Bronze-level articleThe Spirit Science

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The Spirit Science is a passive-aggressive cult website created by Jordan Duchnycz[1] (who goes also under the name Jordan David Pearce[2]), a supporter of psychedelic mushroom consumption instead of tobacco[3] native of Winnipeg, Canada. The site promotes a wide range of New Age woo including but not limited to astral projection, chakras, crystal woo, orgone energy, quantum woo and sacred geometry. There is also a YouTube channel or two loaded with the same crazy stuff, perhaps best known for an hour-long animation called "The Human History Movie", better known under its reuploaded clickbait title, "Our history is not what we think!". Spirit Science bears a lot of resemblance to theosophy.


[edit] Beliefs

It would likely be easier to list the beliefs the Spirit "Science" does not adhere to. The Spirit "Science" is a conglomeration of nearly every piece of pseudoscience and pseudohistory you have ever heard of. The people of The Spirit "Science" believe that Martians came to Atlantis and began ruling the human population of Atlantis. They also believe that a part of the pyramids is a space "warship" that was used in 1989 to make all the greys get sick causing them to flee earth, and that there is a giant underground city under Egypt near the ship.[4]

Jesus Christ went to Tibet to become a Buddhist and return as a wise man and spiritual leader[5]. Also, his birth was planned by the Egyptian god Thoth[wp] (though he wasn't actually an Egyptian god, but the King of Atlantis according to the Emerald Tablets, whatever they are) in order for humanity to achieve "Christ Consciousness" in 13,000 years, whatever that means.

Sacred geometry is for real, and determines much of biology. The heart creates a doughnut-shaped energy field around the body, and everyone has a red spinning wheel in their anus.

A tunnel in Romania goes to Egypt. And there are 13 families that are descendants of the Martians that invaded Atlantis and are now secretly controlling the world and are essentially the Illuminati, except that the Illuminati are no longer the true (good, human) Illuminati, but actually a Catholic corruption of the Illuminati. And that Jews are aliens. Or from the future.[6] No, really.[7]

[edit] Conflicts with actual science

Warning icon orange.svg This page contains too many unsourced statements, and needs to be improved.

The Spirit Science could use some help. Please research the article's assertions. Whatever is credible should be sourced, and what is not should be removed.

[edit] Logic and math

These are the ideas that might be wrong in multiple areas but are so counter-intuitive that no expertise in a specific area of knowledge is needed to know they're wrong.

  1. The only reasons that prohibit the development of perpetual-motion devices, flying cars, panacea and giant trees are economic ones.[8]
  2. "One point five million" is written as "1.5,000,000".
  3. If a person is bullied, it's his or her own fault. If he or she wasn't so insecure, he wouldn't be bullied.[9]
  4. The accuracy of the Mayan calendar surpasses even modern-day technology.

[edit] Reality

Spirit Science often promotes belief on the existence of supernatural forces capable of altering reality in fundamental ways (a.k.a. magic); as well as believing that they’re either inherent to or can be controlled at will by some people (psychics, Indigo children, telepaths…).

  1. Magic is real.[10]
  2. Psychics, such as indigo children, are real.[9]
  3. Angels are real and the Hebrew archangel Metatron[wp] was 16.8 meters tall (55 feet).
  4. Reincarnation is real.
  5. Chakras exist and interact with our feelings.
  6. You can leave your body when you dream.
  7. Crop circles are made by extraterrestrials, instead of people.
  8. Everything Edgar Cayce says is true and he receives data about polar shifts through channelling supra-dimensional beings. Cayce also caught the attention of the scientific community, especially geologists (yeah right…).[11]
  9. China has more super-psychic children with telekinesis and other supernatural powers.
  10. In ancient times, all humans used to have telepathic abilities and did not use writing. Today, aboriginal Australians retain this ability.[12]
  11. We have two-dimensional spirits in our body.
  12. The Earth is alive, and also has chakras.
  13. Drunvalo Melchizedek is a reliable source of information.
  14. The magnetic field of the Earth magically affects how we think.
  15. There is a giant protector airship that flies through space, powered by our emotions (even though wouldn't that make it a spaceship?).
  16. Male "energy" is "left-brained" and thus rational and practical while female "energy" is "right brained" and thus more creative and emotional.[13]
  17. Jewish people are a extraterrestrial species.

[edit] Physics and astronomy

Many of the ideas exposed have actually been made up by either Nassim Haramein (physics crank) or Jordan Duchnycz himself.

  1. Perpetual-motion machines are possible.
  2. Non-radioactive crystals emit an undetectable form of radiation.
  3. The vacuum is full of magical Star-of-David-like complexes made up by tetrahedrons.
  4. Superluminal communication is possible because of the concept of infinity.
  5. The Milky Way is torus-shaped.
  6. The "crystal planetary grid" produces the bluish glow of the Earth from space.
  7. Photons have a nucleus.
  8. The moon is a hollow, artificially created spacecraft.[14]
  9. The pyramids were built from the top to bottom, and not the other way.

[edit] Chemistry and biochemistry

It is implied that chemistry does not know many of the properties of water and DNA has magical properties.

  1. Thoughts are magical.
  2. It is unknown why water expands when it freezes.[15]
  3. Clusters of water molecules can store magical information, with proves homeopathy.[15]
  4. Water is able to remember things.[15]
  5. Alchemy is a valid science and was used by ancient prehistoric civilizations.
  6. The four "elements" (fire, water, wind and earth) combine to create the chemical elements, and not the other way.
  7. Masaru Emoto is right, emotions affect the beauty of the crystals formed when water freezes.[15][9]
  8. DNA is the "physical manifestation of the soul".
  9. Only 22 codons exist in DNA.
  10. DNA and proteins are made of water.
  11. The aether exists.
  12. Something called the “Emerald Tablets” exist, made of an imperishable alchemic material.

[edit] Biology and medicine

Jordan Duchnycz is a strong advocate for alternative medicine.

  1. Crystals can magically improve mental and body health.
  2. Putting a crystal in a glass of water makes it more healthy.[15]
  3. The brain is not responsible for consciousness, but a "crystal planetary grid".
  4. Western countries have more children with ADHD who are just indigo children that have more codons.
  5. The cytoplasmic membrane of the zygote is the skin of the future baby.[16]
  6. The heart generates a magnetic field around itself, which is affected by emotional state.
  7. Martians had sex with Atlantean humans and produced hybrids (even though no Atlanteans or Martians exist and even if they did, they most likely would have a rather hard time shagging and producing progeny due to being from two different planets and thus completely different species).[12]
  8. Consuming psilocybin mushrooms is beneficial to quit smoking.[3]

[edit] Natural and human history

Jordan Duchnycz exposed many, many fictional events which are apparently worth discussion in the "Human History" movie.

  1. When a polar shift happens, the world undergoes a period of three days of complete darkness.
  2. The magnetic poles used to be in Hawaii.
  3. A polar shift means that the Earth literally flips upside down.
  4. 13,000 years ago, all of North America was underwater.
  5. Lemuria existed as an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean.
  6. Atlantis existed.[11]
  7. The Dogon people, an African tribe, received astronomical data from extraterrestrials.[17]
  8. Jesus of Nazareth somehow went to Tibet for 18 years and became a spiritual master.
  9. Osiris was an Atlantean who became immortal after being quartered and reassambled.[12]
  10. The Sphinx of Giza is 5.5 million years old (more than the Australopithecus africanus).
  11. Atlantis existed and humans originated there.
  12. The crystal skulls are real and bona fide occult/extraterrestrial objects. Besides, the Mayans were immigrants from Atlantis.
  13. Mars was exactly like Earth less than a million years ago.
  14. An extraterrestrial civilization existed on Mars.
  15. Martians invaded Atlantis.[11]
  16. Martian-descent human hybrids now control the world as the Illuminati.[12]
  17. Thoth was the king of Atlantis and exists today, as a supra-dimensional being.
  18. Where Akhenaton came from is unknown.[12]
  19. Thoth gave his knowledge to Drunvalo Melchizedek.
  20. The grey aliens tried to take over the Earth in 1989; however a South American woman took control of a magic airship and defeated them.
  21. The Flood of Noah actually happened, but it was caused by the polar meltdown.
  22. There is a giant underground city below the Pyramids of Giza, all of which is covered up by the Egyptian government.
  23. The statues at Abu Simbel are built in 1:1 scale, because Egyptian Pharaohs were giants.
  24. The ankh[wp] was a device to transmit vibrations to your body, instead of an Egyptian symbol of life or death.[12]

[edit] Themes

Spirit Science is composed of many repetitive pseudoscientific and pseudohistorical themes, which are based on claims from cranks, willful ignorance or completely made-up ideas. In the following texts, it's also shown why these ideas are wrong.

[edit] Alchemy

See the main article on this topic: Alchemy

Alchemy has been taken as a valid science in numerous occasions. For example, the Emerald Tablets, pseudohistorical gemstone recordings of Atlantis, were constructed through alchemical transmutation. They cannot be broken down or chemically attacked. [18][19]

Needless to say, these tablets violate many laws of chemistry and physics. First of all, elemental transmutation is only possible through nuclear reactions. Alchemy tried to convert common metals into precious ones through mere chemical reactions, something impossible since both atomic mass and number remain invariant.

Secondly, being actually made of emerald would make them vulnerable anyway. Emerald's Mohs hardness is between 7.5 and 8, and can be scratched with harder minerals such as corundum (hardness 9).[20] Being a crystal, emerald can chip and shatter with impacts and brutal temperature changes.[21]

[edit] Astrology

See the main article on this topic: Astrology

The belief that the relative position of astronomical bodies in the sky can cause involuntary changes in human behavior is widely promoted.[14][22][23] To a certain degree, there are no problems with this. Absence of sunlight can be depressive to many people and moonlight might have altered people's sleep cycles in the past, and thus their behavior.[24] But ultimately, the effect has to do with light, and not magic.

The problem arises when claiming that celestial bodies that are hard to see can affect our behavior, such as Mars or Saturn, which don't reflect enough light to affect any sleepcycle.

[edit] Chakras

See the main article on this topic: Chakra

In Hinduism, chakras are many points in the human body of immeasurable energy and human emotion. Jordan goes one step further as to claim that they both absorb and radiate electromagnetic radiation such as visible light and microwaves. This claim is beyond insane idiocy, because if chakras were radiating visible light, then we would as a consequence be glowing creatures. Besides, even if chakras only absorbed other forms of electromagnetic radiation, their existence would have been revealed long ago. For example, unexplainable dark spots would appear in an X-ray radiography.

[edit] Channeling

See the main article on this topic: Channelling

Channeling is a form of telepathic communication based on a complex set of sensory feelings.[18] While not being obvious at first, it is nonetheless the basis of Spirit Science. Most information comes from Drunvalo Melchizedek, who claims to have channeled information from Thoth, an immortal Atlantean leader. In other words, the veracity of Spirit Science is based on the solid fact (note sarcasm) that Drunvalo is not a lying bastard.

Apparently, all sentient are able to channel, but its efficiency depends on the receptor’s neurological capabilities. If this were true, we would expect channeling to be the easiest among humans, compared to other terrestrial creatures. However, telepathy experiments such as those of Ganzfeld have either shown flawed methodology been non-demonstrative of telepathy.

[edit] Crystals

See the main article on this topic: Crystals

It is repeatedly claimed that crystals are alive, possess magical properties and can heal people. Even though Jordan himself admits that they lack reproductive capabilities or human sapience, they are nonetheless alive and have willpower.[25]

Apparently, crystals can get tired of their owner and jump out of his or her pocket whenever they want. The fact that Jordan has crazy explanations as to why things get lost might be an indicative that he is losing his mind as well.

Another problem comes with the issue of healing properties. It does not work unless the person believes that it will, thereby making crystals a mere placebo. And placebos cannot cure anything, they just relieve some symptoms.

Anyway, crystals supposedly heal people by increasing the frequency of their auras, or some nonsense like that. As these forms of energy are undetectable by technology, this claim is neither falsifiable nor scientific.

[edit] DNA activation

Not even deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is safe from New Age woo.[26] Spirit Science claims that junk DNA has magical powers which can be unleashed through a process called activation.

Firstly, "junk DNA" or more appropriately, non-coding DNA, refers to parts of the genome which do not synthesize proteins, but synthesize transfer, ribosomal and regulatory RNAs for example.

Secondly, in biochemistry, activation refers to reactions such as peptide hydrolysis and phosphorylation that change the polypeptide sequence and protein conformation, thus altering enzymatic (catalytic) properties. For example, a hydrolytic protein is phosphorylated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum to incapacitate it from digesting other cell components. It is later activated through instantaneous dephosphorylation when arriving towards a more acidic environment such as lysosome, where it is needed. The important idea here is that biochemical activation cannot be controlled at will.

Furthermore, Spirit Science states that our DNA has a triple-helix still to be identified. This is also false since we know its structure through X-ray crystallography. A third polynucleotide strand very rarely appears in cells, because of its instability.[27]

[edit] Extraterrestrials

See the main article on this topic: Extraterrestrial

Many species depicted in ufology are believed to exist by Spirit Science, such as Sirians, Pleiadians, greys and Martians.

Sirians and Pleiadians are benevolent beings who are keen at channeling (telepathic communication).[18] In reality, intelligent life simply cannot exist around the Sirius and Pleiades group of stars. None of these stars is older than 200 million years and a large portion of their light is ultraviolet radiation, ionizing macromolecules necessary for life on any neighboring planet.[28][29] With that said, even unicellular life would have trouble arising around these stars in the first place.

Regarding grey aliens, apparently they nearly conquered us in 1989. Luckily, humankind was saved by a very good-natured Peruvian woman who gained control of a magical airship which made the aliens sick and forced them to leave Earth.[19] How this real-life Independence Day went unnoticed by the global population is never explained.

See section “Mars and Martians” for more information about another fictional species.

[edit] Free-energy

Spirit Science often makes claims that are inconsistent with thermodynamics. Jordan essentially believes that free-energy is unavailable due to economics. [8] Back to real life, the reasons go beyond that. The first law of thermodynamics states that the energy within a closed system stays constant; energy is neither created nor destroyed. This logically means that no machine can work indefinitely with a finite amount of energy.

Jordan Duchnycz apparently goes along with the views of the movie Thrive, in which free-energy is depicted as a mechanism for exploiting vacuum energy[wp]. Although vacuum energy actually exists and is the result of particles that are literally being created from and destroyed into nothing due to Heisenberg's energy-time uncertainty principle, there is no mechanism, even hypothetically, that could exploit this phenomenon. For this reason, an interpretation of vacuum energy as a property of empty space rather than capability might be more accurate for understanding it.

[edit] Mars and martians

According to the imaginative “Human History” movie, Martians were red humanoids with a thriving civilization on Mars less than a million years ago, when it was very Earth-like. However, they screwed everything up when an experiment altered their mindset, making them amoral, greedy and power-hungry. The resulting wars ultimately blew up their atmosphere, forcing them to seek a better neighborhood to live, Earth. [30] [11]

If anything of this fantasy was true, and Martians literally “blew up” their atmosphere, its surface wouldn’t only be plenty of fossils, but mummified corpses as well. Instantaneous exposure to near-vacuum would have boiled away water from the body of any living being, thereby preserving them. The destruction of the Martian atmosphere would not have resulted in the end of all life either. Apart from certain species of bacteria, extremophile lichen was able to survive on Martian conditions.[31]

Now, according to Jordan, the Martians that escaped that catastrophe settled on Earth. Gravity is 2.5 times stronger here, which would make walking problematic and falling fatal for the visitors.

Last but not least ludicrous, Martians not only survived Earth’s punishing gravity, but also managed to successfully mate with humans. It is improbable for aliens to look like us, but cross-breeding is genetically impossible. Besides, those Atlantians were presumably very, very open-minded to have sex with aliens.

[edit] The Moon

On December 25th, 2015, Jordan Duchnycz posted a video named “Secrets of the Moon”[14] along with his friend the “Atlantis King”.[32] Apparently, there is no plausible scientific explanation as to how the Moon came to be. Moreover, Jordan lies by saying that the leading scientific explanation is that a lonely planet hit Earth and bounced back becoming the Moon. Therefore, the Moon must be artificial, because wrong facts.

Physicists and astronomers are well-aware that astronomical bodies cannot bounce, because the impact is so inelastic that tremendous amounts of heat are released, melting both bodies. The actual scientific hypothesis[33] states that the ejected mantle material resulting from the collision of primeval Earth and a protoplanet named Theia coalesced gravitationally becoming the Moon. The small lunar core, similar composition and a slightly younger age of the Moon support this.

Another far-fetched belief is that the Moon is hollowed out because it ‘vibrated like a gong for hours’ when NASA crashed two modules onto it in November 1969. Of course, this results from vibrations propagating better in solids than in fluids. Besides, even if the Moon were artificially created and hollow, it would have collapsed upon itself long ago. There is no material able to withstand such mechanical stress.

The geology and composition of the lunar surface is somehow evidence for its artificiality. It is compared to an ‘impenetrable shell’ because all craters have the same depth, while in reality depths vary up to many kilometers. There is also the misunderstanding that uranium and neptunium are synthetic elements, while actually being naturally-occurring. In fact, uranium is mined for nuclear energy[34] and neptunium is a trace element resulting from the former's decay.[35]

[edit] Water

Water is implied to have supernatural properties. For example, Spirit Science thinks that Masaru Emoto is right: the feelings of people around affect the properties of water. Emoto has been criticized by the scientific community because he did not openly explain what his experiments consisted on to conclude that. He was even invited by James Randi to his One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge[wp] in 2003 to reproduce his experiments under laboratory conditions, but was reluctant to participate. This would be unexpected from a honest person willing to demonstrate the veracity of his work.

Additionally, there are also claims that water remains unexplained by chemistry. The following is a list of the claimed mysteries of water explained by science.

- Science cannot explain why water expands when it freezes. This phenomenon arises from hydrogen bonds and the shape of water molecules. When water freezes, lots of new bonds are made, but the shape of the molecule along along with its very high dipole moment force the molecules to take up more space.[36]

- Water has the highest surface tension. Liquid mercury has a much higher surface tension (0.486 N/m) than water (0.072 N/m).[37]

- Crystals need water to grow. Crystals just need a liquid medium and a long sedimentation or cooling time to grow.

- Water is an element. Water is a chemical compound, made of two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom.[38]

- Water is the only substance that can exist in the three states. Any substance can exist in those three states given the appropriate temperature and pressure, even CO2.

- Water that travels through pipelines is not healthy to drink. As long as we are not talking about sewage pipelines, treated water is safe to drink.

[edit] In response to criticism

The show already preemptively instructs to "neither believe nor disbelieve" its claims. The followers usually quote this when criticism arises. But smashing your rational capabilities so that you form no conclusions about the likelihood of claims is itself a problem, and it is also clear that these followers do believe the claims, often defending them.

The show has responded to another YouTube channel that voiced criticism. The response went on and on about how "I understand what you are going through" and stuff, without actually stating what that was. It was a kind of "horoscope"-style response to criticism, vague enough that the followers could imagine that it was on point.

[edit] Spirit Quest

Jordan Pearce also possesses another YouTube channel, of the same name. One of its playlists is called "Spirit Quest", which is some sort of diary Jordan uses to comment its travel through the USA in 45 videos. Number 18[39] is particularly remarkable, where Jordan infiltrates in a hospital, wears some scrubs and secretly records a surgical operation (without any kind of permission) only to later complain about modern hospitals using "technology" instead of crystals to cure people. He could have been arrested for taking hospital material, getting into a surgery room and recording an operation without authorization.

He did make a video later explaining that he was authorized for that, but considering his credibility...

[edit] So why do we care?

Fear, stress, anger, depression, marriage, bills, changes, debt, money, anxiety, loneliness, debt, medical problems and CHILDREN should not worry you if they make you feel uncomfortable. Don't even think about how to solve them!
Well, Jordan also espouses potentially harmful beliefs, such as the healing power of crystals and positive thinking (he once claimed that if you get sick it's because you made it happen with the power of your thoughts), and his YouTube channel has more than 450,000 followers (although it could be noted that not everybody who is subscribed to him actually believes what he's saying and subscribe more or less for a cheap laugh).

That's bad.

There are people who believe him and what he says, and the majority of what he says is inaccurate at best and harmful to practice (see below) at worst. He also is on record claiming that science, for example, doesn't know why water expands when it freezes, and advocates a lot of alternative medicine (a lot being defined as 'all of it'). Anyone who watches him for their information is coming out with an inaccurate view of history, science, and medicine.

Additionally, look at this image taken from Spirit Science Lesson 8 (to your right):

Jordan Duchnycz is propagating a dangerous mindset, a hybrid between the Law of Attraction and the Bobby McFerrin song "Don't Worry, be Happy". What Spirit Science suggests is that you shouldn't try to solve the problems that negatively affect your life, but instead don't think about them and pretend you're not bothered, thus getting rid of the problem.[40]

Should we expect that a neglectful idiot like Patchman cares about the veracity of the information that he gets? Of course not!

[edit] External links

[edit] Footnotes

  2. Pearce, Jordan (8 December 2013). "What’s in a Name — Part 2".
  3. 3.0 3.1 Pearce, Jordan (23 February 2015). "Psilocybin Mushrooms show 80% Success Rate for Quitting Smoking". The Spirit Science.
  4. Some of this sounds remarkably similar to Roland Emmerich]'s Stargate[wp] franchise.
  5. Possibly ripped off from Christopher Moore's Lamb: The Gospel According to Biff, Christ's Childhood Pal, but more likely some second- or third-hand regurgitation of 19th century ideas that were fringe even back then and stemmed from a mixture of Euhemerism, Orientalism, spiritualism, syncretism,[wp] and "hoaxism" similar to the stuff found in the ideas about a Great White Brotherhood.
  6. But good aliens. The bad aliens aren't Jews — kind of how David Icke believes in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, but thinks they refer to actual shape-shifting lizard people(!), not that the Jooooz are evil alien overlords. So, apparently neither Spirit Science (despite the unfortunate abbreviation possibility…) or Icke are anti-Semites, just batshit crazy and fractally wrong.
  7. Spirit Science (31 January 2012). "Spirit Science 12 ~ The Human History Movie". YouTube.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Pearce, Jordan (28 January 2014). "Money & Spirituality".
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Spirit Science (20 January 2012). "Spirit Science 1 — Thoughts". YouTube.
  10. SS 12-2 — Atlantean Catastrophe —
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Spirit Science (3 January 2012). "Spirit Science 12_2 — Atlantean Catastrophe". YouTube
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Spirit Science (22 January 2012). "Spirit Science 12_5 ~ The New Beginning". YouTube.
  13. Spirit Science (30 January 2011). "Spirit Science 4 — Male and Female Energy". YouTube
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Spirit Science (25 December 2015). "Spirit Science 31 — Secrets of the Moon". YouTube.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 Spirit Science (13 October 2012). "Spirit Science 20 — Water". YouTube.
  16. "Spirit Science 22 (Part 5) ~ Vessels of Light". YouTube.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Spirit Science (14 March 2012). "Spirit Science 3 ~ Channeling". YouTube.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Spirit Science (3 January 2012). "Spirit Science 12_3 — The Solution". YouTube.
  20. Krauss, Edward H.; Slawson, Chester B. (1939). "Variation of hardness in the diamond". American Mineralogist 24: 661-676. 
  21. "What are the physical properties of an emerald?". Multicolour.
  22. Spirit Science (18 March 2014). "Spirit Cycles 1 — Mars Retrograde". YouTube.
  23. Spirit Science (31 January 2012). "Spirit Science 12 ~ The Human History Movie". YouTube
  24. Bryner, Jeanna (18 March 2011). "'Supermoon' Lunacy: Does the Moon Make Us Crazy?". livescience.
  25. Spirit Science (8 January 2012). Spirit Science 13_1 — Crystals. YouTube.
  26. Spirit Science (1 October 2012). "Spirit Science 11_11 — Dna Activation. YouTube.
  27. See the Wikipedia article on Triple-stranded DNA.
  28. See the Wikipedia article on Pleiades.
  29. See the Wikipedia article on Sirius.
  30. Spirit Science (1 January 2012). "Spirit Science 12_1 ~ Rise of Atlantis". YouTube.
  31. Baldwin, Edwin (26 April 2012). "Lichen survives harsh Mars environment". SkyMania.
  32. Atlantis King on YouTube
  33. See the Wikipedia article on Giant impact hypothesis.
  34. Pappas, Stephanie (9 July 2015). "Facts About Uranium". livescience.
  35. Live Science Staff (19 September 2013). " Facts About Neptunium]". livescience.
  36. "Martin" (11 October 2009). "Why does water expand when it freezes?". The Naked Scientists.
  37. See the Wikipedia article on Surface-tension values.
  38. See the Wikipedia article on Properties of water.
  39. Pearce, Jordan (1 December 2011). "Spirit Quest 18 - Hospitals and Healing". YouTube.
  40. All the while running the risk of building up school shooter levels of desperate angst as reality irrevocably catches back up.
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