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The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) is the oldest continuing civil rights organization that works on behalf of African Americans. The NAACP was founded in 1909 in the United States, primarily to push for the criminalization of lynching. Since then, it has had many successes, particularly in the fight against segregation, when the NAACP lawyer, and later Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall argued that separate could never be equal. 
Today, the NAACP does a lot of good at the local level, running scholarships and helping give national attention to local issues. For example, the NAACP published a study documenting white nationalist elements of the Tea Party movement (TeaPartyNationalism.com). Unfortunately, Tea Party leader Mark Williams did not address the report but rather decided to attack the messenger with racial undertones, ultimately making a fool of himself.