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Dietary cholesterol myth

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The dietary cholesterol myth refers to the myth that dietary cholesterol increases the total blood cholesterol level and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The myth is promoted by vegans.

Mainstream consensus[edit]

Dietary cholesterol refers to the cholesterol found in food. It is found only in animal products. It is not necessary to get cholesterol from food as the human body makes more cholesterol than it needs.[1]

The mainstream medical consensus is that cholesterol in food only has a small effect on the bad (LDL) cholesterol in your blood.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Saturated and trans fats in food cause a much greater increase in LDL cholesterol and is a risk factor for heart disease.[3][8]

The United States Department of Agriculture, Dietary Guidelines For Americans 2015-2020, recommends limiting the intake of saturated fats to less than 10 percent of calories per day but does not limit consumption of dietary cholesterol.[9] Some foods that are rich in cholesterol are also high in saturated fat, so this may confuse people. The British Dietetic Association note that:

Although some foods contain cholesterol – such as shellfish, eggs and offal – this has much less effect on our blood cholesterol than the cholesterol we make in our body ourselves in response to a high saturated fat diet. Many cholesterol containing foods are relatively low in saturated fat and contain other useful vitamins and minerals. Only cut down on these foods if you have been advised to by your doctor or a dietitian. Cutting down on saturated fat in the diet is much more helpful than reducing dietary cholesterol.[10]

Cardiovascular disease[edit]

The consensus view from evidence-based medicine is that dietary cholesterol is not correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular or coronary heart disease (CHD).

A 2012 review noted that "existing epidemiological data have clearly demonstrated that dietary cholesterol is not correlated with increased risk for CHD".[11]

A 2014 review noted that "clinical studies point out that dietary cholesterol does not increase heart disease risk since the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio does not change or is improved due to increases in HDL-C associated with increased dietary cholesterol."[12]

A 2015 review that examined 40 studies noted that "dietary cholesterol was not statistically significantly associated with any coronary artery disease."[13]

A 2018 review, noted that "the current literature does not support the notion that dietary cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease in healthy individuals. However, there is an ample evidence that saturated fatty acids and trans-fats increase cardiovascular disease risk. The fact that dietary cholesterol is common in foods that are high in saturated fatty acids might have contributed to the hypothesis that dietary cholesterol is atherogenic."[14]

Proponents[edit]

Vegans[edit]

Vegans are the main proponents of the dietary cholesterol myth. For example, Michael GregerWikipedia's W.svg claims that "blood cholesterol levels are clearly increased by eating dietary cholesterol. In other words, putting cholesterol in our mouth means putting cholesterol in our blood."[15]

Conspiracy theorist Mic the Vegan claims that the food industry utilize "tricks" to manipulate science into concluding dietary cholesterol doesn't raise total blood cholesterol.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Cholesterol. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
  2. Dietary fats, dietary cholesterol and heart health. "Cholesterol in food has only a small effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL or bad) cholesterol. Saturated and trans fats in food causes a much greater increase in LDL cholesterol. Therefore it is alright to include eggs as part of a healthy balanced diet that is low in saturated fat."
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cholesterol in food. National Heart Foundation of Australia. "Cholesterol in food only has a small effect on the level of cholesterol in your blood."
  4. Is the Cholesterol in Your Food Really a Concern?. Penn Medicine. "It has long been a common myth that cholesterol consumed in foods, called dietary cholesterol, impacts the level of cholesterol in your body. Well, consider that myth busted."
  5. High cholesterol food. Heart UK. "Some foods contain cholesterol, but surprisingly they don’t make a big difference to the cholesterol in your blood."
  6. Panel suggests that dietary guidelines stop warning about cholesterol in food. Harvard Medical School. "There’s a growing consensus among nutrition scientists that cholesterol in food has little effect on the amount of cholesterol in the bloodstream."
  7. Foods with high cholesterol to avoid and include. Medical News Today.
  8. See article on Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease.
  9. https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf
  10. Cholesterol. British Dietetic Association.
  11. Fernandez M, L. (2012). Rethinking dietary cholesterol. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15 (2): 117-121.
  12. Fernandez, Maria Luz; Andersen, Catherine J.(2014). Effects of dietary cholesterol in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Clinical Lipidology 9:6: 607-616.
  13. Berger, Samantha; Raman, Gowri; Vishwanathan, Rohini; Jacques, Paul F; Johnson, Elizabeth J. (2015). Dietary cholesterol and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 102 (2): 276-294.
  14. Soliman, Ghada A. (2018). Dietary Cholesterol and the Lack of Evidence in Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 10 (6): 780.
  15. The Effects of Dietary Cholesterol on Blood Cholesterol. Michael Greger.
  16. "Eating Cholesterol Doesn't Raise Cholesterol" Debunked. Mic the Vegan.