into a news feed (pretty much identical to the first "news feed" incarnation) and people still complained, although in fairness many complaints were directed at the absence of any form of notification. If you ever needed proof that people are just plain scared of change that they don't understand, check Facebook.
Facebook is home to a number of online games, including the agriculture-based Farmville. Farmville incurred the wrath of white nationalist "Oscar Yeager", owner of the blog "Day of the Rope" (both names are references to books by William Luther Pierce) as eggs laid by black chickens are worth more points than those laid by white chickens. Or, as he puts it, eggs laid by "nigger chickens" are worth more than eggs laid by "Aryan chickens".
Jesus himself endorses Facebook. And, according to The Onion, so does the CIA. However, the Daily Mail has a long running hate-on for Facebook. The Mail's editorial staff thinks it may cause cancer. To see the best, or perhaps worst, of the site, visit lamebook.com.
Friendster was the original social networking site, or at least the first one to become really popular. Its peak years were from its founding in 2002 to around mid-2004, when MySpace supplanted it in the US and made it the original joke about a fallen social network. Since then, nearly all of its popularity has been in East and Southeast Asia, where it's evolved into a "social gaming" site (i.e. hive of "free-to-play" games that sucker you with microtransactions).
Annoying little chavs like to announce at high volume who they've just "met" on Bebo whilst using a public library computer.
Currently one of the most popular media for whale enthusiasts and celebrities to embarrass themselves, Twitter expects you to blog in under 140 characters!! Yeah... doesn't sound so cool when you tell it like it is, does it?
Nevertheless, the short, soundbite nature of Twitter and the fact that these short messages are very friendly for mobile devices, has made it very popular with social networking nerds. Its heavy users are really heavy, often posting, *ahem* "tweeting" dozens of times per day. It is most popular with celebrities or public figures who wish to interact with their fans - as many accounts are actually posted on by the people themselves, rather than managed by PR companies as a relevant Facebook or MySpace profile would. BBC technology columnist Bill Thompson raved about the site before it was seriously big, Ben Goldacre once had a spat with Gillian McKeith over a Twitter comment, and Brian Cox likes to constantly rant about science funding (and where his next Wonders filming spree will take him) via the site.
"Woofer" was an inevitable jab against Twitter's 140 (seriously, what the arse can you say in 140 characters?!?!) character limit; the key point of Woofer was that you must have at least 1400 characters to make a post, leading to tl;dr all round - although one Woofer post per day would be less characters and content than most serious Twitter users make in a month.
Remember those halcyon days when teenagers didn't want everyone reading their diary?
The English-speaking LiveJournal community is far too full of furries, pagans, the sort of science fiction fans and role-playing gamers who confuse the difference between in-universe and real life, dragon and vampire wannabes, and other kiddie fantasy-land subculturists. Again, nothing like us. Their mascot is a goat, though, so they got that going for them.
LiveJournal pages are also mirrored and archived by at least two different (probably unauthorized) websites, making it a privacy risk to post anything there (same as with all other social networking sites), regardless of whether you set your LiveJournal account to block search engines from your page - everything will wind up on Google forever anyhow because of these mirror sites.
Though founded in the United States, LiveJournal proved surprisingly popular in Russia, to the point that it has become the standard Russian blog host, with high-profile Russian politicians and authors hosting their personal blogs on the site. The site was bought by a Russian company and Russian users now make up the majority of its base. The English- and Russian-speaking sides of LiveJournal are, for all intents and purposes, separate communities and rarely interact.
The LiveJournal engine is open source, so anyone can create a fork. It turns out it's rather expensive in terms of server resources and bandwidth, the code has rotted badly, and most sites making the attempt have failed or become notorious for unreliability. DreamWidth was founded by ex-employees of LiveJournal with a mandate to be less stupid and evil than the various owners of LiveJournal and to take care to expand in a sustainable form. So far it's holding out quite well.
They've lured a lot of fanfic authors, as well as members of minorities thanks to their friendly diversity policies. Their extensive work to make the software suck less has been adopted by most of the LJ forks.
Google+, Google's third attempt at a social network, is going to revolutionise the way we communicate and interact online, just like Google Wave and Google Buzz did. Google+'s main selling point is that it isn't Facebook, but its main failing is that it isn't Facebook. That is, approximately no bugger's on it, despite the artificially-inflated numbers Google claims for it (e.g., by trying to force everyone on YouTube to have a G+ login). It can be fun if you happen to have enough people you know there.
Like Facebook, it allows users to organise their friends and contacts into groups so that information can only be shared with certain people; what you show your friends will be different to what you let your parents or your work colleagues see, for instance. Unlike Facebook, however, it effectively idiot-proofs this process by forcing users to use the "circles" feature, where friends are grouped (Facebook's "friend list" feature is exactly the same, but optional, so basically the Great Unwashed out there in internet-land don't know it exists). Some people, mostly YouTubers, have complained about Google+'s poor layout and botched integration into all kinds of other Google websites, which may have actually ended up having an impact on Google's later decision to end the forced integration strategy, since it probably wasn't going to save Google+ after all.
Google+ claims to no longer enforce the Real Names policy and its jawdroppingly racist effects. (Google is not racist. It just doesn't think actual proper people could have names like Ping or Elaine Yellow Horse and that people whose names don't fit "firstname lastname" or are written in mixed scripts should have their accounts suspended.) So that's nice.
- See: Reddit
Tumblr is a "microblogging" platform that fits somewhere between Twitter and traditional blogs, with a particular focus on posting photos and short messages, and a "reblog" function that creates nested comments. Over half of Tumblr's users are under 25 and 55% are female, leading some to joke that Tumblr is the "obnoxious young woman" website to go with 4chan and Reddit's "obnoxious young men."
Tumblr attracts various subcultures, including a great many television and movie fandoms, Japanophiles, artists, writers, foodies, hipsters, otherkin, and social justice... activists. The latter range the full spectrum from establishment liberals to outright Marxists and anarchists, but are often stereotyped as thin-skinned, judgmental, politically correct to a fault, vindictive, and prone to knee-jerk reactions, with an incomprehensible jargon of postmodern neologisms ("demisexual", "cogitogender", "transethnic", et cetera). Even most people who are generally on board with the 2010s progressive/feminist/social justice memepool tend to find some of these folks to be extremists, and agreeing with some of them can range from being a bit of a strain to downright impossible. For this reason, Tumblr frequently comes up as a boogeyman among MRAs and like-minded people, who tend to cherry-pick the most egregious or hypocritical posts and pretend that the Tumblr community has a monolithic userbase. From time to time, these posts end up coming from troll blogs run by the same people mocking Tumblr in the first place.
The aforementioned reblogging system, which makes it difficult to track down post edits and replies to particularly popular posts (and thus corrections, responses, and factual rebuttals), has also led to cases of misinformation spreading like wildfire, which doesn't help the stereotype at all.
Laughed off as the "Kinkster's Facebook" what many people don't realise is that FetLife is a fully functioning social network site, with many of the functions of Facebook (but not the annoying Farmville spam), with almost 3,000,000 members. In addition, while people wait to see what Diaspora's open-source project is like, FetLife is written entirely in open-source software, which they make freely available on their site. They have also delivered presentations on their software at various conferences.
The site is free to use, relying on advertising revenue and unsolicited subscriptions from its members (supporters receive additional, but non-essential functionality) and actively discourages — indeed has not enabled — meat-market-style searches by age, gender or kink. Unfortunately, their privacy rules make it difficult for people who have been victimized by others within the community to warn people or call out their attackers.
Although it membership has swelled over the past few years, much of this can be attributed to curious "tourists," who have read 'Fifty Shades' and want to see what this is all about. This, of course, pisses off the old guard, who are leaving the site.
 Non-English language
A Russian equivalent of Facebook, VKontakte is notable for having cute cartoons to guide you through the sign-up process, and for happily hosting horrifyingly homophobic groups, allowing them a safe and largely unregulated forum to post videos of their exploits. On a side note, VK is enjoying a surge of popularity in America, largely boosted by attempts by American males to find a Slavic female companion. The network's founder and former CEO, Pavel Durov, is pretty onside with Internet freedoms, but in April 2014, he was fired from the position. Surprisingly, a large number of Israelis use the site. This may be due to the vast Russian diaspora located there.
A Chinese social media site, similar to Facebook, filling the gap in the market caused by the PRC's blocking of Facebook and Twitter in mainland China.
Another Chinese social media giant, roughly equivalent to Twitter.
South Korea's most popular home-grown social media network
Japan's answer to Twitter. Lets you build an avatar with their Pigg virtual community where you can talk with other people, and play games.
 Get Closer
Get Closer was an attempt by UK record chain HMV to cash in on the "success" of social networking sites by making people buy stuff. It seemed to be about encouraging you to become "friends" with as much music and films as you can, by making obscure (or not so obscure) connections between them, then buying them from HMV. Funnily enough, it completely died in the arse.
Diaspora was touted as possible competition for Facebook, by offering a "privacy aware, personally controlled, do-it-all, open source social network" Strong buzzwords, indeed. Like most free software inspired projects, it does everything the proprietary program does (in this case Facebook, although it is free to use) but, somehow, much worse. Unlike Facebook, which relies on centralised servers paid for by the company's advertising revenue, Diaspora is decentralised and basically requires the goodwill of users to keep them maintained. After its highly successful Kickstarter, one of the four developers committed suicide. As a result Diaspora is a poor shadow of its intended result. It has not caught on as intended, and even its own developers can't be bothered any more. But software freedom advocates still push it.
Ello is the new Next Big Thing since Google+ and Diaspora failed to destroy Facebook. It seems to be based on fanatically idealistic principles, somehow intending to run a social network, with no visible income stream (besides flogging t-shirts) to support it. As the front page of the site states:
“”Our social network is owned by advertisers.
Every post you share, every friend you make and every link you follow is tracked, recorded and converted into data. Advertisers buy your data so they can show you more ads. You are the product that’s bought and sold.We believe there is a better way. We believe in audacity. We believe in beauty, simplicity and transparency. We believe that the people who make things and the people who use them should be in partnership.
However, Ello has already pulled one over on Facebook, attracting many members of especially the LGBT community, when Facebook decided to selectively apply their "real names only" policy (which they've since walked back) thereby potentially outing, or worse, many members of the community. Ello's "choose any name you want" policy has become their biggest draw card for the time being.
 Christian networking sites
At least fourteen Christian networking sites have sprung up, many of which are marketed at Christian-themed versions of popular sites like Pinterest (Godinterest) and YouTube (GodTube). They emphasise their clean, family-friendly nature — which mostly goes only as far as removing "offensive" content.
"If you post a picture on this site, everyone in the picture must be modestly dressed (by our standards), not promoting any sinful activity (drinking, smoking, tatoos, gambling, etc), and not crude in any way (sodomites, abortion pics, etc)," says Big Baptist while Christianblog says: "We have dedicated volunteers who review each and every blog entry to make sure that all content that is posted is family safe and Christian based." — in fact they all say different versions of this, so we won't bore you with minor variations in wording. Of the others, ChristUnion has found an appropriate Biblical quote as its strap — Submit to one another out of reverence for Christ — see, the Bible foretold social networking sites! And therefore, it's true. Ditty Talk allows linking to Myspace, which kind of misses the point. The scarily-named FaithFreaks has "a network of filters and monitors", so they're either control freaks or sound engineers. Christian.com is "heavily monitored" and says It’s not "My" space; It’s "His" space! JCFaith's "about us" page is mysteriously blank, except for phone commercials.
 Conservative networking sites
There are a few conservative social networking site as well.
Let's Get This Right promises to link to "100's (sic) of conservative resources" and has forums, some of whose posts get up to an incredible six replies. Tea Party Community is the tea party answer to Facebook. Facebook is full of liberals that just love to report conservative pages and get them removed from Facebook (Despite the fact that conservative pages frequently have a higher number likes than liberal pages. However this clearly a liberal plot to create a bunch of deep cover liberals that are trying to smear the good name of conservatives through the mud. Just ask any conservative!). Another conservative social network is Connect with Liberty. "ReaganBook" was shut down after the completely predictable deluge of Liberal trolls, and came back as "Freedombook", which was invitation only before it fell over and died. An option for mostly gun related talk is gunchannels.com
In early 2009, during their quest to split the entire inanimate world into things that cause cancer and things that cure cancer, the Daily Mail ran a story essentially entitled "Facebook causes cancer". This was based on a report by Dr Aric Sigman in the Journal of the Institute of Biology. Noted science writer, blogger, and columnist Ben Goldacre then refuted the claims, stating that Sigman had selectively quoted his evidence and ignored all the evidence that social networking use had no effect — or even a positive effect — on people's social lives, particularly those suffering from loneliness. Ben later appeared on Newsnight specifically to tear Sigman a new arsehole over the scaremongering.
 "Nym wars"
"Nym wars" — short for "pseudonym wars" — is the term applied to the effort by social networks to end the practice of allowing subscribers to use a screen name that is not their legal one. While Facebook discourages the use of pseudonyms, the nym wars really took off in the summer of 2011 when Google's new social network, Google Plus, prohibited the use of any pseudonyms, and Google employees even suggested that everyone start reporting questionable names. Then, to ensure that this policy was not being abused, Google Plus began aborting accounts with screen names that seemed to be even remotely pseudonymous, e.g. not sounding sufficiently white American. This trashed the site's reputation with its initial seed audience of techies, and may have been the factor that crippled it out the gate.
Google claimed that real names encouraged better social behaviour. This is something people commonly assume about real-name policies — but no-one, including Google, has ever supplied actual evidence of this, rather than personal feeling and assertion. In fact, what evidence there is points the opposite way: South Korea required commenters on sites with over 100,000 users to supply their Resident Registration Number (national identity number), and this reduced malicious comments by ... 0.9%. So if anyone makes this claim, ask for actual evidence: if they provide it, they'll be the first.
|While there was an expectation that people would behave better when their activity was tied to their own identity, as that identity is presumably a highly valuable and non-renewable resource to them, the evidence weighed against it: people seem quite willing to be jerks under their own identities.
In practice, the forced revelation of information makes individual privilege and power more important. When everyone has to play with their cards on the table, so to speak, then people who feel like they can be themselves without consequence do so freely -- these generally being people with support groups of like-minded people, and who are neither economically nor physically vulnerable. People who are more vulnerable to consequences use concealment as a method of protection: it makes it possible to speak freely about controversial subjects, or even about any subjects, without fear of harassment.
(A classic experiment which you can easily replicate is to change your profile photo to that of a young woman for a few weeks. Change nothing else, even your name, and see what happens to your interaction pattern. I've seen quite a few people run this test and the results are, shall we say, quite visible)
Every issue Zunger notes there was raised internally at Google before Google+ launched in 2011, and ignored by management who were determined to push through a Real Names policy on no data and no thinking it through.
 Social media consultants
Social media consultants/strategists/experts/gurus help businesses manage their social networking profile. Since creating a Facebook page and Twitter account and then hiring college students to maintain them isn't rocket science, social media consultants often promote their services with hefty doses of bullshit and techno babble. Although not all social media consultants are scammers, the trend of large corporations spending vast amounts of cash in order to establish a social media "presence" has created somewhat of a Gold Rush atmosphere where snake oil merchants flourish. Social media consultants may also offer a kind of "digital public relations" service to create buzz, spread stories, and polish their client's reputations, replacing the need for traditional PR agencies.
 See also
- ↑ Alexa - MySpace.com site info
- ↑ http://www.02138mag.com/magazine/article/1724.html
- ↑ Evil
- ↑ Anecdote alert: I have occasionally seen the "groups" feature glitch and display the names and profile pictures of groups that were deleted several years ago (so it's not a local cookies or temp files glitch). Although clicking on them redirects to the main page like with most deleted accounts, there is a possibility that if the titles can still be accessed via a glitch, the content is still in the "recycling bin" even after 3-4 years.
- ↑ http://fstdt.net/QuoteComment.aspx?QID=75302
- ↑ Jesus's Facebook profile.
- ↑ "CIA's 'Facebook' Program Dramatically Cut Agency's Cost"
- ↑ BBC dot.Rory - Facebook v Daily Mail
- ↑ The Onion. "Internet Archaeologists Find Ruins Of 'Friendster' Civilization."
- ↑ Twitter hype punctured, BBC News
- ↑ Twitter tweets are 40% 'babble', BBC News
- ↑ Technical debt and the making of payments on it (denise, dreamwidth.org, 2011-03-29)
- ↑ Adding examples to the essay on technical debt (foxfirefey, dreamwidth.org, 2012-01-01)
- ↑ A song about it
- ↑ "So the other day, my other channel was brutally forced into subduing to the wrath that is Google+. They may as well have just brutally fucking murdered the channel, ripped out its arteries and shot it in the back of the fucking head!"
- ↑ Lol fuk u spodermen ur usin googel+"
- ↑ http://techcrunch.com/2014/04/24/google-is-walking-dead/
- ↑ My Google+ profile has just been suspended for having an unusual name. (Ping, 23 July 2011). This is where they suspended their own employee because they didn't think his name was white enough.
- ↑ http://www.buzzfeed.com/joeflood/what-happens-when-google-doesnt-think-youre-a-human
- ↑ https://support.google.com/plus/answer/1228271?hl=en
- ↑ https://productforums.google.com/forum/?hl=en#!category-topic/gmail/contacts-and-sync/NRg0H6PxOW8
- ↑ The Sea of Hoax Tumblr blog
- ↑ Walking Dead scene mistaken for actual MRI, originally from ruoloc. Note correction on actual post not visible in reblog.
- ↑ Statue of Liberty was originally black myth, naturalbods. See also: Snopes
- ↑ Movie shot mistaken as Vietnam photo, originally from angerr
- ↑ FetLife's open source Projects
- ↑ On-line versions of their presentations
- ↑ http://disruptingdinnerparties.com/2013/05/08/got-consent-3-fetlife/
- ↑ Fifty Shades of Grey poses a threat to online BDSM communities
- ↑ This BDSM community is furious about 'Fifty Shades of Grey'
- ↑ Adrien Chen. Ukrainin' Men: How American Men Are Using the Russian Facebook to Find Brides. Gawker. 2012 May 15.
- ↑ http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/98088-hmv-shutters-getcloser-social-network
- ↑ Join Diaspora's home page
- ↑ Facebook alternative Diaspora rolls out first code
- ↑ http://blog.diasporafoundation.org/2012/08/27/announcement-diaspora-will-now-be-a-community-project.html
- ↑ Ello's main page
- ↑ http://www.pcworld.com/article/2689418/facebook-walks-back-real-name-policy-after-protests-ello-exodus.html
- ↑ http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/09/25/social-network-ello-gets-boost-after-facebook-boots-drag-queens/
- ↑ What an "abortion pic" even is is anyone's guess.
- ↑ of course, most sound engineers are control freaks, but we'll let that pass for now.
- ↑ As of 17 May 2009.
- ↑ The swift death of ReaganBook, the Facebook for patriots
- ↑ How using Facebook could raise your risk of cancer
- ↑ Ben's face halfway through Sigman talking is especially priceless.
- ↑ Kaste, Martin. "Who Are You, Really? Activists Fight For Pseudonyms", National Public Radio (USA) website, posted 28 September 2011, accessed 29 September 2011.
- ↑ Ross, Nick. "How much has Facebook just damaged Google Plus?", Australian Broadcasting Corporation website (technology and games blog), posted 14 September 2011, accessed 29 September 2011.
- ↑ http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2011/12/30/2011123001526.html
- ↑ https://plus.google.com/+YonatanZunger/posts/WegYVNkZQqq
- ↑ Social media scammers: be careful who you hire
- ↑ Stephen Baker Beware Social Media Snake Oil Bloomberg Business
- ↑ Learn Social Media Strategies for Effective Public Relations www.prsa.org