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The Nuremberg trials is the collective description for the prosecution of high-ranking Nazi officials for gross crimes committed during World War II. They are named after the German city of Nuremberg, which was chosen as the site for the trials because of its symbolic importance as a center of Nazi propaganda and the site of major party rallies.
In 1942, the four major Allied powers (the USSR, USA, UK and France) had already reached an agreement to eventually punish Nazi war criminals, and after the end of the war, they jointly established the International Military Tribunal (IMT) as a body to conduct the trials, with each providing judges and prosecutors. They eventually settled for trying a total of 24 members of the Nazi leadership, of whom 21 actually appeared in court, with the most prominent being Hermann Göring. Several other members of the highest tier of Nazi leadership, among them Hitler himself, Heinrich Himmler and Joseph Goebbels, could not be tried because they had already committed suicide before or shortly after the end of the war. Charges brought by the prosecution centered around four main points:
- Crimes against peace, the planning and waging of wars of aggression
- War crimes
- Crimes against humanity, most notably the Holocaust
- Conspiracy to commit one or more of the above mentioned acts
This allowed the tribunal to indict the Nazi leadership for the full range of German atrocities, including starting numerous separate unprovoked wars, the systematic extermination of civilians both on and off the battlefield, and the mistreatment of POWs. The conspiracy charge allowed for the trial of persons who had not directly issued orders that led to these crimes but had participated in pre-war planning to commit them. A total of eleven defendants were sentenced to death, with seven receiving prison sentences of varying lengths, and three being acquitted. Göring committed suicide before his actual execution. This only covers the main trial; numerous other proceedings were brought against lower-ranking Nazi officials and a much greater number of civilians and military officers who were complicit in Nazi crimes.
The major defendants
- Martin Bormann: Personal secretary to Adolf Hitler and chief of the Nazi Party Chancellery, Bormann controlled all access to the Führer and was thus one of the most de facto powerful men in the Reich. Bormann was not just a rabid anti-Semite, but was also one of the loudest anti-Christians in the Reich. He declared Nazism and Christianity "irreconcilable" in 1941, and urged Hitler to persecute the Catholic Church when it protested the eugenics program. He vanished about a week before Germany's surrender and so was tried in absentia. He was sentenced to death, but the sentence proved moot: after a long manhunt with many false leads, the West German government found his remains in West Berlin in 1972. Further testing in 1998 conclusively proved that the remains were indeed Bormann's. He most likely bit a cyanide capsule shortly after fleeing the bunker.
- Karl Dönitz: Leader of the German navy. Dönitz was named Hitler's successor and served for about three weeks the head of state of the Third Reich (or what was left of it), which he pretended to govern from its provisional capital in Flensburg. Dönitz was a stauncher Nazi than most naval officers were, but he was never an especially important political figure, and his appointment as head of state was mainly due to the fact that Hitler believed that the Heer, the Luftwaffe, and the SS had already betrayed him, which left only the Kriegsmarine to be trusted. He was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment, and died a free man in 1980. He claimed to have known nothing of the Holocaust, and went to his grave unrepentant about his role in the Third Reich.
- Hans Frank: Governor-General of occupied Poland, personal lawyer to Hitler. Frank ruled the Generalgouvernement, i.e. the chunk of Poland that Germany had not annexed outright. The Treblinka, Sobibór, Bełżec, and Mazdanek death camps thus fell under his jurisdiction, as did the Warsaw Ghetto and other killing fields. The Generalgouvernment was effectively an extreme apartheid state with Poles excluded from the government and forced to live on starvation-level rations, while Jews were marked for immediate slaughter. Polish culture was all but erased, and even the name "Poland" was banned from public life. The ultimate goal was to exterminate all upper- and middle-class Poles in the region, annex it into Grossdeutschland, and use the survivors as serfs for the German settlers, to be exterminated once their labor was no longer needed. A minority of "desirable" Polish children would have been kidnapped and Germanized. Frank issued written orders calling for the extermination of Jews in the most explicit language possible, but claimed that his words had to be looked at "in their context." He also pled ignorance of the existence of the four SS extermination camps that operated in his fiefdom. The court called bullshit on this, and sentenced Frank to hang. He showed, or affected, remorse for his actions, and converted to Catholicism on death row. For what it's worth, Frank's own son Niklas has dismissed his father's apparent remorse as an act, depicting Hans Frank as a cowardly, vindictive, histrionic man who only wanted the history books to depict him more kindly than they would his co-defendants.
- Wilhelm Frick: Interior Minister from 1933 to 1943, and Protector of Bohemia and Moravia from 1943 to 1945. Frick committed many of his crimes before the official outbreak of World War II in Europe. He was responsible for the Enabling Act of 1933, which gave Hitler the legal power to ruler by fiat, and co-authored the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, which purged Jews from German public life. He also helped to implement the T4 euthanasia program, and served as Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia from 1943 to 1945. Frick refused to testify on his own behalf in court. He was sentenced to death and hanged on October 16, 1946.
- Hans Fritzsche: Broadcaster and voice-double for the deceased Joseph Goebbels, the hapless Fritzsche was a relative nobody who was tried alongside the likes of Hermann Göring primarily because the Allies wanted to punish someone for the Nazi propaganda machine. Fritzsche was captured by Soviet soldiers in Berlin on May 2, 1945 and was transferred to Lubyanka Prison in Moscow, where the Soviets tortured him into signing a confession and then sent him to Nuremberg. American journalist William Shirer observed that "no-one in the courtroom, including Fritzsche, seemed to know why he was there". The case against Fritzsche was weak--he had never advocated the extermination of Jews, and had even tried to stop Julius Streicher from publishing Der Stürmer--and he was acquitted. He then stood trial before a German civil denazification court and was sentenced to nine years, but got compassionate release in 1950 for ill health. He died of cancer shortly thereafter.
- Walther Funk: Reich Economic Minister, president of the German central bank. Funk was responsible for stealing Jewish-owned assets for the Reich's treasury before and during World War II. The prosecution dubbed him "The Banker of Gold Teeth," in reference to the gold teeth extracted from concentration camp victims and melted down into bullion. He protested that he had been a minor figure of no importance, and Göring himself dismissed Funk's role in the regime. However, Funk's undeniable knowledge of the Holocaust earned him a life sentence. He was granted compassionate release in 1957, and died of complications from diabetes in 1960.
- Hermann Göring: Commander of the Luftwaffe, Reichsmarschall, and second highest-ranking Nazi party member until April 1945, Göring was officially the second most powerful man in the Third Reich almost up to its end. In April 1945, when Germany's defeat was all but certain, he asked Hitler to step down and transfer control of the Reich to himself; Hitler viewed this as a coup attempt and ordered Göring's arrest. In fact, Göring had already been gradually excluded from power as the war dragged on and his incompetence became clear. The Luftwaffe's failure to protect German cities from Allied air raids was a particular reason for his fall from favor. Göring used the war as a chance to enrich himself: He lived like a robber-baron in stolen castles surrounded by stolen artworks, drinking stolen liquors and feasting on stolen delicacies. He collected venereal diseases, grew mountainously fat while Germans suffered under rationing, and became addicted to morphine. Göring's intellect, however, was not to be underestimated: He sobered up in prison, defended himself rather well in the stand, and acted as a leader for his co-defendants. When video evidence of the Holocaust turned the trial against him, he grew indignant, complaining that he had never been personally anti-Semitic and blaming the genocide on Himmler, Hitler, Goebbels, and everyone else but himself. He was sentenced to death, with the court finding that he along with Hitler had been the most important instigator of German aggression in Europe. It was also shown that Göring had known about Kristallnacht in advance and used it as cover to steal treasures from Jews, and that he had allowed men under his command to murder 50 Allied POWs. Göring asked to be shot rather than hanged, as he felt firing squad was a more fitting death for a soldier. When this request was turned down, he committed suicide with a cyanide capsule in his cell.
- Rudolf Hess: Hitler's Deputy Führer from 1933 to 1941, Hess was for a time the third most powerful man in the Reich. Hess had been a close friend of Hitler's since the 1920s; Mein Kampf is dedicated to him and Emil Maurice. During the 1930s, Hess manipulated the German judicial system to ensure that Hitler's political opponents got harsh sentences, and also organized forced disappearances. He was the first of the defendants to be captured by the Allies, and under truly bizarre circumstances: he commandeered an airplane in May 1941 and flew solo and unannounced to Scotland, where he tried to negotiate a peace with Britain. The British were not amused, and locked him up for the duration of the war. Hess earned a reputation for eccentricity while a British captive: he was a severe hypochondriac, and was also interested in astrology, homeopathy, and occultism. He behaved even more erratically at Nuremberg and faked amnesia on the witness stand. He was sentenced to life in Spandau Prison. By 1966 he was the only inmate in the prison, and by the 1980s he was allowed virtual free reign of the place and enjoyed frequent family visits, as authorities began to pity the pathetic, deeply neurotic old man under their watch. All attempts at compassionate release, however, were blocked by Soviet intervention. He hanged himself in the prison garden house in 1987, aged 93.
- Alfred Jodl: High-ranking Wehrmacht officer, signed the German instrument of surrender. Jodl was primarily charged for signing the Commando and Commissar Orders, which authorized the summary executions of, you guessed it, commandos and commissars. He pled not guilty and was able to disprove some of the charges against him, like the claim that he had helped Hitler take power in 1933. The summary executions, however, were enough to see him hanged. His execution was nonetheless a controversial sentence--many other high-ranking officers who had committed equivalent crimes either got lighter sentences or were not charged at all--and in February of 1953 a West German denazification court posthumously overturned his conviction, before another West German court reversed the overturning and declared him really, truly, definitely guilty.
- Ernst Kaltenbrunner: Director of the Reich Main Security Office, Kaltenbrunner was the highest-ranking SS man tried at Nuremberg. Kaltenbrunner was a fearsome character who micromanaged the Nazi intelligence service. This micromanagement left no doubt that he was intimately familiar with the SS's worst atrocities. He still pled not guilty, cast himself as a helpless figurehead who had signed death warrants without knowing what they were, and passed all blame up the chain of command to Himmler, who was conveniently dead and unable to defend himself. But the evidence of guilt was overwhelming, and Kaltenbrunner was sentenced to death. He maintained in his last words that he had not known about the Holocaust. The photographs of him touring concentration camps suggested otherwise. Kaltenbrunner did one good deed: in 1945 he stopped August Eigruber, an even more fanatical Nazi, from destroying a cache of stolen artworks in the Altausee mines of Austria. Thus, Michelangelo's Madonna of Bruges, van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece, and several Vermeers survived the war--unlike Kaltenbrunner’s countless human victims.
- Wilhelm Keitel: De facto defense minister. Keitel exemplifies the tendency of dictatorships to promote not the most qualified man, but the man who kisses the leader's ass the most. Other German officers interviewed about Keitel gave fairly consistent reports: he had only modest talent for command, but groveled so relentlessly before Hitler that he won Hitler’s favor. Once in the war room, when the question of Soviet air power came up, Keitel--who was paying no attention and knew nothing of the subject--automatically announced: "You're quite right, My Führer". He was tried primarily for the Nacht und Nebel directive he had signed, which authorized the summary execution of resistance members in Nazi-occupied territories. Keitel claimed that he had merely been acting as a mindless instrument of Hitler's will (which was near enough to the truth). The court, however, found that when Keitel had taken initiative without Hitler's prodding, it had been to issue illegal orders of his own, and sentenced him to death. Keitel's hanging was supposedly botched: The trap door was too small and he hit his head during the drop. This caused profuse bleeding and broke the velocity of his fall, possibly causing him to die over several minutes by strangulation.
- Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach: CEO of Krupp Armaments, Krupp was nominally in charge of one of the German war machine's key industrial bases. However, a debilitating stroke in 1941 had left him as a senile figurehead while management of the firm fell to his son Alfried. Gustav was indicted in Alfried's place due to a clerical error, and when the prosecution tried to switch him out for Alfried the court declined, ruling the request too close to the trial date. Krupp was never tried, but remained under indictment until his death in 1950. Alfried was later tried separately, and wound up serving only three years of a 12-year sentence for using slave labor. Alfried was lucky: had he been tried at Nuremberg, the atmosphere in the courtroom might have gotten him hanged. Alfried died in 1967 denying all personal guilt throughout his live.
- Robert Ley: Head of the German Labor Front. Ley joined the Nazi party in 1925 and edited the anti-Semitic Westdeutsche Beobachter newspaper. He was another man who rose for his unquestioning obedience to Hitler, which outweighed his poor leadership skills and alcoholism. To keep the masses happy as rearmament drove up production quotas and froze wages, Ley created the Strength through Joy program, which provided working class families with luxurious getaways to places like Italy. Ley was never a major military player, but he was heavily implicated in slave labor, and knew the basic details of the Holocaust. Ley was shocked--shocked!--to learn that he would be tried as a criminal, and hanged himself in his cell three days after hearing his indictment. He left a short suicide note in which he called anti-Semitism a "mistake."
- Konstantin von Neurath: Foreign Minister from 1932 to 1938 and Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia from 1941 to 1943. Neurath was one of the few aristocrats in Hitler's inner circle: He had served as foreign minister in the last Weimar government, and Hitler kept him in office to legitimize to Nazi goals. Neurath was useful to Hitler early on, but was stripped of power in 1941 after Hitler decided that Neurath's rule in Bohemia and Moravia was too humane. Neurath kept his title, but all power was transferred to Reinhard Heydrich. Towards the war's end Neurath was in touch with the German resistance movement. Neurath was sentenced to 15 years in prison but was released after a heart attack in 1954, and died two years later at 83.
- Franz von Papen: Vice-Chancellor under Hitler from 1933 to 1934, and the defendant who least deserved his indictment. Like Neurath, Papen was a conservative, Catholic, aristocratic holdover from Hindenburg’s era, and like most members of his social class he hated Hitler. On June 17, 1934, Papen set off a full-blown constitutional crisis with a public speech in which he called for the restoration of civil liberties, denounced the Brownshirts' thuggery, and accused Hitler of using the fear of Bolshevism as a pretext for imposing a Bolshevik-style regime on Germany. Goebbels tried to suppress the speech's publication and Papen threatened to resign in turn, prompting a furious President Hindenburg to order Hitler to reinstate Papen or else face a military coup. Hitler realized from this that he needed to appease the army, and accordingly killed much of the SA leadership, along with select influential Germans who opposed him. Papen was spared, but several of his associates were murdered and he was placed under house arrest before being shuffled off to serve as ambassador to Austria until 1938, after which he was made ambassador to Turkey and forgotten. The Nazis toyed with assassinating Papen and framing a convenient scapegoat to justify their annexation of Austria, but his high social status saved him. The prosecution claimed that Papen had been instrumental in annexing Austria, but the case against him was weak and he was acquitted. A West German denazification court still sentenced Papen to eight years of hard labor, but he successfully appealed and was released in 1949. He became an early supporter of the European Union and a moderately successful author. He died in 1969, aged 89.
- Erich Raeder: Grand Admiral, commanded the Kriegsmarine until 1943. Raeder was around long before the Nazi party came to power, and took part in failed military Putsch in 1920. Raeder was instrumental in modernizing the German navy for World War II, but was sacked by Hitler in 1943: the surface fleet, with which Raeder was most strongly associated, had been doing poorly, while Dönitz's U-boats were performing more impressively. Raeder and Hitler remained cordial, and Raeder acted as a sort of commissar to the navy, watching out for officers whose loyalty to Hitler was weak. Raeder was sentenced to life imprisonment--despite his stated preference to be executed--for conspiracy, crimes against peace, and war crimes, but was released due to poor health in 1950. He died in 1960 at 84.
- Joachim von Ribbentrop: Ambassador to Britain from 1936 to 1938, namesake of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and Foreign Minister from 1938 to 1945, Ribbentrop was yet another toady who rose to power because his sheer blind obedience to Hitler outshone the fact that he was, in Göring’s words, “a stupid ass.” Descriptions of Ribbentrop from those who knew him well are remarkably consistent: he was vain, insecure, lazy, unimaginative, rude, shallow, and astonishingly stupid for a man with his responsibilities. An old schoolteacher remembered him as "the most stupid in his class, full of vanity and very pushy"; Göring urged Hitler to find a new ambassador; and Ribbentrop's former underlings, when interviewed, have all said that he was an exceptionally unpleasant boss, and that his vanity, stupidity, and bad manners made him a laughing stock in London. Ribbentrop ludicrously overestimated the power and ambition of the British aristocracy, believing that it was a cabal of right-wing power brokers who ruled from the shadows, rather than a club of wealthy geriatrics preoccupied with foxhunting, booze, and gossip. He interpreted offhanded British politeness from a few peers as signs that Britain's secret government was on his side, and completely ignored the coldness he got from actual government ministers. In March 1940 U.S. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles, while on a fact-finding mission to Europe, wrote to FDR that "Ribbentrop has a completely closed mind [and] a very stupid mind. ... I have rarely seen a man I disliked more". On the witness stand Ribbentrop flatly denied charges that he had bullied the Czechoslovakian government into letting the Wehrmacht march into Prague. "What further pressure could you put on the head of a country except to threaten him that your army would march in and your airforce would bomb his capital?" demanded the prosecutor. "War, for instance," Ribbentrop replied.. He was found guilty on all four counts and sentenced to death. He was the first of the defendants to be hanged.
- Alfred Rosenberg: Reich Minister for the Occupied Territories from 1941 until 1945, Rosenberg was a rare Nazi intellectual and had a major influence on Hitler's thinking. A racialist and a quasi-mystic, Rosenberg dreamed up Positive Christianity as a way to make Christianity more compatible with Nazism. To no surprise, Positive Christianity did away with all "Jewish" aspects of Christianity, which didn’t leave an awful lot behind. Rosenberg was a major proponent of expanding German Lebensraum, and thus helped provide an ideological causus beli for the invasions of the USSR and Norway. For this, he was sentenced to death. Rosenberg’s writings and beliefs resemble a sort of forerunner to the neoreactionary movement: rambly, bizarre, pretentious and bigoted nonsense that bespeaks a cartoonishly puffed-up ego, a persecution complex, and a total lack of empathy.
- Fritz Sauckel: General Plenipotentiary for Labour Deployment, Sauckel bore primary responsibility for the Nazis' use of slave labor. Sauckel tried to blame Speer, his superior, for the abuses that occurred under his watch, while also arguing that the abuses had been exaggerated. The latter claim was thoroughly disproven, and Sauckel was found to have had more direct authority over slave labor than Speer did. He was sentenced to death and hanged.
- Hjalmar Schacht: Economist, President of the Reichsbank from 1933 to 1938, and Economic Minister from 1934 to 1937, Schacht was originally a liberal politician who shifted rightwards in the 1920s due to Germany’s economic misery. Schacht never joined the Nazi Party, but--unlike Von Papen and Von Neurath--he undeniably helped the Nazis take power: he fundraised for Hitler in the 1920s, and in 1932 he organized a petition of industrial leaders asking Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor. In office, Schacht organized a successful New Deal-style public works program, which included the construction of the Autobahn. However, he grew increasingly disturbed by Hitler’s antisemitism. As early as 1934 he had contact with the German opposition, he denounced Streicher in 1935, and after Kristallnacht he urged Hitler to let the Jews emigrate to Britain. By the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1938, Schacht had given up hope of making Hitler see reason and tried to organize a coup. This coup never left the planning stage, and the Gestapo intimidated Schacht into retiring in 1941. After Claus von Stauffenberg’s 1944 attempt to assassinate Hitler, Schacht was summarily arrested and shipped to Dachau. The Soviets still wanted to convict Schacht, but the British got their way and he was acquitted of all charges. He died of natural causes in 1970 at age 93.
- Baldur von Schirach: Head of the Hitler Youth from 1931 to 1940. Schirach was the youngest Nuremberg defendant and the only one to have been a front-line combatant in World War II, having been decorated for valor during the invasion of France in 1940. He also organized the evacuation of 5 million children from cities threatened by Allied air raids. Later that year he was appointed governor of Vienna, where he oversaw the deportation of 65,000 Viennese Jews in 1942. As the war went on Schirach seems to have developed a conscience, and he criticized the unlivable conditions being imposed on conquered Slavic peoples and what was left of European Jewry. For this he was unofficially excluded from power in 1943. Schirach denounced Hitler in the dock and pled ignorance of the Holocaust. He was acquitted of crimes against peace, but convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 20 years in Spandau Prison. Upon release in 1966 he published his memoirs but otherwise lived in relative obscurity, dying in 1974.
- Arthur Seyss-Inquart: Puppet ruler of Austria for two days in 1938, governor of the Occupied Dutch Territories from 1940 to 1945. Seyss-Inquart was responsible for persecuting Dutch Jews, executing dissidents, and drumming up slave labor. In 1941 he oversaw the resettlement of the Netherlands’s Jews to the Amsterdam Ghetto, and later directed their deportation eastwards to the death camps. Of 140,000 Dutch Jews, 110,000 perished in the Holocaust; this was the most thorough extermination of any Western European Jewish community outside of Germany. In the war’s last days, Seyss-Inquart wavered between hawk and dove. On the one hand, during the Dutch famine of 1944 he accepted a humanitarian ceasefire with the Allies in specific areas so that aircraft could deliver food to starving civilians. On the other, he wanted Germany to fight to the end long after the military knew it was hopeless. He realized even before Germany’s surrender that he would almost certainly be executed, and he was correct: the Tribunal sentenced him to hang. Upon hearing his sentence he remarked, “it’s all right.”
- Albert Speer: Hitler’s BFF and favorite architect, and Armaments Minister from 1942 to 1945. Speer was a logistical genius without whom Germany probably would have buckled under much sooner than it did: he managed to keep military manufacturing going even after the Allies had obtained total air superiority in 1943 and could bomb the German heartland at will. He was extremely close with Hitler but pled ignorance of the Holocaust, which is unlikely: in December 1943 he visited a rocket factory that used concentration camp labor, where 5.7% of the workforce had died from ill treatment in that month alone. In February 1945 he disobeyed Hitler’s orders to destroy German civilian infrastructure, thus saving many civilian lives; this act may have been what spared him from the gallows. He was sentenced to 20 years in Spandau Prison, and released in 1966. He spent his later years giving interviews, including one in the June 1971 issue of Playboy in which he admitted, regarding the Holocaust, that "If I didn't see it, then it was because I didn't want to see it." He died in 1981.
- Julius Streicher: Nazi Party Gauleiter of Franconia from 1922 to 1940 and founder-publisher of Der Stürmer, Streicher’s nickname was “Jew-Baiter No. 1.” He started peddling anti-Semitic screeds in 1919, and joined the Nazi Party in 1921 when it was still a fringe group. He was one of the least powerful figures tried at Nuremburg, but perhaps the most revolting. Like Fritzsche, Streicher was tried as a proxy for Goebbels. Unlike Fritzsche, Streicher was scum of the lowest order. He accused Jews of everything from pimping Aryan girls, to causing the Great Depression, to molesting German children, to using the blood of Christian babies in rituals He quote mined the Talmud and Torah for passages that could be used to cast Jews as evil, clannish, and unclean. His articles often were textual porn about Jewish men performing grotesque sex acts on blonde, blue-eyed German Mädchen; this made Der Stürmer quite popular with young German men. He also published three children’s books about the Evil Jew, including Der Giftpiltz (The Toadstool), a staggeringly vile book which the morbidly curious can read online. Streicher was not directly involved in the Holocaust, but the prosecution argued that his rhetoric was so extreme that it constituted incitement to murder. He also had a major hand in Kristallnacht. Streicher practically did the prosecution’s job himself, since he used all of his time in the witness stand to deliver more of the anti-Semitic rants that had gotten him indicted. His fellow defendants, Göring in particular, despised him, and he was the only one to neither invoke the Nuremberg defense nor affect remorse. He was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to death. He was undignified to the end: while most of the condemned expressed shame or made banal ‘God bless Germany’ statements on the gallows, Streicher abused the Jews as the noose went around his neck. According to several eyewitnesses, his hanging was botched: he thrashed so much that the drop failed to snap his neck, and the hangman had to go under the scaffold to finish him off. He was the only defendant who claimed abuse by his jailers: he was guarded by black GIs, who were not fond of the demented racist under their charge. While we at RationalWiki deplore torture, it is hard to summon any empathy for Streicher. Oh, and he was an anti-vaxxer. One guess why.
The so-called Nuremberg Principles, the basis for the charges against the defendants, established a concrete catalog of acts that are forbidden under international law. The notion of crimes against peace was subsequently codified into the United Nations charter as the prohibition against wars of aggression. The trials itself set an important precedent for the actual conviction of war criminals and the leadership of aggressor states, and the introduction of extempore simultaneous translation (translation into multiple languages while the original is being spoken, which was necessary to run an affair with four official languages and several others heard in testimony) was revolutionary. Today, it used at the meetings of the UN, the EU, the Canadian parliament, and various other governments, international organizations, etc.
The British Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Force killed an estimated 600,000 to 900,000 German non-combatants in the fire-bombing of German cities during the Second World War (e.g. Hamburg and Dresden). Despite that, Britain joined the United States, the Soviet Union and France in prosecuting senior German officials in the Nuremberg Trials at the end of the war. On the other hand, no charges were brought with regards to similar German tactics during their bombing campaign over Britain, in recognition of the fact that Britain had committed such atrocities too. Charges relating to the German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare were dropped in recognition of the fact that such a policy was also utilized by the Allies. And let's just not talk about The Bomb.
This does not mean that the moral authority and precedent established by the Nuremberg Trials have any less validity - it was truly a virtuous development in international relations to hold the leadership of a country responsible for heinous war crimes rather than collectively punishing the people. The western two-thirds of Germany was occupied by the three Western Allies following the Second World War and received direct humanitarian assistance and sovereign debts were canceled. Compare this with the treatment of the defeated Germans following the First World War where the German people were collectively punished in the form of reparations payments whilst their military leaders got off scot-free. On the other hand, beyond de-Nazification, many lower level German war criminals escaped punishment. Business executives, bureaucrats, academics, police officers and soldiers with a lot of blood on their hands got to die in their beds rather than at the end of a rope. This was made worse by the fact that many of these same people ended up in positions of power to deny victims of the Nazi era a fair compensation or even just their old job back. In one particularly glaring example, the widow of Roland Freisler successfully managed to get a widow's pension, arguing he would have carried on as a judge had he lived. Given the many "unbroken biographies" of quite high ranking Nazis this assertion is most likely true. The protests of 1967/68 that happened in most of Europe, including West Germany, were in part fueled by the young generation protesting against the Nazi involvement of their parents.
As part of the proceedings, two documentaries were produced and exhibited as evidence. English language versions of these films still survive and are available for viewing and download. WARNING: The footage from the then-recently liberated concentration camps is incredibly graphic.
Footage from the Internet Archive
- Nazi Concentration Camps - Directed by George Stevens
- The Nazi Plan - Directed by Edgar Ray Kellogg
- Another film, Death Mills (German title: Todesmuehlen) directed by Billy Wilder, would be widely shown throughout Germany and Austria after the war
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg
- USHMM: list of the defendants
- University of Missouri-Kansas City: The Nuremberg Trials
- USHMM: Who else was brought to trial?
- German officers during the war, apart from the SS, were fairly apolitical as a whole.
- For ethnic Poles like Frédéric Chopin who were too prominent to wipe from the historical record, the Nazis fabricated German pedigrees.
- Thus more or less ending Polish's existence as a written language
- "The International Military Tribunal for Germany - Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 12". The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy. Yale Law School Lillian Goldman Law Library. TMWC, XII, p. 20.
- Rosenbaum, Ron (1998). Explaining Hitler, New York: Random House, p. 25.
- Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York City: Simon and Schuster, 1960.
- http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/467499/Has-secret-Nazi-treasure-been-hidden-in-this-beautiful-lake-for-70-years It doesn’t even begin to count as atonement for everything else he did.
- Guido Knopp (1998). Hitler's Warriors: Wilhelm Keitel
- William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (Touchstone Edition) (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990)
- Blandford (2001). SS Intelligence: The Nazi Secret Service, p. 135.
- The von in his name did not indicate any aristocratic roots; he simply persuaded an aristocratic aunt-by-marriage to adopt him at age 35.
- Weitz, John. Hitler's Diplomat: The Life And Times Of Joachim von Ribbentrop. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1992.
- Rees, Laurence The Nazis: A Warning from History, New York: New Press, 1997
- Waddington, Geoffrey. "'An Idyllic and Unruffled Atmosphere of Complete Anglo–German Misunderstanding': Aspects of the Operation of the Dienststelle Ribbentrop in Great Britain 1934–1939". History, Volume 82, 1997, pp. 44–74.
- Schacht, Hjalmar. The Magic of Money. Trans. by Paul Erskine. London: Oldbourne (1967). page 59
- Fest, Joachim (1999), Speer: The Final Verdict, translated by Ewald Osers and Alexandra Dring, Harcourt.
- http://research.calvin.edu/german-propaganda-archive/thumb.htm. If you read this, treat yourself to a scalding-hot shower afterwards and disinfect your computer.
- http://research.calvin.edu/german-propaganda-archive/sturm28.htm When you look at what he published, it’s hard to disagree.
- Randall L. Bytwerk: (2001). Julius Streicher: Nazi Editor of the Notorious Anti-Semitic Newspaper Der Stürmer. Cooper Square Press.
- Including one loan Germany had forced the Greek government to grant Germany...
- One particularly nasty - and high ranking - Nazi judge who died in an air raid
- He also directed the short film That Justice Be Done about the War Crimes Trials.
- Yes, the same Ray Kellogg who would later direct such B-movies as Attack of the Killer Shrews and The Giant Gila Monster, but also co-directed the John Wayne vehicle The Green Berets.
- He would later direct Stalag 17 and Witness for the Prosecution.