|A dirty dozen gems about|
|Not just a river in Egypt|
|Automatons led by a lunatic who looked like Charlie Chaplin|
|The Third Reich|
|Some dare call it|
“”Even to enter into the arena of debate on whether the Nazis carried out such atrocities is already to lose one's humanity.
|—Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent|
Holocaust denial is assertion that the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany, other Axis powers, and their collaborators in occupied Europe during the Second World War never happened or - in true conspiracy theory fashion - the denial that it happened according to the "official" story. Like most conspiracy theories, it takes many forms, from the fairly light claims of "exaggeration" to the extreme views of outright fraud, fakery and Zionist conspiracy. Generally, the claims include:
- That the Final Solution was in fact not the genocide of the Jewish people, but rather the expulsion of Jews from Germany
- That 6,000,000 is a gross exaggeration of the Jewish death count
- That the Nuremberg testimonies from Germans were extracted by torture
- That the Jews just made everything up to gain the world's sympathy
- That the gas chambers used by the Nazis were actually
breathing medication applicatorshair care facilities.
- That death counts for other groups (such as gypsies or homosexuals) are exaggerated, that they were not included in the holocaust, or that they were among those who carried it out.
Particularly when it focuses on "how the Jews faked it all," Holocaust denial is a form of anti-Semitism often embraced by bigots who are too cowardly to admit that they wished that Hitler finished the job.
 Starting off with a note from Ike
“”[On April 12, 1945] I saw my first horror camp. It was near the town of Gotha. I have never been able to describe my emotional reactions when I first came face to face with indisputable evidence of Nazi brutality and ruthless disregard of every shred of decency. Up to that time I had known about it only generally or through secondary sources. I am certain however, that I have never at any time experienced an equal sense of shock.
I visited every nook and cranny of the camp because I felt it my duty to be in a position from then on to testify at first hand about these things in case there ever grew up at home the belief or assumption that "the stories of Nazi brutality were just propaganda." Some members of the visiting party were unable to go through with the ordeal. I not only did so but as soon as I returned to Patton's headquarters that evening I sent communications to both Washington and London, urging the two governments to send instantly to Germany a random group of newspaper editors and representative groups from the national legislatures. I felt that the evidence should be immediately placed before the American and the British publics in a fashion that would leave no room for cynical doubt.
|—Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe, 1948|
 Definitions and terminology
The Holocaust was, according to Wikipedia:
 Functionalism and intentionalism versus Holocaust denial
Historians are divided between two interpretations of the Holocaust: functionalism versus intentionalism. Both functionalists and intentionalists agree that the Holocaust occurred, but functionalists disagree with the claim that the Holocaust was Hitler's intention from the beginning, either from the time of Mein Kampf, or his ascension to power, or even the beginning of the war. By contrast, intentionalists see the Holocaust as being primarily Hitler's idea, something he had planned even for years before coming to power. Functionalists see the Holocaust evolving bottom-up rather than being ordered from the top-down. That Hitler did not plan or order the Holocaust does not mean he escapes moral responsibility for it — he created the climate of extreme anti-Semitism that made it possible, created many of the policies which immediately contributed to it, and provided the leadership that considered these measures both permissible and acceptable.
For example, both intentionalists and functionalists agree that Hitler ordered deportation of Jews to Nazi-occupied Poland — but intentionalists believe that "deportation" was from the very beginning a codeword for extermination (see explanation of Nazi euphemisms below), while functionalists see "deportation" at the beginning as being quite literally that — a plan to deport Jews, with little thought as to what would happen to them when they arrived in Poland. Functionalists see the Holocaust as a bureaucratic innovation among low-level Nazi officials in Poland, to solve the problem of what to do with all these incoming Jews, by killing most of them. Functionalists such as Ian Kershaw also point to the highly chaotic nature of the Nazi state, in which individuals vied with one another for power and Hitler's good favour (often the same thing). This process, referred to by historians (after Nazi civil servant Werner Willikins) as "working towards the Fuhrer," aimed at satisfying Hitler's ever-increasing calls for "radicalism" in all matters of policy, naturally led various officials to propose more and more extreme solutions to the "Jewish question" (that there were multiple proposed solutions is evidenced by the term "the Final Solution"). Functionalists still believe that, even if Hitler did not directly start the Holocaust, he became aware of it while it was in progress and in all probability signed off on the proposal - in no way does functionalism absolve Hitler of moral responsibility or downplay the atrocities themselves. Unlike Holocaust denial, functionalism is an academically respectable position in the field of history.
 Exploitation of functionalism
Holocaust deniers often use functionalism as evidence that the Holocaust did not happen, and use actual examples of it to claim that Holocaust denial is accepted by historians. Usually this involves taking accepted facts such as the lack of evidence directly linking Hitler to the execution of the Holocaust, and claiming that it means that the Holocaust did not happen. Given the massive amount of additional evidence, this is absurd. Even in the most extreme version of functionalism, there is no support for any elements of Holocaust denial, except maybe the claim that Hitler did not order it, because functionalism explains how the Holocaust happened, and does not comment at all on whether it happened or the extent to which it happened.
 "Holocaust revisionism" versus Holocaust denial
Many Holocaust deniers describe themselves as "revisionists." Does that mean they are not deniers?
How do we define Holocaust denial?
Modern scholarship defines "The Holocaust" as:
- The murder of five to seven million Jews - the number
- mainly carried out with gas chambers - the method
The Free Dictionary defines "denial" as:
- A refusal to comply with or satisfy a request.
- A refusal to grant the truth of a statement or allegation; a contradiction.
- The act of disowning or disavowing; repudiation.
From this follows:
- The claim that significantly fewer than five to seven million Jews died is Holocaust denial, even while agreeing with modern scholarship upon the method.
- The claim that gas chambers were not used for mass executions is Holocaust denial, even while agreeing with modern scholarship upon the number.
Most self-proclaimed "Holocaust revisionists" disagree with established scholarship upon the number and the method. As such, they are clearly Holocaust deniers. The term "Holocaust revisionism" does not carry any meaning separate from Holocaust denial.
 The Holocaust denial movement
Nearly all Holocaust deniers seem to belong, or be affiliated to, any of these four groups:
- White supremacists, including but not limited to neo-Nazis.
- Authoritarian pro-Palestine activists, including but not limited to militant Islamists, who oppose the very existence of Israel. (More on Israel in the section below)
- General conspiracy theorists, iconoclasts, or curmudgeons without necessary political sympathies.
 Aims and techniques of deniers
This is manifested in some of the aims of Holocaust denial (stupidity and hatred not mentioned).
- Making National Socialism an acceptable political alternative again.
- Questioning the United Nations' decision to claim land for Israel in 1948, or any recognition of the state of Israel.
- Using the story of a "staged" Holocaust as part of an anti-Semitic conspiracy theory.
Holocaust deniers almost never base their agenda on an alternate hypothesis. Finding "their story" can be very difficult. The bulk of their arguments contains many miscellaneous loose statements that question the credibility of the Holocaust. This article aims to provide universal proof, but mainly deals with replying to deniers' objections.
 Famous deniers
Some famous Holocaust deniers described in brief. See each entry for a case study.
- Mahmoud Ahmadinejad - President of Iran. Hosted a 2006 conference, the "International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust," at which the panel of speakers included among others David Duke and Robert Faurisson.
- Harry Elmer Barnes - Originally, a mainstream writer and historian. After World War II, a marginal crank who brought his marginalization on himself because he insisted that all accusations against Germany and Japan were fabricated wartime propaganda. Revered and frequently name-dropped by today's Holocaust denial movement but their politics are likely far from Barnes' which were more along the lines of "I didn't leave liberalism, liberalism left me."
- David Brandt Berg ("Moses David") - Founder of the Children of God cult. He peppered many of his group's tracts with anti-Semitic rants and occasional denials of the Holocaust, such as, "You hear all about Hitler & how he was supposed to have killed 6 million Jews!--Well, they've never been able to prove yet that he even killed 60,000!"
- Arthur Butz - Professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University; author of the 1976 book The Hoax of the Twentieth Century: The Case Against the Presumed Extermination of European Jewry.
- Willis Carto - Founder of the Institute for Historical Review in 1979, the main Holocaust denial group in the United States. Founder of the Barnes Review, a "historical revisionist" magazine that mostly runs articles questioning the Holocaust but covers it up with other articles on serious historical topics. Previously founded the wingnut Liberty Lobby in 1955.
- Francis E. Dec - Disbarred lawyer turned pamphleteer known for vehement and often incoherent screeds of a delusional and paranoid nature. In one of his pamphlets, dated Spring 1984, he insisted that during World War 2, the Jews lived in luxury while the concentration camps were run by both the Jews and the Nazis in order to exterminate Polish and Slavic people.
- David Duke - Neo-Nazi extremist well-known and despised in the United States. Notably came disturbingly close to being elected Governor of Louisiana in 1990.
- Robert Faurisson - French writer, prosecuted for defamation in 1979 after writing letters to Le Monde claiming there were no gas chambers. Author of a 1991 booklet claiming the Diary of Anne Frank is a forgery.
- Michael Hoffman - American writer and editor of the journal Revisionist History. Claims that he is being persecuted by anti-German Jewish "racists."
- David Irving - A "historian and a neutral observer." A "historian and a neutral observer" who believes that the Jews asked for it.
- Fred Leuchter - Consultant to the lucrative capital punishment industry in the U.S. and manufacturer of electric chairs. In 1988 he was hired by Ernst Zündel to investigate whether the gas chambers in Nazi concentration camps could have been used for mass extermination. Leuchter claims he concluded they could not have been and published The Leuchter Report: An Engineering Report on the Alleged Execution Chambers at Auschwitz, Birkenau, and Majdanek Poland. Fred Leuchter has no scientific background to have made such a claim. He was the subject of the 1999 Errol Morris documentary Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr..
- Texe Marrs - Christian writer and conspiracy theorist. On his website he sells his own recordings entitled The Holocaust Controversy and the Falsification of History, and Holocaust Dogma Unmasked — A Grim Global Conspiracy Mocking Reality and Capitalizing on Death is Outed by Brave Truthtellers. He also peddles Victor Thorn's book The Holocaust Hoax Exposed: Debunking the 20th Century’s Biggest Lie, and Brian Alois Clèrauba's book A Greater "Miracle" Than The Lost Ten Tribes Discovered...—The Dead "Six Million" Uncovered...!
- Eustace Mullins - Anti-Semitic writer and (until his recent demise) contributing editor to Barnes Review.
- Revilo P. Oliver - His original claim to fame was as a JFK assassination conspiracy theorist. Kicked out of the John Birch Society for public anti-Semitic statements, went on to neo-Nazi activities in his later years.
- Ahmed Rami - Moroccan-Swedish writer, and founder of Radio Islam. Sentenced by a Swedish court in 1990 to six months in prison for hate speech rising from material including, but not limited to, Holocaust denial. Has co-written a Holocaust denial book, Tabubelagda tankar (Tabooed Thoughts), with Swedish Neo-Nazi leader Björn Björkqvist.
- George Lincoln Rockwell - WWII US Navy veteran and one-time commercial illustrator, advertising agent, magazine publisher, and sign painter, later founder of the American Nazi Party, which was one of the frist US organizations to promote Holocaust revisionism and denial. (It splintered off into numerous groups after his 1967 murder by a purged party member.) An outspoken white supremacist and anti-Semite, he was quoted in an April 1966 interview in Playboy: "I don't believe for one minute that any 6,000,000 Jews were exterminated by Hitler. It never happened."
- Gemar Rudolf - German student who released a poorly researched report while interning at the Max Planck institute claiming that samples taken from gas chamber walls showed no more cyanide evidence than random farmhouses. He ignored the basic chemistry of cyanide by not discriminating against iron-based cyanide compounds. Study was subsequently falsified, and Rudolf was fired and imprisoned. Rudolf has since gone on to other impressive feats such as denying 9/11.
- Bradley Smith - A crank who has spent the last 20 years trying to place advertisements in newspapers calling for an "open debate" on whether the Holocaust happened. He seems to crave the controversy that results, and chants the mantra of "free speech" a lot. He is especially fond of trying to place these ads in student newspapers on college campuses, which usually results in free publicity for him and his pet cause whether or not the ads are accepted for publication.
- David Stein aka David Cole - Leader of Republican Party Animals, a Hollywood-based conservative political group. In 2013, he was exposed as being "David Cole," a Holocaust revisionist who made a splash in the media in the 1990's.
- Paul Topete - Lead vocalist of the "Patriot" rock band Poker Face. On the band's on-line fourm, Topete, using the handle "Pokerkid", has made a number of anti-Semitic statements, including the following (reproduced verbatim):
“”"I am always amazaed at how many roads lead back to one of the largest if not THEE largest scam ever played on humanity... Yes that right... the HOLOHAUX aka holocaust. 1985 and 1988 Ernst Zundel DESTROYED the Myth known as the cult of holohauzianity. In a canadien court of law, Ernst zundel took on the biggest frauds in the SHOAH Industry, and showed them to be the frauds that they were. Names like Raoul Hilberg and Vrba. And several other parasites known to infest this worldly sham. Wake up people, You are being played for fools for you LACK KNOWLEDGE."
- Hal Turner - White supremacist, former shortwave and internet talk show host and FBI informant, now convicted felon. Quoting him directly: "Jews love to complain about the 'Holocaust.' Let me tell you, there was no Holocaust in World War 2 -- but rest assured, there most certainly IS GOING TO BE a holocaust. I look forward to participating with zeal."
- Richard Williamson - British Roman Catholic Bishop and former member of the Catholic Traditionalist Society of Saint Pius X, was fined by the German government for denying the Holocaust on Swedish TV while on German soil.
- Shaun Patrick Winkler - American White Supremacist and failed Sheriff candidate for Bonner County, Idaho who attempted to build an "Aryan compound" to replace the now defunct Aryan Nations Church. In an interview, he was quoted as saying, "The bad, evil, rotten Jew is behind a lot of things. We look at the media, we look at society in general. We look at even our public school systems. They paint this pretty little portrait for Jews, how they were such victims of the Holocaust or, as I like to refer to it, the ‘Holo-Hoax.’ We … deny that 6 million died."
- Francis Parker Yockey - An American Hitler admirer who wrote an unreadable post-WWII tome called Imperium under the pen-name "Ulick Varange," a book which you can't make heads of tails of but vaguely has something to do with advocating European unification around a program of "total politics."
- Ernst Zündel - German-born Canadian writer and neo-Nazi, prolific promoter of Holocaust denial through his website and publishing business, recently prosecuted in Germany and sentenced to five years in prison for violating Germany's law against inciting hatred.
 Laws against Holocaust denial
Denial of crimes against humanity is outlawed in thirteen European countries and Israel. In the Netherlands, courts have ruled that genocide denial is hate speech, and therefore implicitly illegal. Deniers usually complain that their freedom of speech is limited and might even claim that these laws are part of the conspiracy. They blatantly ignore that:
- These laws are much younger than Holocaust denial itself. Most of them were made in the late 1980s or 1990s, as a counter-measure against the rise of white supremacism in a European generation which had no experience of the war. During most of post-war history - more than 40 years - Holocaust denial has been legal in all countries of the world.
- Most of these laws outlaw denial of all crimes against humanity, not limited to the ones committed by the Axis of World War II, but also explicitly (as in Poland or the Czech Republic) or implicitly including crimes by Communist regimes, and other crimes often emphasized by Holocaust deniers. Only in Romania is the law limited to Holocaust denial. The Israeli law is the only one of these laws actually mentioning Jews.
- Currently, there are 179 countries, and several autonomous territories, without any law or judicial precedent against Holocaust denial. This list includes all of North and South America, Africa, Oceania, Asia (except Israel, if any Holocaust denier would want to go there in the first place) and 37 of the 50 countries in Europe. The laws against Holocaust denial do not even cover the areas affected by the Holocaust; genocide denial is legal in Slovakia, the former Yugoslav states, Greece and several other countries where the Nazis abducted Jews during the war (see the extensive Appendix list).
- The number of countries banning genocide denial has been largely constant since the 1990s. Spain repealed their law against genocide denial in 2007. Parliaments in United Kingdom and Sweden have rejected proposals for such laws. The European Parliament has also rejected a directive to criminalize genocide denial. Canada's Supreme Court sentenced James Keegstra in R. v. Keegstra in 1990 for hate speech not limited to Holocaust denial, but in R. v. Zundel in 1992 they acquitted Zündel, and declared Holocaust denial to be protected by the Canadian Constitution. The only recent law against genocide denial was made in Hungary in 2010. Previously, trivialization of the Holocaust was illegal. The new law prohibits "denial of genocide committed by Communist or Nazi system," with no special mentioning of the Holocaust or Jews.
- Deniers may claim that these laws are a product of Jewish influence. In that case, how come that Holocaust denial is legal in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and Russia, which have significant Jewish populations, but is illegal in Poland, Romania and Lithuania, where hardly any Jews live today (and how come so few Jews live there)?
 Evidence for the Holocaust
Though the Nazi government tried massively to hide evidence for mass murder by tearing down buildings and burning documents, plenty of the remains have survived.
 Nazi documents, speeches etc.
This is just a sample of the wealth of documentary evidence from the Nazi government itself.
(Caveat: Holocaust deniers reason that, since the Holocaust did not happen, any evidence to the contrary is a forgery created by the Jews as part of their International Jewish Conspiracy™. Indeed a few counterfeit Nazi documents - notably the Hitler Diaries - have been exposed since the war. However, several of the documents mentioned here have been authenticated by forensics, or are accepted as genuine by Holocaust deniers such as David Irving.)
 Hitler (duh)
In 1922, Hitler told a journalist that:
“”Once I really am in power, my first and foremost task will be the annihilation of the Jews. As soon as I have the power to do so, I will have gallows built in rows - at the Marienplatz in Munich, for example - as many as traffic allows. Then the Jews will be hanged indiscriminately, and they will remain hanging until they stink; they will hang there as long as the principles of hygiene permit. As soon as they have been untied, the next batch will be strung up, and so on down the line, until the last Jew in Munich has been exterminated. Other cities will follow suit, precisely in this fashion, until all Germany has been completely cleansed of Jews.
(Caveat #2: While some serious historians see this as evidence that Hitler had planned the Holocaust long before coming to power, other serious historians don't believe that any plan for the Holocaust existed so early, and see Hitler's words as simply an expression of his virulent anti-Semitism rather than a sign that he had any concrete plans at that date.)
In a speech to the Reichstag on 30 January 1939, he made his intentions clear with this quote, which was even used in the 1940 Nazi propaganda film "Der ewige Jude" (The Eternal Jew)
Hitler also gave the Obersalzberg Speech in August 1939, a week before the invasion of Poland, and expressed intentions of mass murdering the Polish population.
 Goebbels' diaries
German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels' extensive diary notes contains several references to the ongoing mass murder of the Jews. Considering David Irving had access to the entirety of Goebbels's diaries, using them as the basis for a book, he presumably accepts these accounts as true.
 Jäger report
A report written in December 1941 by SS commander Karl Jäger, describing the killing of 137,346 people in the Baltic states. The literal descriptions in this document are unusual to the Nazis, who usually used euphemisms for mass killings.
 Wannsee Conference
A conference on 20 January 1942, documented by the Wannsee Protocol (Protokoll is the German word for "minutes"). Adolf Eichmann provided demographic data estimating Jewish population in Europe to 11 million. The data are consistent with scholarship.
“”Under proper guidance, in the course of the final solution
the Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in the East. Able-bodied Jews, separated according to sex, will be taken in large work columns to these areas for work on roads, in the course of which action doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes.
The possible final remnant will, since it will undoubtedly consist of the most resistant portion, have to be treated accordingly, because it is the product of natural selection and would, if released, act as a the seed of a new Jewish revival(see the experience of history.)
 Himmler's 1942 report
On 29 December 1942, Himmler presented Hitler with the "Report to the Führer on fighting against gangs," No. 51.1. This report, which covered the period from August to November, 1942, and which referred only to a part of the occupied Soviet area (southern Russia, Ukraine and the district of Bialystok); included the following numbers concerning persons imprisoned or executed:
- a) Established number of deaths after combat 1,337
- b) Prisoners executed immediately 737
- c) Prisoners executed after lengthy thorough interrogation 7,828
2. Gang helpers and suspects
- a) Arrested 16,553
- b) Executed 14,257
- c) Jews executed 363,211
 Heinrich Himmler's speech
In 1943 Himmler spoke openly about the extermination of the Jewish people, as well as the equivocation used to cover it up, during a speech to SS Officers. See Himmler on the execution of Jews for more information.
 Odilo Globocnik's reports
The reports describe Aktion Reinhard, with special mentioning of confiscated immobile and mobile property.
 Korherr report
Written in March, 1943, by Dr. Richard Korherr of the SS. Describes that 2.5 million European Jews have been "evacuated" to "special treatment" (German: Evakuierung, Sonderbehandlung), and estimates that European Jewish population had declined by 1.5 million by emigration, uprisings and harsh living conditions in ghettos and camps, totalling a decline of 4 million European Jews (out of more than 10 million).
 Höfle Telegram
Sent on January 11, 1943. Discovered in 2000. Describes Operation Reinhard.
 Other wartime documents
There is an abundance of documents from the concentration camps by guards and leaders describing the details of the death camps and even "death vans".
The truth of the Holocaust has been supported by many thousands of testimonies by several groups, including but not limited to (a few references are given to provide a general picture):
- Concentration camp prisoners (including but not limited to Jews, Poles, gypsies, homosexuals and political opponents).
- Sonderkommandos (prisoners recruited for corpse disposal).
- Kapos (prisoners recruited as camp officers).
- Railroad crews, civil servants, commanders and other off-site soldiers and civilian workers.
- Allied soldiers from various countries.
- Humanitarian expeditions from various countries.
- Testimonies from German soldiers have been gathered by German historian Sönke Neitzel.
 Guards, officers etc
Many thousands of German officers and guards were stationed at the camps in Poland, and were suspected for carrying out or ordering the Holocaust (Franz Suchomel, Hans Stark). Many were sent to trial, and some of them confessed or testified about mass murder. Holocaust deniers might claim that these testimonies were given out of torture.
Indeed many Nazis were mistreated during the Allied occupation. But several German veterans have testified about mass murder decades after the occupation.
Many lived west of the Iron Curtain (Münch, Suchomel, Stark etc), many east of it, many in exile outside Europe (Josef Mengele). Most of them lived in freedom for many years (Münch, Suchomel, Stark, Mengele, Suchomel etc). Very few are still alive. Why has not one of them testified in favour of the "revisionist" view? Not during the trials, not anonymously in an interview with any of these "revisionist scholars", not for any of the "revisionist" books, websites, or radio broadcasts, not on their deathbeds, not in their posthumously released wills - not at all. Those who were tried at court had the opportunity to cry out anything during trial, and those who were executed had the opportunity to say some last words. How come every one of these thousands of "innocent" guards has remained silent, or falsely confessed themselves guilty, for decades? And how come that deniers cannot produce one single testimony, supporting their idea? -->
 Diary of Anne Frank
The Diary of Anne Frank is one of several written testimonies from Holocaust victims. Revisionists such as Robert Faurisson have claimed that the text was forged, but the Dutch government has conducted a forensic investigation confirming the book's authenticity.
 Claims to dissenting testimonies
Holocaust deniers have made some really lame efforts to find a "second opinion."
Paul Rassinier (1906-67) - a French journalist, called "the father of Holocaust revisionism." Rassinier participated in the French Resistance, and was therefore imprisoned at Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora. He claimed that the Nazi government had no plan for extermination of Jews, and that the death toll was not more than roughly a million.
Richard Baer (1911-63) - the commander of Auschwitz I. After the war, he lived under-cover in Hamburg, until he was seized in 1960 following the arrest of Adolf Eichmann. He refused to testify, and died in detention in 1963. Deniers might claim that the government killed Baer behind locked doors because his refusal to testify against Eichmann. This is of course a hypothesis without support, and does not in any way qualify Baer as a dissenting witness. If Baer had something to tell the world, why didn't he take use of his 15 years as a fugitive?
Red Cross reports: The Red Cross famously visited Theresienstadt in present-day Czech Republic, and reported relatively good conditions among the inmates. After the war, they could show that the Nazis had deceived the observers.  Among the false evidence given to the Red Cross was the Nazi-staged propaganda film Theresienstadt. Ein Dokumentarfilm aus dem jüdischen Siedlungsgebiet (Terezin: A Documentary Film from the Jewish Settlement Area, also known as The Führer Gives the Jews a City), supposedly showing the humane environment the Jews lived in.
 Death toll and census data
As mentioned before, Holocaust deniers claim that the Jewish death toll in the Holocaust is significantly less than the 5.7 million claimed by current scholarship. The exact number claimed varies - the IHR claims 300 000, while David Irving has raised his claim to 4 million though he may have raised it to avoid a harsh prison sentence when on trial in Austria.
According to censuses, there were about six million more Jews in Europe in early 1942 (as the Holocaust began) than there were at the German surrender in 1945. The Wannsee Protocol from 1942 said that there were 11 million Jews in Europe, of which roughly 6 million were living in German-controlled territories (as the Third Reich was at its peak by 1942). Where did they go?
Revisionists, such as the IHR, have claimed that the Jewish population within the Nazi-occupied area was just four to six million. This contradicts the Wannsee Protocol, as well as other demographics.
 World Almanac gambit
Some deniers, such as the IHR, refer to World Almanac statistics which claim that there was no decline in the global number of Jews during the war. However, the Almanac data for Jews until 1948 were old estimates. The fresh estimate for 1948 shows a decline of 4.4 million. Updated estimates for 1939 show a total decline of 5.3 million.
 Again, where did the Jews go?
Holocaust deniers might agree that millions of Jews disappeared during the war, and suggest many different explanations, except gas chambers. Here are some:
- Death by Allied attacks
There are some documented cases of allied attacks killing the Nazis' prisoners, the sinking of the S/S Cap Arcona being a particularly disastrous example. Let us hypothetize that the Allies would have bombed several concentration camps, trying to kill as many Jewish prisoners as possible. How many bombers would it take? Compare the death tolls of the most fatal Allied raids - 50,000 in Hamburg and 25-40,000 in Dresden. Each of these raids took several days, and required about 1,000 bombers. How many planes, and how many runs, would have been needed to cause a demographic effect on the Jewish prisoners? Are there any accounts for the USAAF or the RAF targeting more Nazi camps in Poland than German infrastructure?
- Extermination by Soviets
Holocaust deniers might claim that Jews in Soviet-occupied territories were killed by Soviets before the German invasion in 1941. Even if that was true, it would not acquit the Nazis from murdering Jews in Germany itself, or German-occupied territories in Western and Southern Europe (France, Benelux, the Balkans etc). This possibility also seems to exclude the outlandish idea of Jewish migration into the Soviet Union during the war (see below). There is also a conflict with the anti-Semitic claim that the Soviet military would have been dominated by Jews.
- Epidemics, starvation and other "accidents"
Scholars and Holocaust deniers agree that many Jews and other prisoners did die from epidemics (such as typhoid) and starvation. Some also died from suicide, escape attempts, correctional executions, exhaustion and other unintended causes besides mass execution. Holocaust deniers might claim these were the only, or major, causes of death in the Nazi camps in Poland. However, many of these camps had a death rate around 90%, which is unparalleled by contemporary prison camps (Soviet Gulag, Allied POW camps, etc). How could so many people die without mass executions? And if they did, would not that be an atrocity?
- Emigration: escape or further deportation
Holocaust deniers might claim that millions of Jews in the Nazi camps in Poland either were "deported to the east" or had survived captivity. In the end, they would have moved to foreign countries, with Palestine (including the areas that would form Israel), the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union mentioned. Some of them might have disguised as non-Jews.
The Korherr report provides statistics on Jewish emigration from Axis territories from 1933 until 1943, differing from "evacuation" (transport to Nazi camps in Poland). As much of this emigration took place before the war, the numbers are insufficient to explain the disappearance of the 11 million Jews mentioned in the 1942 Wannsee Protocol.
Israel had no more than 590,000 inhabitants at its foundation in 1947, including non-Jews (Arabs, Druze etc), Jews who arrived before 1939, and Jewish immigrants from non-Axis territories. The Jewish immigration to the United States around World War II was in a lesser order of magnitude. The United States upheld a harsh immigration policy throughout the war, preventing Jewish refugees from arriving. Soviet censuses are more uncertain, but could hardly hide millions of immigrants. Also, deniers have yet to suggest a Jewish migration path from the Nazi camps in Poland, across the Eastern Front (one of the deadliest fronts in history) into the Soviet Union.
Scholars are aware that a large number of Jews (together with several civilian non-Jews) from the western Soviet Union did migrate eastwards before the German troops invaded the land and started rounding up Jews and opponents. However, this does not help revisionists explain what happened to Jews outside of the Soviet Union.
There is a $4,000 reward for anyone who can provide names of Jews who were transited from death camps in Poland to the Soviet Union.
 Not quite six million Jews
According to current scholarship, around 5,700,000 Jews were killed in the Holocaust. Revisionists may point out that this number is less than six million - either claiming a revisionist success, or criticizing the well-known number of six million killed Jews. However:
- Six million is a correct approximation of 5.7 million, fully according to mathematical and statistical conventions. An exact number is of course impossible - the approximation must be at some level.
- When Roma, non-Jewish Poles and other victims of mass murder are included, still not counting civilian deaths outside the Holocaust scheme, the death toll is well above six million.
 Discrepancies in per-camp death toll estimates
Western historians have different estimates for the exact death toll for each individual camp. Deniers might claim that this makes established history self-contradicting, which is untrue given that the commonly cited figures are derived primarily from demographical evidence (specifically pre-war and post-war population comparisons) and not from a sum of all of the individual camps.
 The Auschwitz gambit
Similarly, some Holocaust deniers have claimed that "revisionist" research has corrected the official death toll of Auschwitz from 4 million to 1.1 million. The number of 4 million originated with the first Soviet publications about the Holocaust. It has been used by the Auschwitz museum until the 1980s, in then-communist Poland, which exaggerated enemy atrocities for propaganda purposes. Western scholars have never claimed that 4 million people died at Auschwitz. Compare this with the controversy on the bombing of Dresden.
 Physical evidence
The preserved camps contain plenty of physical evidence for mass murder: remnants of human bodies (piles of ashes, bones, hair etc), belongings (clothes, prosthetics, bags etc) and equipment (gas chambers etc). Some of this material has undergone forensic examination.
 It's the shoes, stupid!
 Revisionist explanation to the deportations
Revisionists do not deny the deportation of Jews from all of Europe, and the detention in camps in Poland (which was semi-annexed by Greater Germany and abolished in name). They have several explanation models to motivate the Nazi deportation of Jews. None of them are bulletproof.
 New homeland
The Nazis used several euphemisms for killing; one was "deportation", according to the Nazi policy to cleanse Germany from Jews. The Nazis indeed had ideas of a Jewish homeland on Madagascar, which was however never under Axis control. However, Auschwitz, Sobibor and other international concentration camps were located in Greater Germany. So - if the Nazis intend to expel the Jews out of Greater Germany, why did they take the effort to ship Jews into Greater Germany from distant occupied countries such as Norway, France and Greece (which were ruled by domestic puppet governments, with no intention of being annexed)?
Some revisionists claim that Jews were rounded up for forced labor. This does not explain why small children and elderly people were deported, parted from their families. Since Poles and other Slavic peoples were used for forced labor, abducting more of these people would have been more economic than transporting Jews from distant occupied countries, such as Norway, France and Greece.
Some revisionists claim that the internment of Jews was motivated since they posed a security risk. However, while most Jews were deported to Poland, Nazis did not deport other resistance fighters. Neither did they deport civilians from resisting nations. In any case, this explanation is no good for the deportation of children and old people.
 Details about the Holocaust
A novice skeptic might be deceived that all these details are true, and that they support the denier's arguments. Look closer and you'll see easily that they don't.
Among the public, there is some confusion about what happened, and what did not happen, during the Holocaust. Even academics argue about some details. Holocaust deniers try to use these spots of uncertainty to disprove the whole event.
 "Sonderbehandlung" and other euphemisms
As mentioned before, mass executions were rarely described literally (with the Jäger Report as a notable exception). The Nazi documents used euphemisms instead; the most famous one being Sonderbehandlung ("Special treatment"). Revisionists might claim that Sonderbehandlung was delousing and disinfection, introduced in the Nazi camps in Poland.
However, Sonderbehandlung was an established term for killing, confirmed by police documents from 1939, and reports from Action T4, a program for killing people with disabilities. Adolf Eichmann testified that Sonderbehandlung meant "killing."
 The swimming pool in Auschwitz
Auschwitz I, a detention area within the Auschwitz complex, contained a firefighting water reservoir, later rebuilt into a swimming pool. Revisionists might point out that the presence of a swimming pool is a sign of good living conditions for the prisoners. However, the pool, as most other recreational facilities, were restricted to guards, kapos and privileged prisoners. A vast majority of the prisoners arriving at Birkenau (Auschwitz II) never got close to the swimming pool.
 Difference between camps in Germany proper and Poland
Germany proper, within the borders of the Weimar Republic, contained several detention camps (Dachau, Sachsenhausen, etc.) set up before the war, which were not used for mass executions. Some gassings and other executions took place there, for correctional and experimental purposes. Later, the Nazis built extermination camps. The only overnight residents of these camps were the guards, as the prisoners, in most cases, were executed on arrival. Most extermination camps were located in the territory that used to be Poland; either in Ostgebiete (provinces which had been transferred from Germany to Poland in 1918, and re-annexed into Germany in 1939) or the eastern General Government, a colony run by a German military junta, planned to be annexed and settled by Germany. For the occupation, the Nazis abolished the name Poland. In this article, the camps in present-day Poland are described as "Nazi camps in Poland" to emphasize this difference, and avoid the presupposition that many of these were extermination camps. Some camps were also set up in conquered parts of the Soviet Union.
It should be noted that none of the best known camps were extermination camps. This is because the well-known camps are the ones that people survived. The name Auschwitz is more known than Birkenau/Auschwitz II; the extermination department of the Auschwitz complex. Also, many parts of the Warsaw Pact (due to their own problems with collaboration and anti-Semitism) tried to erase the history of these extermination camps. However, this does not in any way negate the existence of real extermination camps, such as Treblinka, Bełżec, and Sobibór.
 A few things once believed about the Holocaust are now known not to be true
The Holocaust gave birth to many rumors about atrocities. Some of these turned out to be true, while others were false. Examples include allegations that the Nazis manufactured soap and lampshades out of their victims' remains on an industrial scale. The fact that these allegations have been disproved is supposed to imply that revisionists have been successful changing the minds of historians, and that the main facts of the Holocaust are also in question. However, it has no relevance to the big picture of the Holocaust.
 Soap manufacturing
According to the Nizkor Project (an Internet project documenting and refuting Holocaust denial), serious historians of the Holocaust never believed the Nazis mass-produced soap from the corpses of Jews, so it was never a case of historians changing their minds to begin with.
Deniers may have many objections against the use of gas chambers for mass executions, including but not limited to:
- Lack of documentation of gas chambers
- Lack of forensic examinations of gas chambers
- Zyklon B being useless for extermination
- Zyklon B being dangerously explosive
- The lack of Prussian Blue on gas chamber walls
- Gas chambers being difficult to ventilate
- Gas chambers not being useful for execution at all (contradicted by use in the United States)
 Forensic examinations on gas chambers, crematoria etc.
Holocaust deniers might claim that there is no forensic proof of gassings. During R v. Zündel in 1985, Raul Hilberg, well-renowned Holocaust scholar, and author of The Destruction of the European Jews, was unable to mention any scientific report proving gassings. Though Hilberg mentioned that there were plenty of Nazi documents describing the Holocaust, this apparent absence of scientific proof has caught some revisionists' attention.
However, since the trial, at least two scientific reports on the gas chambers have been published:
- Jean-Claude Pressac (1944 - 2003) - a French pharmacist who used to be a Holocaust denier, who in 1979 undertook a forensic examination of the Auschwitz gas chambers. The result? He was shocked by the overwhelming evidence. In 1989 he published a book that confirmed the established view that the gas chambers were functional, killing between 631,000 and 711,000 prisoners.
- Deborah Lipstadt's book Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth & Memory won the UK libel case Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt. The case contained forensic examination for use of gas chambers.
 Corpse disposal and cremation
Deniers might have objections against the capacity of corpse disposal and cremation. This is, by part, a consequence of miscalculation. Considering Auschwitz-Birkenau, the first crematory ovens were indeed overburdened, and additional ovens were constructed. The officers had to resort to burning corpses in pits.
Another objection deniers have put forth is that the amount of fuel necessary to cremate that many bodies would have been impractical. In 2000, David Irving sued an author in British high court for libel, for calling him a "Hitler partisan" who manipulated the historical record to deny the reality of the Holocaust. At the widely publicized trial, the prosecuting attorney claimed that it would take mountains of coke to burn all the bodies. An expert witness for the defense countered by showing German patents, issued before the war, for a mass crematorium that could be run almost entirely off the body fat of the corpses disposed in it.
 Ash disposal
Deniers ask what happened to the ashes of the cremated corpses; the volume corresponds to a full shoebox for each body. The officers at Auschwitz and other camps had many opportunities to dump it - in rivers, on farm fields (as a good fertilizer) and in marshes, so ash disposal was not a problem. It was also used to grit icy road and paths around Auschwitz II (Birkenau), recalled Yehuda Bacon at the 1961 Adolf Eichmann trial, who had been 14 year old when sent to Auschwitz in December 1943.
 Methods except gassing
According to scholarship, the Axis powers killed more than a million of Jews through methods other than gassing. Many of them died in the Soviet Union and other Eastern territories, at the hands of Einsatzgruppen and other paramilitary forces. These events are less known to the public than the Nazi camps in Poland, and they are still subject to research. This fact takes the Jewish death toll of gas chambers far below the total six million, but still does not contradict the mass gassings.
 Red herrings in Holocaust denial
 Holocaust compared to other atrocities
The Holocaust is not the largest mass murder in history. Holocaust deniers might compare British and American atrocities (bombings of Dresden, Hiroshima and Nagasaki etc) to Nazi atrocities. However, the millions of Axis civilian victims are still an order of magnitude greater than the number of civilians killed by the Western allies.
- Holocaust deniers might claim that the Allied bombing of Dresden killed around 250,000 people, though current scholarship estimates 20,000-40,000 deaths.
- The Allied bombings and detentions were never censored or denied.
- Revisionists might point out that Allied leaders were never tried or sentenced for war crimes. However, no defendant in Nuremberg was tried or sentenced only for war crimes.
- Though Japanese-American prison camps were shameful, this is a completely different case from the Holocaust, because prisoners did not suffer mass extermination, starvation, epidemics or forced labor.
- The IHR compares the Nazi's Nuremberg Laws to the Jim Crow laws or other segregation laws in a number of states of the USA at the same time. This has no relevance, and the Nazis were much worse. Jews were bereaved of their citizenship, and violation usually led to death sentence.
Just as Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union invaded neutral countries, used forced labor and murdered civilians. But that does not disprove the Holocaust.
Israel's armed forces have killed some tens of thousands of people since 1948. This number is dwarfed by the Holocaust's death toll. The IHR also compares the Nuremberg Laws to present-day laws of Israel. Most of these claims are lies, and they are all irrelevant.
Based on the aftermath of these and other atrocities (the Armenian genocide, Rwandan genocide etc) Holocaust deniers might claim that the Holocaust gets too much attention. Holocaust deniers are welcome to commemmorate these other atrocities, and be attentive to deniers.
 Nuremberg trials
Holocaust deniers might claim that the Nuremberg Trials were unfair. These claims do not disprove the Holocaust even if they were. The purpose of a trial is to evaluate the defendants' guilt in a crime, not to decide whether the crime has happened. They might complain that the judges came from Allied countries - and that the defendants could not expect a fair trial from their erstwhile enemies, and should be tried by peers from their own countries. This request is absurd - if a defendant could refuse a judge belonging to an enemy country, no spy or terrorist could ever be brought to justice. Also, judges of the German Reich would of course be biased for them, and thus unfair in the opposite direction.
 Claimed bias against Holocaust denial
Holocaust deniers might claim that governments and (Jewish) mass media use the Holocaust as propaganda, and oppress "revisionist" views. First, this is irrelevant. Second, the Holocaust deniers also have had their endorsements. Iran held a conference dedicated to Holocaust denial, and has managed to spread their word in many countries through books, radio and the Internet.
The term "The Holocaust" become popular around the 1970s, but that does not call the facts of the Nazis' deliberate murder of 11 million people, including 6 million Jews, into question.
Some Holocaust deniers use this fact in the reasoning "the Jews were not exterminated, therefore it was not a real genocide." This is of course overlooks the legal definition of genocide, which does not require the successful implementation of a plan.
 A claimed agenda
A news article in 1919 requested aid to starving European Jews in the wake of World War I and the Spanish flu. By coincidence, it mentioned "six million" European Jews, and used the word "holocaust." However, besides the phrases six million and holocaust, the article has nothing in common with the Holocaust which we know from World War II.
Revisionists might claim that the global Jewish community "declared war" on Germany in 1933, according to a headline in the London Daily Express on March 24, 1933, saying "Judea Declares War on Germany," describing a proposed Jewish boycott of German goods. That was not a literal war.
Some revisionists claimed that the Holocaust was made up to "blackmail" Western governments and German corporations for economic compensation. This is irrelevant, and can be proved wrong: Israel does not receive extraordinary aid from other countries. Reparations have been paid to survivors, not for people who were killed.
Deniers might also complain about survivors' profiteering on books and lectures. This is irrelevant as well, and many high-ranked Nazis earnt royalties from books after the war.
 General conspiracy theory/pseudo-history components
Holocaust deniers might point out that many other people in history have falsely confessed crimes after torture or other pressure, for instance those accused of witchcraft. However, the Holocaust is backed by technical evidence. Also, not a single one of the thousands of guards and officers has withdrawn their confessions, or provided a dissenting confession.
Holocaust deniers frequently repeat the cliché that victors write history. On a literal plane, this is false. Dönitz, Speer, and other high-ranked Nazis, wrote and published their memoirs. Re-telling the events of the war is a strong tradition in Germany.
Some history books might tell that Jews were deported to concentration camps, without mentioning the gas chambers or the death toll. Some do not use the term "Holocaust." However, a book is nothing more than the words of its author. If a textbook omits the Holocaust, we should go ask the author why. The most probably answer would be "lack of space."
 Questions to ask a Holocaust denier
- Did the Nazis exterminate gypsies, gays and anti-fascists too?
- If they did, the gas chambers and crematories were functional, despite Holocaust deniers' "proof" that they were useless.
- If they did not, these groups of people were also part of the conspiracy. How large can a conspiracy become?
- Very few Holocaust deniers/revisionists possess degrees in history. Not one of them has conducted graduate studies or academic research in history. Why not first pursue an academic career in 20th century history at any university in the Western world (without mentioning "revisionist" views), and then write a paper on the Holocaust? "Revisionists" would claim that such a paper would effectively end the scholar's promotion. But being the first Ph.D. in history to take this position would surely allow for a career as a "revisionist" writer and lecturer, wouldn't it?
- Himmler on the execution of Jews
- List of countries where Holocaust denial is legal
- Red herrings in Holocaust denial
 See also
- ↑ Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe. Doubleday, 1948
- ↑ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/denial
- ↑ In the "iconoclasts and curmudgeons" category can be found some astonishing examples from either left-wing or libertarian politics: James J. Martin, Paul Rassinier, Harry Elmer Barnes, L.A. Rollins, Samuel Konkin III, Laird Wilcox. Except for Rassinier and Barnes they are better known for other things and only incidentally linked to Holocaust denial, but neo-Nazis and anti-Semites like to use them as cover by promoting their names and work to show that denial spans the political spectrum. It doesn't; these are freak occurrences. This category could also include those like Norman Finkelstein who don't deny the Holocaust but rail against the "Holocaust industry," and Chomsky, who has made a point of defending deniers on free speech grounds.
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/
- ↑ Xfamily.org; Berg: The Holocaust hoax
- ↑ No, seriously, he really wrote that.
- ↑ http://www.holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/chemistry/not-the-science/
- ↑ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/may/03/david-stein-cole-holocaust-revisionist
- ↑ http://www.adl.org/combating-hate/domestic-extremism-terrorism/c/hutaree-militia-was-a-fan-of.html
- ↑ http://www.adl.org/main_extremism/turner_own_words.htm
- ↑ http://www.dw.de/british-bishop-fined-10000-euros-for-partial-holocaust-denial/a-5474764-1
- ↑ http://www.splcenter.org/blog/2012/11/29/new-aryan-compound-in-idaho-to-be-sold-off-in-january/
- ↑ http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2012/winter/aryan-nations-redux
- ↑ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/hungary-criminalises-holocaust-denial-1907713.html
- ↑ There is a reasonable case against making all genocide denial a crime. The Holocaust is well researched and it can easily be argued that deniers are either wilfully ignorant or liars. Other genocides are less well known ie. it is much more difficult for historians to estimate the death toll in the massacres of Native Americans, as Native Americans left no record of births and deaths or of causes of death. What proportion of deaths were intentional killings and what proportions were the results of infectious diseases introduced unintentionally? When denying or trivializing a case of genocide is a criminal offense, people who want to keep within the law become reluctant to discuss it, and this can hinder an impartial analysis.
- ↑ http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/holoprelude/jewishquestion.html
- ↑ http://youtu.be/yNk_osZWScw
- ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Obersalzberg_Speech
- ↑ http://www.codoh.com/irving/irvrevgoebb.html
- ↑ English translation
- ↑ http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/wansee-transcript.html
- ↑ http://www.hdot.org/trial/defense/pl1/19
- ↑ http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/ar/globocknik.html
- ↑ the report in question, translated to English
- ↑ http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/gasvan1.htm
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 http://www.hdot.org/en/trial/judgement/07.11
- ↑ http://www.library.yale.edu/testimonies/excerpts/annaw.html
- ↑ http://www.zchor.org/tuszdrea.htm
- ↑ http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005131
- ↑ http://www.soenke-neitzel.de/de/aktuell/
- ↑ http://nizkor.org/features/qar/qar20.html
- ↑ http://www.nytimes.com/1989/06/08/books/an-authenticated-edition-of-anne-frank-s-diary.html
- ↑ Other Holocaust deniers may claim that a concentration camp prisoner denying the Holocaust would have special credibility. However, Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora were labor camps in Germany proper, and not used for mass extermination as the Nazi camps in Poland were, so Rassinier was not witness to the exterminations. Given that he was imprisoned far from where the bulk of the killings took place, Rassinier would have less first-hand information about what happened to the Jews than people who lived in freedom in German-controlled territory.
- ↑ http://www.cwporter.com/b1.htm
- ↑ http://www.scrapbookpages.com/czechrepublic/theresienstadt/theresienstadtghetto/history/redcrossvisit.html
- ↑ Wikipedia: Theresienstadt (film)
- ↑ http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/essays&editorials/0809e5.html
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/places/germany/wannsee/wannsee-english.html
- ↑ http://nizkor.org/features/qar/qar15.html
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/features/denial-of-science/worldalmanac.html
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/features/qar/qar17.html
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/features/qar/qar16.html
- ↑ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/holocaust/peopleevents/pandeAMEX90.html
- ↑ http://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot.se/2011/07/challenge-to-supporters-of-revisionist.html
- ↑ http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/holocaust/resource_center/faq.asp
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/features/denial-of-science/four-million-01.html
- ↑ http://www.ushmm.org/education/foreducators/resource/pdf/artif6photo.pdf
- ↑ http://remember.org/jacobs/ShoeHeap.html
- ↑ http://www.hdot.org/en/trial/defense/van/1
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/features/techniques-of-denial/soap-01.html
- ↑ http://winstonsmithministryoftruth.blogspot.com/2011/09/no-scientific-proof-jews-exterminated.html?zx=f29ade4f69d5e8f9
- ↑ http://www.phdn.org/negation/pressac-leuchter.html
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/features/qar/qar44.html
- ↑ Testimony of Yehuda Bacon (Bakon). Trial of Adolf Eichmann trial. 7 June 1961. Session 68. Nizkor.
- ↑ http://www.holocaustbybullets.com/en/roadmap/
- ↑ So let's ignore millions of people dying! Yay!
- ↑ http://www.nizkor.org/features/techniques-of-denial/appendix-4-01.html
- ↑ Several of them are academics in other fields, but not in history.